Agas-moro is an erect, slender, sparingly branched,
somewhat pubescent annual herb, growing up to 20 to 80 centimeters high. Leaves, smaller at higher altitudes, are oblanceolate to obovate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, with pointed or obtuse tips, with shallowly
toothed margins. Heads are small, stalked, borne in open, lax corymbs, and about 7 millimeters long and 2.5 millimeters in diameter. Flowers are rather bright-purple, all perfect, the corolla all equal, tubular,
slender 5-lobed, about 20 in each head, twice as long as the involucral
bracts which are linear and silky. Fruits are achenes, striate, ribbed or angled; pappus hairs numerous.
- Throughout the Philippines in open, waste places in all settled
areas at low and medium altitudes.
common weed, flowering all the year.
- Occurs in the Old World Tropics.
- Introduced into the New World.
- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids glycosides, triterpenoids and esters in a methanolic extract of stem bark and leaves. Study also yielded lupeol, 12-oleanen-3-ol-3ß-acetate, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol in an n-hexane fraction.
- Considered cooling, febrifuge, sedating, anti-infectious, stomachic, tonic, astringent.
Root is bitter; considered anthelmintic and diuretic.
- Seeds considered anthelmintic and alexipharmic.
- According to Ayurveda, the herb is sweet, cold, tonic, stomachic, astringent.
Collect from May to August.
Rinse and sun-dry.
• In the Philippines infusion of plant taken internally for cough.
• Plant also used for wounds.
• Decoction of leaves used against humid herpes, eczema, etc.
• Used for colds and fever; also for acute jaunditic hepatitis.
• Plant decoction used by Hindus to promote perspiration in febrile affections.
• Combined with quinine, used for malarial fevers.
• Expressed juice of plant used for hemorrhoids.
• In Chuta Nagpus whole plant used as remedy for bladder spasms and strangury.
• Root given for dropsy.
• Flowers used for conjunctivitis; also reported useful for fevers.
• In Patna, leaves employed as alexipharmic and anthelmintic.
• In the Nighantas plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and consumption.
• Neurasthenia, insomnia, night urination among infants, infected
sores, mastitis, snake bites, sprains, furuncle.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material (among infants, 9 to 15 gms),
30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction.
Poultice of fresh material used for eczema, carbuncle and snake bites.
• In India, whole herb juice is used most frequently – for
eye problems. Also used for poisonous insect and snake bites. As a tonic,
taken twice a month with milk. For ringworm, applied to affected parts
with milk. Used for all types of fever and considered one of the best
remedies for typhoid.
• In India seeds used for cough, flatulence, intestinal colic. Paste of seeds with lime juice used to treat pediculi. Flowers used for conjunctivitis, rheumatism, fever.
• In Ayurveda, used for consumption, asthma, bronchitis
• In Senegal and French Guinea plant infusion used to wash newborn infants; also used for children with incontinence of urine.
• Bitter root used as vermifuge.
• In Ceylon, used for wounds and sores; taken internally to promote sweating.
• Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory:
An alcoholic extract from the flower of Vernonia cinerea was tested in
adjuvant arthritic rats. The extract reversed major histopathological
changes in the arthritic hind paws. Phytochemical studies revealed the
presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavanoids. The study concluded
that the extract contains a yet-unidentified anti-inflammatory principle.
• Free Radical Scavenging: The levels of oxygen
derived free radicals, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase,
glutathione peroxidase and glutathione) were studied in experimental rats.
• Nephroprotective: (1)
A study on three extracts from the plant showed promising nephrocurative
activity and nephroprotective activity in rat-model of cisplatin-induced
renal toxicity. Cisplatin is a potent antitumor agent with limited clinical
use because of its renal toxicity. (2) In a study of extracts of aerial parts in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats, an alcoholic extract showed pronounced curative activity, an EAE showed good prophylactic activity, and a petroleum ether extract showed moderate protection in curative and prophylactic models.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of VC was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation together with down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression.
• Diuretic / Anti-Diuretic Effects: The chloroform extract of leaf induced significant diuresis while the methanol and aqueous extracts induced significant anti-diuresis in rats. In both, the effects were dose-dependent.
• Smoking Cessation Treatment: Veronia cinerea has been used in traditional Thai medicine to relieve cigarette craving. A 24-week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on 64 subjects randomized to an infusion of 3-gm crushed dried whole plant of VC in infusion three times daily or placebo. Results were promising and suggest that VC may be a potential alternative to treatment for smoking cessation with significant cost savings. Large scale trials are needed to verify its efficacy.
• Bioactive Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: (+)-Lirioresinol B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and 4-sulfo-benzocyclobutene. Three of the compounds showed cytotoxicity on PC-12 and three compounds showed inhibition activity. Compound 4 induced NGF-activity.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of the whole plant of VC exhibited significant dose-dependent activity against all phlogistic agents. In the chronic model, it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of VC showed to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects together with changes in behavioral activities.
• Antibacterial: VC was one of 40 different medicinal plants that showed bioactivity against Corynebacterium macginleyi.
• Toxicity Study: A methanol extract which exhibited antimicrobial activity was tested for toxicity in mice. The extract did not show toxic effects in mice and brine shrimp in acute toxicity study.
• Larvicidal: Study of leaf extracts against common filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus third instar larvae showed effective results with an LC50 of 1.63 mg/ml after 24 hours. Results show potential for use in filarial and mosquito management programs.
• Antifungal / Candia albicans: Study of methanol extract screened screened for activity against pathogenic yeast Candida albicans showed complete inhibition and prolonged antiyeast activity.
• Antinociceptive / Amelioration of Vincrinstine-induced Painful Neuropathy: Study investigated the antinociceptive potential of V. cinerea on vincristine-induced painful neuropathic pain in rats. Pretreatment showed significant dose-dependent attenuation of vincristine-induced painful behavioral, biochemical and histological effects. Results may be due to antioxidative, neuroprotetive, and calcium inhibitory action.
• Hepatoprotective / Candia albicans: A herbal powder prepared from leaves showed ameliorative hepatoprotective activity on both pre- and post-treated groups of CCl4-induced hepatic dysfunction in rats.
• Antitumor: Study evaluated various extracts against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest an ethanolic extract and chloroform extract possess significant antitumor effect.
• Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of whole plant of V. cinerea. Results showed a reduction in peristaltic movement of the GI tract of animals., with significant and dose-dependent decrease in the number of wet faeces and total number of faeces compared to control rats.