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Family Lamiaceae
Premna odorata Blanco

Mao yu xiu mu

Scientific names  Common names
Gumira odorata (Blanco) Kuntze  Abgau (P. Bis.)
Gumira vestita (Schauer) Kuntze  Adgau (P. Bis., Bik.)
Premna curaranii H.J. Lam   Adiyo (Tag.)
Premna flavida Miq.  Aggau (C. Bis.)
Premna goeringii Turcz.  Alagau (Tag., Ilk.)
Premna odorata Blanco  Alagaw (Tag.)
Premna tomentosa var, detergibilis C.B.Clarke  Anobran (Ilk.)
Premna vestita Schauer  Argau (P. Bis.)
  Atiñgi (Gad.)
  Duragau (Sub.)
  Guachal (Ig.) 
  Lagau (Mag.) 
  Lassi (Ibn.) 
  Pumuhat tangli (Pang.) 
  Saliargao (C. Bis.)
  Tibangñgen (Bon.) 
  Fragrant premna (Engl.) 
Alagau is a shared common name for: (1) Magilik, alagau (P. Bis.), Premna cumingiana (2) Alagau-gubat, Premna nauseosa and (3) Alagau, Premna odorata.
Quisumbing's compilation lists Premna integrifolia Blanco as a separate specie from Premna serratifolia L. Other compilations list them as synonymous species. Some compilations list Premna serratifolia Linn.as separate species from P. serratifolia Blanco.
The study section includes a study (12) on Premna serratifolia L. on nanoparticle synthesis and anticancer activity.
Premna odorata Blanco is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mao yu xiu mu.

Alagau is a small hairy tree, 3 to 8 meters high. Leaves are ovate to broadly ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with broad, rounded, or somewhat heart-shaped base, and pointed tips. Under surface of the blade is usually covered with short hairs, aromatic when crushed. Flowers are greenish-white or nearly white, 4 to 5 millimeters long and borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes) 8 to 20 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is fleshy, dark purple, rounded, about 5 millimeters in diameter.

- Common In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces.
- Reported in Nepal, India to Myanmar, China, Taiwan, Indo-China, Thailand, Japan, Malaysia and Australia.

- Leaves do not contain alkaloid, tannin, saponin or cyanogenetic substance.
- Leaves yield 0.02 percent yellowish-green essential oil with a characteristic scent.
- Study isolated two iridoid glycosides: 2″- and 3″-caffeoyl-6-α-l-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol respectively.
- Study isolated ten 10-O-acylated derivatives of catalpol and asystasioside E from a 1-butanol-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of leaves.
- Study isolated acyclic monoterpenediol diesters, premnaodorosides A, B, and C, together with phenethyl alcohol glycosid4es, verbscoside, isoacteoside, bioside (decaffeoylverbascoside) and cistanoside F. (10)
- Leaves yielded
premnethanosides A and B, premnaodorosides A,B, and C, premnosides A-D, 2''-caffeoyl-6-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, and 3''-Caffeoyl-6-α-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol. (17)
- Crude leaf extract yielded steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and hydrolysable tannins. (see study below) (19)
- GC-MS analysis of P. odorata lipoidal extract yielded 25 compounds representing 72.15% of total identified compounds consisting mainly of fatty acids in free and ester forms (%). Linoleic acid and its ester form were the main compounds representing 18.58% and 19.00% of total compounds, respectively. (see study below) (21)
- GC-MS analysis showed the volatile oil consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and higher alkanes; monoterpens and sesquiterpenes were the major oil fractions. Trans-caryophyllene (29.403% and 14.638%) and ß-phellandrene (22.390 and 11.701%) were major compounds in leaves and young stem oils, respectively. (see study below) (24)

- Sudorific, pectoral, carminative.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antiviral, cardiotonic, anticoagulant, hepatoprotective, antitubercular, antitumor, antimutagenic, anti-parasitic, antioxidant properties.

Parts utilized
Leave, fruits, ss and flowering tops, fresh or dried.

Young leaves used in the cooking of "paksiw" and "bopis."
· In the Philippines, sugared decoction of leaves with a little "calamansi" as tea helps loosen up phlegm and effective for coughs.
- The Ayta community of Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines apply decoction of leaves and shoots directly to wounds to facilitate healing. (2
- Ati negrito use external application of boiled leaves for postpartum bleeding. (27)
- The Ilongot-Egongot community of Aurora, Philippines apply leaves and stem-bark to wounds. (28)
· Decoction of fresh leaves used for vaginal irrigation.
· Decoction of leaves for fever and colds, cough and bronchitis, fever blisters of the lips and stomachaches.
· "Kochoi," a local patent preparation, is claimed to benefit tuberculosis.
· Decoction of leaves used for flatulence (gas pains) in adults; in children, crushed leaves mixed with a little coconut or sesame oil are applied to the abdomen.
· Crushed leaves applied to forehead and temples for headaches.
· Leaf decoction has been used for tuberculosis.
· Roots are chewed and the saliva swallowed for cardiac troubles.
· Infusion of leaves is carminative.
· Decoction of roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits used as sudorific, pectoral, and carminative.
· Decoction of shoots used as parasiticide.
· Decoction of leaves used for bathing infants; also used as treatment for beriberi.
· Extract of leaves for cleaning wounds and for ticks and fleas.
· Leaves applied over the bladder facilitates urination.
Pito-pito: Leaves are one of the seven ingredients of the popular herbal Filipino tea blend – alagaw, banaba, bayabas, pandan, manga, anis and cilantro. (See: Pito-Pito)

Ethno-Veterinary / Fumigation: Dried leaves and bark used for fumigation of poultry houses, reportedly effective for getting rid of lice and ticks. (11)
• Decoction of leaves and flowering tops used as vaginal wash or douche; antiseptic properties make it useful for cleansing and incorporation with bath-care products.

• Collagen Network / Acetoside:
Study of methanol extract of leaves of Premna odorata exhibited a promotion of collagen network formation by M cells and isolated acetoside, an phenylethanoid with a variety of biological activities. Acetoside may contribute to wound healing. (1)
• Anti-Viral Activity: Study of 61 medicinal plants in Malaysia showed P odorata was 1 of 11 plants to show selective activity against vesicular stomatitis (VSV) viruses. (2)
• In-vitro Photo-Cytotoxic Activity: A study of 155 extracts from 93 species of plants in Malaysia screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity using a human leukemia cell line, P odorata was one of 29 plants that was able to reduce in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to broad spectrum light. (3)
• Hepatoprotective / Cytotoxic Activity: Study showed the alcoholic extract with significant hepatoprotective activity evidenced by decrease of serum enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation, comparable to drug silymarin. It also exhibited significant in-vitro cytotoxic activity. Results showed the alcoholic extract not only as an effective hepatoprotective agent, but with also significant antitumor activity. (4)
• Antiparasitic Activity:
In a study of 18 medicinal plants in New Caledonia evaluated in vitro against several parasites, Scaevola balansae and Premna serratifolia were the most active against Leishmania donovani. (5)
Study evaluated the anti-parasitic activity of three invasive verbena species (Premna odorata, Lantana camara, and Duranta erecta) against earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. All three plant extracts were active against earthworm and roundworms. For the alagao extract death time ranged from 0.30 to o.45 minutes for earthworms and 32.52 to 47.48 minutes for roundworms. (22)
• E. Coli Inhibitory Activity / Bark: Various extracts were tested against E. Coli. A 100% ethanol bark extract showed activity against E. coli, while aqueous extract concentrations were inactive against E. coli. However, the inhibitory activity could not compete with ciprofloxacin. (7)
• Diosmetin / Acacetin: Study of leaves isolated diosmetin and acacetin. Diometin has been commercially available as the glycoside diosmin, used as a vasotonic agent for the treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids and other venous diseases.
• Flavones / Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Chemopreventive: Partitioning and fractionation of crude ethanolic extract of leaves yielded two amorphous powders identified as flavone aglycones — acacetin and the non-widespread diosmetin. Earlier studies reported antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive activities. (8)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Anti-Cancer Activity / Leaves: Study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The silver NP were effective in treating liver cancer in mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine. (12)
• Antitubercular Constituents / Leaves: Study evaluated the antitubercular property of crude extract and sub-extracts of leaves and isolated the bioactive principles from active fractions. Crude methanolic extract and sub-extracts showed poor inhibitory activity against MTb H37Rv. However, increased inhibitory potency was seen from fractions eluted from the DCM extract. Purification of the most active fraction yielded 1-heneicosyl formate (1), 4:1 mixture of β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and diosmetin (4). Compound 1 had an MIC of 8 µg/mL. (14)
• Cytotoxicity Against Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines / Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activities of P. odorata leaves and bark, A. camansi and G. sepium against selected human cancer cell lines. Results showed the leaves and bark hexane fractions of P. odorata and A. camansi leaves to be highly cytotoxic against the cancer cell lines. The PO bark hexane extract showed highest selectivity index for HCT116, MCF-7 and A549 cancer cell lines. (15)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of leaves extract against selected human pathogens viz. Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus. Results showed antibacterial activity with dose dependent inhibition. (16)
• Phlebotonic Diosmetin / Leaves: Study isolated phlebotonic diosmetin from the leaves of Premna odorata. On brine shrimp lethality assay, the LC50 of the crude ethanolic extract was 564 µg/ml while a decoction was 685 µg/ml. Among the partitioned fractions, the hexane-soluble fraction (HSF) had the highest bioactivity at 81.2% lethality. The diosmetin from the dichlormethane fraction (DMF) showed 76.9% lethality, which suggested no observable synergistic effects on diosmetin's bioactivity by other principles present in the crude ethanolic extract. Results justify the isolation and use of pure diosmetin as medicinal. (18)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Premna odorata crude leaf extract in in-vivo and in-vitro methods. No toxicity was seen at dose of 2000 mg/kbw. In-vivo testing showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. At 1000 mg/kbw, there was significant inhibition of hind paw edema with suppression of early phase of inflammation. The crude leaf extract showed significant inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (41.38%) and selective inhibition of cycloxygenase-2 (54.51%) enzymes, suppressing the release of inflammatory mediators. (19)
• Antimutagenic / Leaves: Study investigated selected Philippine plants for their ability to inhibit chromosomal damage induced by tetracycline in an in-vivo micronucleus test (MT). Study established the antimutagenic activity of C. ovatum, C. religiosa, P. campechiana and Premna odorata.     (20)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Composition / Lipoidal Extract: Study evaluated a lipoidal extract for chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activity. The n-hexane extract showed anti-inflammatory activity which interferes with COX-II and IL-6 roles during progression of inflammatory disease. (see constituents above) (21)
• Acylated Iridoids and Rhamnopyranoses / Transcription Factor Receptor Inhibitor for Control of Breast Cancer: Study yielded three new acylated iridoid glycosides (1-3) and two new acylated rhamnopyranoses (9 and 10) along with ten known compounds. Results showed the acylated rhamno-pyranoses are potential novel c-Met inhibitors to control c-Met-dependent breast malignancies. (23)
• Antitubercular (Anti-TB Activity) / Volatile Oil: Study evaluated the volatile oil isolated from different plant organs (leaves, young stems, and flowers) for anti-tuberculosis activity. Results showed the VO exhibited anti-TB activity would could be related to the presence of cyclic terpenes (major) and acyclic oxygenated terpenes (minor) compounds. (see constituents above) (24)
• Antimicrobial and Antioxidant / Natural Preservative in Ointment Formulation: Preservatives are substances added to food and pharmaceutical to extend shelf-life. Synthetic preservatives have been reported to cause adverse effects. Study evaluated the preservative efficacy of five plants ie., Psidium guajava, Premna odorata, Mimosa pudica, Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale. Ethanolic extract of all the studied plants yielded sapogenins and glycosides. AAS analysis showed the extracts are safe. Among the five plants, P. guajava and P. odorata exhibited highest antioxidant activity in DPPH assay at 0.25-0.50 mg/ml and 1-5 mg/mL, respectively. P. guajava showed highest preservative capability. (26)


Updated July 2019 / November 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
A Collagen Network Formation Effector from Leaves of Premna subscandens / September 1999 / Hirokazu SUDO, Kaori KIJIMA et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 47(9) 1341—1343 (1999)

Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activities of Som.e Plants Used in Malaysian Indigenous Medicine / Ali, Abdul Manaf and Mackeen et al / Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci., 19 (2/3). pp. 129-136.
Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy / Cheng Yi Ong et al / Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology • Volume 96, Issue 3, 4 September 2009, Pages 216-222 / doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.06.009
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective and In-vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Leaves of Premna serratifolia Linn / R Vadivu et al / J. Sci. Res. 1 (1), 145-152 (2009)
Antiparasitic activity of some New Caledonian medicinal plants / Julie Desrivot et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 112, Issue 1, 30 May 2007, Pages 7-12 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.02
Two iridoid glycoside caffeoyl esters from Premna odorata / Hideaki Otsuka, Naoko Kubo, Kazuo Yamasaki, William G. Padolina / Phytochemistry, 1989; Volume 28, Issue 2: pp 513–515
Inhibitory Effect of Alagaw (Premna Odorata) Bark Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts Against Escherichia coli In - Vitro / FAITH L. MALECDAN DAN JOHNSON E. MALIONES HESTER ORVEN K. MAYAPIT AISAREL JOY A. MENDOZA GEORGE D. MARRERO /
Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive flavones from Premna odorata Blanco / Lunesa C. Pinzon, Mylene M. Uy, Kung Hong Sze, Mingfu Wang and Ivan Keung Chu / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4 July 2011; 5(13): pp. 2729-2735 /
10-O-acylated iridoid glucosides from leaves of Premna subscandens / Hirokazu Sudo, Toshinori Ide et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 46, Issue 7, December 1997, Pages 1231–1236
Premnaodorosides A, B and C, iridoid glucoside diesters of an acyclic monoterpenediol from leaves of Premna odorata / Hideaki Otsuka, Naozumi Kashima, Tomoki Hayashi, Naoko Kubo, Kazuo Yamasaki, William G. Padolina / Phytochemistry, Volume 31, Issue 9, September 1992, Pages 3129–3133
Ethno-Veterinary Practices for Control of Ectoparasites / Jan 07, 2014 / Copyright © SAPPLPP 2013
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L.leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4 -induced hepato-cancerousSwiss albino mice / JJ. Arockia John Paul•, B. Karunai Selvi•, N. Karmegam / Appl Nanosci / DOI 10.1007/s13204-014-0397-z
Premna odorata / Synonyms / The Plant List
Antitubercular constituents from Premna odorata Blanco. / Lirio SB, Macabeo AP, Paragas EM, Knorn M, Kohls P, Franzblau SG, Wang Y, Aguinaldo MA / J Ethnopharmacol., 11 June 2014;154(2): pp 471-474 / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.04.015
Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions from Premna odorata (Blanco), Artocarpus camansi (Blanco) and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) against selected human cancer cell lines / Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Sonia D. Jacinto / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, December 2015; Volume 5, Issue 12: pp 1037–1041 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.011
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Premna odorata Blanco (ALAGAW) LEAF EXTRACT ON Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, AND Staphylococcus aureus / ANGELITA B. PANGILINAN / Philippine Science High School Central Luzon Campus / MARCH 2013
A Phytochemistry of the Genus Premna: A Review / K. Rekha, Pandey Richa, K. Suresh Babu and J. Madhusudana Rao* / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 4 (3) Jul-Sep 2015
Bioactivity studies on the extracts and the phlebotonic diosmetin isolated from Premna odorata Blanco (Lamiaceae) / Lunesa Pinzon, Mylene Uy / Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, February 2016; 5(3): pp 01-04
The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Premna odorata blanco (Verbenaceae) / Irene Jane M. Montoya / Thesis, March 2012 / Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Library / Herdin Record #: PCHRD13020609414737
Antimutagenic potential and phytochemical analysis of selected Philippine plants / Christine L Chichioco-Hernandez, Noemi D Paguigan / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009; Volume 5, Issue 20: pp 388-393
ANTI-PARASITIC ACTIVITY OF THREE INVASIVE VERBENA SPECIES (Premna odorata B., Lantana camara L. and Duranta erecta L.) AGAINST Lumbricus terrestris (EARTHWORMS) AND Ascaris lumbricoides (ROUNDWORMS) / MIKAILA DENISE H. LOANZON SHAYNE C. DE CASTRO MICAH ANGELA C. PELISMINO / Cavite National High School, Sept 2016
Acylated Iridoids and Rhamnopyranoses from Premna odorata (Lamiaceae) as Novel Mesenchymal– Epithelial Transition Factor Receptor Inhibitors for the Control of Breast Cancer / Abeer H Elmaidomy, Mohamed M Mohyeldin, Mostafa M Ibrahim, Hossam M Hassan, Elham Amin, Mostafa E Rateb, Mona H Hetta, Khalid A El-Sayed / Phytotherapy Research, 2017; 31(10) / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5882
Premna odorata Volatile Oil as a New Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitor for the Control of Tuberculosis Disease / Abeer H. Elmaidomy, Hossam M. Hassan, Elham Amin, Waleed Mohamed
and Mona H. Hetta / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2017; 21(4): pp 1-11 / Article no.EJMP.38375
Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Ayta Communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines / Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Marlon Lian C. Condes, Hanna Hasmini T. Estadilla, Elena M. Ragragio / Pharmacogn J., 2018; 10(5): pp 859-870
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS AS NATURAL PRESERVATIVES IN OINTMENT FORMULATION / Erna C. Arollado, Leslie P. Bucog, Richelle Ann M. Manalo / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 2015; 2(4): pp 757-768
Ati Negrito medicinal plants and phytotherapies for female reproductive healthcare / Hindawi ecam journal
Ethnomedicinal Plants Utilized by the Ilongot-Eǵongot Community of Bayanihan, Maria Aurora, Aurora, Philippines / Balberona, A. N., Noveno, J. J., Angeles, M. G. B., Santos R. I., Cachin, E. J. D. J. and Cruz, K. G. J. / International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2018; 14(2): pp 145-159

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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