HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Moraceae
Ficus variegata Blume

Za se rong

Scientific names Common names
Ficus agusanensis Elmer Agi (Yak.)
Ficus amboinensis Kostel. Banakal (Bag.)
Ficus cerifera Blume Basikong (Bag.)
Ficus ceriflua Jungh. Duoyog (P. Bis.)
Ficus chlorocarpa Benth. Dudang (Sul.)
Ficus compressitora Elmer Dudu (Ig.)
Ficus cordiflolia Blume Kayahan (Ayta/Pamp.)
Ficus domestica Zipp. ex Miq. Lansones matsin (Tag.)
Ficus ehretioides F.Muell. ex Benth. Laptai (Tag.)
Ficus garciae Elmer Lapting (Ilk.)
Ficus glochidiifolia Hayata Ligtug (Bon.)
Ficus gummiflua Miq. Lita (Ibn.)
Ficus ilangoides Elmer Payahan (Sbl.)
Ficus integrifolia Elmer Rayaraya (Tag.)
Ficus konishii Hayata Tabgon (Bik.)
Ficus laevigata Blanco Tañgisang-bayauak (Sbl.,Tag.)
Ficus latsonii Elmer Tubol (Pang.)
Ficus paucinervia Merr. Common red stem fig (Engl.)
Ficus subopaca Miq. Red stem fig (Engl.)
Ficus subracemosa Blume Variegated fig (Engl.)
Ficus sum Gagnep. Variegated rubber plant (Engl.)
Ficus sycomoroides Miq.  
Ficus teninbrensis S.Moore  
Ficus variegata Blume  
Ficus viridicarpa Corner  
Sycomorous gummiflua Miq.  
Urostigma cordifolium (Blume) Gasp.  
Urostigma javanicum Miq.  
Ficus variegata Blume is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Za se rong.
INDONESIAN: Gondang (Javanese, Balinese), Kanjilu (Sumba), Kondang (Sundanese).
MALAYSIAN: Ara kelumpang, ara kelepong.

Gen info
- Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
- As of January 2023, Plants of the World Online lists more than 880 accepted Ficus species.
- Molecular data estimates Ficus is a relatively ancient genus of at least 60 million years old, possibly 80.
- With more than 800 species, Ficus is the largest genus in the family Moraceae, and one of the largest genera of flowering plants currently described.
- Ficus variegata was described by Carl Ludwig Blume in 1825.

Tangisang-bayauak is a tall, spreading tree, with pale bark. Leaves are broadly or elliptic-ovate, 10 to 17 centimeters long, the base rounded, notched or heart-shaped and the tip tapering to a point, with the margins entire, subexpanded or toothed. Receptacles are about 1 centimeter in diameter, red when ripe, and clustered on long branches.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Sorsogon in Luzon, in Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Various dried bark extracts yielded sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, and glycosides.

arts used
Leaves, bark, latex.


- In Java the young shoot-tips and young fruits are eaten raw or cooked.
- Fruit used as food by the Ayta people of Pampanga.
- Latex used as food additive in palm starch.
- In the Philippines fresh leaves are applied as topical in boils.
- In Malaya, the bark, reportedly sweet, is chewed or used in decoction for dysentery.
- Latex of the bark used as a coat over wounds.
- In Pakistan, paste prepared from fresh milky juice of the plant mixed with milk is applied to boils and affected skin three times daily. (1)
- Wax: Source of wax used in Batik work.
- Wood: Low quality; used for temporary construction, mouldings, claddings, drawers, crates, floats, and knife sheaths.

Antioxidant / Antiacetylcholine Esterase Potential / Aerial Parts:
Study evaluated the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts and fractions of aerial parts of three selected plants viz. C. erectus, Ficus variegata, and F. maclellandii. All the extracts and fractions contained reasonable amounts of phenolic compounds. The chloroform leaf extract of F. variegata was the most active in total antioxidant capacity (TAC). All the extracts showed significant enzyme inhibition activity. (5)
Antioxidant / Stem Bark:
In a study of plants for antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, Ficus variegata stem bark exhibited 91% inhibition.
Antibacterial / Fruit / Bark:
Subfraction of methanol and n-hexane fruit extract from F. variegata showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Ningsih et al, 2020). Methanol and n-butanol extract of bark showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by disc diffusion method (Saleh et al. 2016).


Updated March 2023 / December 2019 / June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Ficus variegata.JPG / WingkLee / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Common Red Stemmed Fig (Ficus variegata) / The William Farquhar Collection of Natural History Drawings / Reminiscence
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Herbal medicines used to cure various ailments by the inhabitants of Abbottabad district, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan / Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Mir Ajab Khan et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9(1), January 2010, pp 175-183
Ficus variegata Blume / KEW: Plants of the World Onlline
Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of medicinal plants used by the Bentian tribe from Indonesia
/ Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Murdiynato, Enos Tangke Arung, Syafrizal, Yong-ung Kim / Food Science and Human Wellness, Sept-Dec 2014; 3(3-4): pp 191-196 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2014.12.004
Ficus variegata / Ken Fern / Useful Tropical Plants
Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii. / Eaza MA, Anwar F, Shahwar D, Majeed A, Mumtaz MW et al / Pak J Pharm Sci., 2016 Mar; 29(2):4 pp 89-95 / PMID: 27087094
Ficus / Wikipedia
Review: Phytochemical activities of Ficus (Moraceae) in Java Island, Indonesia / Kevin Winanda Eka Putra, Ari Pitoyo, Ahmad Dwi Setyawan et al / Bonorowo Wetlands, 2020; 10(2): pp 98-125 / eISSN: 2088-2475 / pISSN: 2088-110X / DOI: 10.13057/bonorowo/w100204
Ficus variegata (PROSEA) / Pl@ntUse

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT