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Family Poaceae
Setaria palmifolia (J. Koenig) Stapf.

Chu mao

Scientific names  Common names
Agrostis plicata Lour. Agusais (Bik.)
Chaetochloa effusa (E.Fourn.) Hitchc. Asahas (C. Bis.)
Chaetochloa palmmifolia (J.Koenig) Hitchc. & Chase Bañgas (Ig.)
Chamaeraphis effusa (E.Fourn.) Hitchc. Dumbug (Sul.)
Chamaeraphis nepalensis (Spreng.) Kuntze Hagusahis (Bik.)
Chamaeraphis neurodes (F.W.Schultz) Kuntze Lalasa (Ig.)
Chamaeraphis palmifolia (K.D.Koenig) Kuntze Liahon (If.)
Chamaeraphis paniculifera (Steud.) Kuntze Lias (Bon.)
Panicum amplissimum Steud. Pungag (Mindoro)
Panicum lene Steud. Tadyawan (Tag.)
Panicum nervosum Roxb. Yas (Ig.) 
Panicum neurodes Schult. Broadleaved bristlegrass (Engl.)
Panicum palmatum R. Schleich. Highland pitpit (Engl.)
Panicum palmifolium J.Koenig Palm grass (Engl.)
Panicum paniculiferum Steud.  
Panicum sulcatum Aubl.   
Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf  
Setaria paniculifera (Steud.) E.Fourn. ex Hemsl.  
Setaria sulcata (Aubl.) Desv.  
Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Zeng ye wei cao, Ruo ye fu, Ji mao, Ji ye cao, Chu mao. Zhu lou cao, Zhu ye cao.
JAPANESE: Sasa kibi.
MALAY: Rumput daun pisang, Lintabung (Indonesia).
THAI: Ya kap phai.

Agusais is a perennial grass that grows to a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaf blades are broad-lanceolate and longitudinally corrugated. Seeds are about 3 millimeters long and borne in large numbers in terminal shoots. Inflorescence is a loose panicle with minute spikelets.

- Common in thickets, old clearings and waste places.
- Also found in China, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indo-China.

- Study for content and compounds in the lilin vegetable (Setaria palmifolia) yielded hencicosane (1.95%), tricosane (19.05%), tetracosane (2.03%), docasane (8.54%), z-12 pentacosane (6.04%), nonadecane (7.31%), nonadecyl (30.76%), trifluoroacetate (2.51%), celidoniol deoxy (12.26%), triacontyl acetate (6.74%), (see study below) (10)

Parts used
Leaves, seeds.

- Grain of the grass sometimes used as rice substitute.
- In Malaya, tender shoots are eaten as vegetable, raw, steamed, or cooked with rice.
- The Mangyans of Mindoro drink decoction of inflorescence for treatment of measles. (12)
- A compound decoction taken for irregular menses.

- In the Tao Dam forest, Wangkrajae Village in Thailand, rhizome used by natives as ingredient in herbal mix to treat freckle and blemish. (9)
- In Bougainville, used for toothache/
- Fodder: Feed for cattle.
- In Papua, New Guinea, the species is used for good fortune when playing cards and for hunting birds.
According to the Maibang people, a myth from Tut.
- Rituals: In New Guinea, leaves used to counter magic spells. Used by ritual specialists on people possessed by bush demon spirits: leaves of kura (Setaria palmifolia), qui (Syzigium pteropodum), bandjii (Ficus adenosperma), and koke (Piper wichmannii) are bound together at the stems by vine or rope, and cooked over glowing embers, and rubbed on the skin of sick patients while incantations are recited. (6)

Antioxidant / DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity: 23 Taiwan forest plants were studies for polyphenol content and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. Setaria palmifolia was 10th in polyphenol content, with total polyphenols 6.9 ± 1.2 (mg/g) (chlorogenic acid equivalent). Free radical scavenging activity was > 250 µg/mL (3361.4 ± 26.9). (1)
Study on Nutritive Value: Study evaluated the nutritive value of Dhutesaro grass in a metabolism trial in goats.
The grass yielded 47.63% TDN, 8.16% DCP and 28.05% SE, with a nutritive ratio of 1:4.84. Intakes of the grass in terms of DM, TDN and minerals were inadequate to meet the maintenance requirements of goats. (7)
• Tricosane / Reduction of Uric Acid in Gouty Arthritis: Study suggests consuming lilin vegetable (Setaria palmifolia) routinely could reduce uric acid in gouty arthritis sufferers. Lilin vegetable yields senyawa Tricosane which plays a role in reducing uric acid. (see constituents above) (10)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated July 2019 / August 2017 / May 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Evaluation of antioxidant polyphenols in Taiwan's medicinal plants / Shieh PoChuen et al / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2009; Vol 21 No 7: pp. 5556-5562
Setaria palmifolia (J. Konig) Stapf / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Setaria names
/ Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne
Chemical composition and nutritive value of Aruna (Setaria palmifolia) grass for cattle / Bora, J.; Saikia, A.; Baruah, K. K., 1986: / Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 3(4): 282-284
Reite Plants: An Ethnobotanical Study in Tok Pisin and English / Porer Nombo and James Leach / Asia-Pacific Environment Monograph 4 / Australian National University E Press
Nutritive value of dhutesaro setaria palmifolia koenig stapf. for goats. / Gupta, H. K.; Balaraman, N. / Indian Journal of Animal Research 22(1): 47-48, 1988
Setaria palmifolia / Synonyms / Kewscience / Plants of the World online
Medicinal Plants in Tao Dam Forest, Wangkrajae Village, Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province / Urai Chiramongkolgarn and Yingyong Paisooksantivatana / Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy Vol. 9(2); Dec. 2002
INFLUENCE OF CONSUMING LILIN VEGETABLE (Setaria Palmifolia) TO THE REDUCTION OF URIC ACID DEGREE AT GOUT ARTHRITIS SUFFERER / Imelda Kambey, Leady D. Lamidja, Dewi Mayangsari / International Journal of Health Medicine and Current Research Vol 1, Issue 2, pp.155-160, December 2016
An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Siwai and Buin districts of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville / Julie Waruruai et al / J Ethnopharmacol., 2011 Nov 18; 138(2): pp 564–577 / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.052 / PMID: 22004894
Ethnopharmacologic Documentation of Selected Philippine Ethnolinguistic Groups: The Mangyan (Tadyawan) People of Mindoro Island / Prof. Rosario R. Rubite, Dr. Isidro C. Sia, r. Leonard Co, Mr. Larry Ylagan / 2002
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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