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Family Loranthaceae

Loranthus pentandrus Linn.

Wu rui ji sheng

Scientific names Common names
Dendrophthoe farinosa (Desr.) Mart. Agoago (Tagb.)
Dendrophthoe leucobotrya Miq. Bogto (Tagb.)
Dendrophthoe pentandra Miq. Malayan mistletoe (Engl.)
Dendrophthoe venosa (Blume) Mart.  
Elytranthe farinosa (Desr.) G.Don.  
Elytranthe rigida (DC.) G.Don.  
Loranthus pentandrus Linn.  
Loranthus pentandrus L. is a synonym of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. The Plant List
Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Wu lan ji sheng, Wu rui ji sheng.
INDONESIA: Benalu, Benalu kepel, Kedondong, Benalu Srikaya, Benalu teh.
THAI: Kaafak ma muang.

Agoago is a strong and gray parasitic plant with terete branches. Leaves are rarely opposite, petioled, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, rarely obovate, 5 to 20 centimeters long, 2.5 to 12 centimeters wide, with a pointed or nearly obtuse apex. Flowers are densely crowded, scurfy, axillary with very short racemes, about 1.5 centimeters long. Bracts are capsular. Calyx tube is cylindrical to urceolate, 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, with a 5-toothed calyx-limb. Corolla is straight, with the tube dilated below and equally 5-cleft at the middle, with linear and pointed lobes. Fruit is oblong-ovoid, 10 millimeters long, 6 millimeters wide.

- Found on trees at low and medium altitudes in Zambales Province, Luzon; and in Palawan.
- Also occurs from India, Thailand, Vietnam, to southern China and southward to Sumatra, Java and Borneo.

• Stem contains a glucoside, quercitrine.
• Wax, on saponification, yields mellissyl alcohol.

• Leaf extracts yield large amount of quercitrin, besides hydrocarbons and fats.

• Considered antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive.

Studies have suggested antihypertensive, spasmolytic, anitoixidant, antidiabetic properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves.

• Poultice of pounded leaves used for small sores and ulcers.
• In Perak decoction of leaves used after childbirth as protective medicine.
• In Thailand, leaves or i
nfusion of dried whole plant used for hypertension.
• In Indonesia, used for hypertension, cough, ulcers, skin infections, post-partum treatments, cancer, ulcers and small pox.

Antihypertensive: Study of an aqueous extract of Loranthus pentandrus in 15 Sprague-Dawley rats with induced-hypertension showed an antihypertensive effect. One possible mechanism of its effect was
a negative cardiac chronotropic effect. (1)
Ileum Contracting / Spasmolytic / Smooth Muscle Contracting Effect: Leaf Methanol extract fraction showed ileum contracting activity. An ether soluble fraction showed papaverine-like spasmolytic effect. Subfractionation showed smooth muscle contracting ability.
Antioxidant / Antidiabetic / a-glucosidase Inhibition / Toxicity Study: Study using DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed the methanol extract with significant activity. Both methanol and water extracts of D. pentandra leaves showed significant a-glucosidase inhibition activity. All the mistletoe extracts tested showed no toxicity and showed significant antidiabetes activity. Results suggest D. pentandra is a potential source of antidiabetes and antioxidant compounds. (3)
Antioxidant: Study of leaf extract of mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra) grown on star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) isolated a flavonol glycoside, quercitrin (quercetrin-3-O-rhamnoside, an active antioxidant with an IC50 value of 5.19 ug mL. (4)
Chemical and Pharmacologic Study / Leaves: Study of methanol and water extracts and fractions of leaves yielded hydrocarbons, fats, and a large amount of quercitrin. Some fractions showed hypotensive effects, ileum contracting activity, and papaverine-like spasmolytic effect. (7)
Mosquito Repellent / Ae, aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus / Leaves: Study of Loranthus pentandrus methanol leaf extract showed strong repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquito with 100% protection at 240 min at 4 and 5 mg/cm2. (8) (9)


Updated Dec 2019 / Jun 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Loranthus pentandrus L. / Loranthaceae / C.L. Blume, Flora Javae nec non insularum adjacentium, vol. 2, t. 10 (0) / Illustration contributed by the Missouri Botanical Garden / http://www.botanicus.org/page/1785544 / PlantGenera.Org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antihypertensive effect of Loranthus pentandrus L. in renovascular hypertensive rats.
/ Kukongviriyapan, U., V. Kukongviriyapan, and O. Pasurivong / Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 72:P134, 1994.
Chemical and Pharmacological Studies on the Constituents of Loranthus pentandrus / Chantarasomboon Prakongsiri, Yoshihira Kunitoshi et al / The Japanese journal of pharmacognosy 28(1), 7-14, 1974-06-20
Bioactivities Evaluation of Indonesian Mistletoes (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts / Nina Artanti, Taufik Firmansyah and Akhmad Darmawan / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (01); 2012: 24-27
Isolation and Identification of Active Antioxidant Compound from Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola) Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Ethanol Extract
/ Nina Artanti, Yelli Ma`arifa and Muhammad Hanafi / Journal of Applied Sciences, 6: 1659-1663./ DOI: 10.3923/jas.2006.1659.1663
Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Dendrophthoe pentandra / Synonyms / The Plant List
Chemical and Pharmacological Studies on the Constituents of Loranthus pentandrus / Chantarasomboon Prakongsiri, Yoshihira Kunitoshi, Natori Shinsaku, Watanabe Kazuo, Goto Yoshiaki, Kugo Mamoru / The Japanese journal of pharmacognosy 28(1), 7-14, 1974-06-20
Adulticidal and repellent activities of Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti Linn and Culex quinquefasciatus Say / Jayapriya G and Gricilda Shoba F / Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2015; 3(1): pp 154-159
Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of Loranthes pentandrus against dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) / Krishnappa K, Elumalai K. / Discovery 2015; 27(96): pp 8-14.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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