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Family Lamiaceae
Clerodendrum villosum Blume
Juan mao da qing

Scientific names Common names
Clerodendrum confusum Hallier f. Anoran (Philippines)
Clerodendrum currani Elmer Downy clerodendrum (Engl.)
Clerodendrum ferrugineum Turcz. Fuzzy clerodendrum (Engl.)
Clerodendrum inforunatum Dennst. Hairy clerodendrum (Engl.)
Clerodendrum molle Jack  
Clerodendrum velutinum B.Thomas  
Clerodendrum velutinum Wall.  
Clerodendrum villosum Blume  
Clerodendrum villosum var. macrocalyx Moldenke  
Clerodendrum villosum is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Juan mao da qing.
MALAY: Labu-labu.
VIETNAMESE: Ngoc nu long.

Gen info
- Clerodendrum is a genus of about 500 species, formerly in the family Verbenaceae, now place in the family Lamiaceae.
- The estimates of the number of species vary widely, from 150 to about 450, due to transfer of species: 30 to Rotheca, 30 to Volkameria, and one to Ovieda. (4)
- Leonardo Co's database lists on Clerodendrum lists 23 species: 18 are native, of which 5 are endemic; and 5 as cultivated-not naturalized. (5)
- Etymology: The genus name Clerodendrum derives from Greek words kleros (chance) and dendron (a tree), referring to the variable efficacies of the plants in the genus. The species name villosum derives from Latin, meaning 'soft hair', referring to the hair found on the plant. (2)

Growth form: A shrub or small tree up to 7.5 m tall and entirely covered with soft, often thick velvety, white hairs. Foliage: Stalked leaves are opposite; leaf blades are light green, mostly heart-shaped, and 7–29 by 5–21 cm, with short tips. Flowers: Flowers occur in clusters, at the branch tips; shoots up to 31 cm long and wide, bearing white, 1.3 cm-wide flowers. Fruits: Black fruits are round and 8–10 mm wide; seated on a fleshy, star-like, white, cup-like structure formed by the persistent calyx. (2)

• Shrubs 2.5-4 m tall, sometimes climbing. Branchlets 4-angled, densely yellow-brown sericeous. Petiole terete, 3-14 cm, densely sericeous; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate to cordate, 11-21 X 7-16 cm, villous especially on veins, base truncate to cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate, veins prominent on both surfaces. Inflorescences terminal cymose panicles, 15-25 X 14-20 cm, densely sericeous; bracts ovate, 4.5-6.5 cm, persistent; bractlets ovate, 6-10 mm, deciduous, with several peltate glands. Calyx campanulate, ca. 7 mm, outside densely sericeous and with peltate glands, inside pubescent; lobes subsecund, obovate-oblong, as long as tube. Corolla white or pinkish yellow, tube equal or slightly longer than calyx, limb subsecund, outside densely sericeous, inside glabrous; lobes obovate-oblong, ca. 7 mm. Stamens exserted, as long as style. Drupes green-black, globose, 8-10 mm in diam. (Flora of China)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Occurs in lowland thickets and old clearings.
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Root extract yielded three triterpenoids (1, 4) and betulinic acid (5), six steroids amd steroid glycosides (9-10, 12-14,16) and one phenylethanoid glycoside (19). (6)

- Studies have suggested cytotoxicity, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- Stems are edible.
- Leaves used for making herbal tea.
- Bark used as betel nut substitute. (2)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In India, aroots pplied to the scalp to kill head lice. Decoction of roots used for treatment of liver diseases. (3)

- Landscaping: Grown in gardens and parks. Used as hedge or border plant in gardens. The whitish appearance from the plant hairs, shiny black fruits, and large inflorscences make it distinctly attractive. (2)

Cytotoxicity Toward Cancer Cell Lines / Roots:
Study evaluated extracts of roots of Clerodendrum villosum and C. indicum for cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, including SW620, ChaGo-K-1, HepG2, KATO-III, Bt-474 using MTT assay. Dichloromethanne extracts of both plants were activie against SW620 cell line. C. villosum yielded triterpenoid content of 1.02% amd 0.28%, respectively, and exhibited cytotoxicity and specificity against tested cell lines. Two triterpenoids, oleanolic acid 3-acetate and betulinic acid, exhibited moderate to strong cytotoxicity toward all cancer cell lines, with IC50s of 1.66 - 20.49 µmoL. The triterpenoid lupeol and flavonoid pectolinarigenin showed potent and moderate cytotoxicity against both SW260 and KATO-III cell lines with IC50s of 1.99 and 1.95 µmol/l, and 13.05 and 24.31 µmol.L, respectively. (3)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

May 2024

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Lamiaceae : Clerodendrum villosum / Flower / Copyright © 2014 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL90243] / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Clerodendrum villosum / Fruits / Copyright © by Kishor Deka - fpr Assam Biodiversity Portal / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / eFloraOfIndia
IMAGE SOURCE: Clerodendrum villosum / Leaves and flowers / Copyright © by Kishor Deka - fpr Assam Biodiversity Portal / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / eFloraOfIndia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Clerodendrum villosum / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Clerodendrum villosum Blume / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Cytotoxic activity of the chemical constituents of Clerodendrum indicum and Clerodendrum villosum roots
/ Pathom Somwong, Rutt Suttisri / Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018; 16(1): pp 57-61 / 
DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2017.12.004
Clerodendrum / Wikipedia
Clerodendrum / Edited by Pieter P Pelser, 2024 / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines
Chemical constituents from the roots of Clerodendrum indicum and Clerodendrum villosum / Pathom Somwong, Masataka Moriyasu, Rutt Suttisri / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2015; 63: pp 153-156 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2015.10.005 / 0305-1978

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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