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Family Cyperaceae
Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye

Jie bao shui cong

Scientific names Common names
Eleocharis incurvata (Roxb.) Schult. Apurau (Tag.)
Holoschoenus incurvatus (Roxb.) A. Dietr. Gauai-gauai (S. L. Bis.)
Holoschoenus subarticulatus (Roxb.) A. Dietr. Bulrush (Engl.)
Isolepis articulata (L.) Nees  
Isolepis fistulosa (Forssk.) Delile  
Isolepis incurvata (Roxb.) Nees  
Isolepis prolongata Nees  
Isolepis rugosa Boeckeler  
Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye  
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla  
Schoenoplectus fistulosus (Forssk.) Sojak  
Schoenoplectus pseudoarticularis (Dai & Huang) Liang & Zhang  
Scirpus articulatus L.  
Scirpus fistulosus Forssk.  
Scirpus incurvatus Roxb.  
Scirpus pseudoarticulatus L.K. Dai & S.M.Huang  
Scirpus subarticulatus Roxb.  
Scirpus articulatus L. is a synonym of Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye The Plant List
Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Sesu-bon, Mitmiti-bon.
CHINESE: Jie bao shui cong.

Apurau is an erect, non-rhizomatous perennial glabrous plant growing up to 20 to 50 centimeters high. Stems are densely tufted, smooth, hollow, rather spongy, terete, leafless, and when dry, often transversely septate. Spikelets are 7 to 30, crowded, ovoid to oblong, 1 centimeter long or less. Glumes are ovate, about 4 millimeters long. Nuts are 3-angled, dark-brown to black and shining, obovoid, about 2 mm long. Hypogynous bristles are absent.

- In open, wet places in settled areas at a low altitude in Luzon Provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal and Laguna.
- Also occurs in the Old World tropics.

- A methanolic fraction of seeds showed an excellent source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants.
Alkaloids and saponins were 0.0265 g and 0.0808 g/100 g, respectively. Highest phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents were 26.6733 mg GAE 100 mg, 9.568 µg CE 100 mg, and 5.81 mg RE 100 mg, respectively. (see study below) (5)
- Nutritional composition of S. articulatus seeds (g/100g) yielded moisture 8.19 g, ash 4.95 g, protein 0.15 g, fat 6.15 g, crude fiber 20.53 g, carbohydrates 80.56 g, food energy 311.935 Kcal. Mineral content yielded (ppm) iron 0.85, copper 0.10, manganese 1.21, zinc 0.13, potassium 62.55. Trace elements and heavy metals (ppm) yielded arsenic 0.34, lead 0.17, and nickel 0.02. (5)
- Study of biomass of three medicinal weeds (S. articulata, R. palustris, E. rothiana) yielded very high K, Ca, and Fe contents. Polyphenols, flavonoids, P, , Cl and Mg were identified at moderate levels. (8)

- Considered purgative.
- Studies have suggest antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Whole plant.


- In India, seeds of Scirpus articulatus are eaten as granular sweets. (5)
- Roasted endosperm from nuts used in the preparation of delicious foodstuff.
- For the preparation of Laddu. The soft puffy endosperm is eaten with warmed sweetened milk or prepared with melted sugar or gur. (8)
- In India, plant is used as a purgative.
- In the Jaipur district, used for vomiting.
- In Ayurveda, leaves and fruits used for pain, fevers, body aches. (6)
- In Bangladesh, roots and branches used for baby's vomiting and diarrhea. The juice from well-grounded roots given to babies before breakfast.

- In Africa, used for pain and fevers.
- Others
- Veterinary: Whole plant given as cattle food to increase lactation. (6)

Nutrient Removal Potential:
Study evaluated the nutrient removal capacity of Lemna major (floating macrophyte) and compared with Scirpus articulatus (emergent macrophyte) in hypertrophic mesocosms held in situ.
Nutritional / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Seeds:
Study evaluated underutilized seeds of Scirpus articulatus for nutritional and antioxidant potential. Nutritional profiling showed an excellent source of phenolic compounds and natural antioxidants in the methanolic fraction. The methanolic extract of seeds showed good antioxidant potential of ABTS (IC50 0.75 mg/ml and FRAP 979.90 µg BHTE 100 mg). Findings suggest a new valuable ingredient for food and nutraceutical preparations. (see constituents above) (5)
• Antibacterial / Seeds:
Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of seed extracts against gram-positive ( S. aureus, S. epidermis, and B. subtilis) and gram-negative (E. coli and P. mirabilis) bacterial strains. A zone of inhibition was observed for all the methanolic fractions of seed, with no zone of inhibition with hexane and chloroform fractions. (5)


Updated December 2020 /July 2018 / July 2016

                                                    PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo: Scirpus articulatus / Part of the image collection of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) / Creative Commons Attribution-NCSA2.0 / click on image to go to source page / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Conservation and Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants / S. Sahoo
THE USE OF PLANTS IN TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE PRACTICE OF THE SHAIJI COMMUNITY IN SOUTHWESTERN BANGLADESH / M Abdul Halim, M S H Chowdhury et al / Journal of Tropical Forest Science 19(3): 168–175 (2007)
Nutrient removal potential of emergent (Scirpus articulatus) and floating (Lemna major) macrophytes / SAHA DAS S.; JANA B.B. / International Journal of Environmental Studies, Volume 59, Number 4
Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye / Synonyms / The Plant List
Screening of nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of underutilized seeds of Scirpus articulatus: the basis of Khubahi Ramdana industry. / Aastha Bhardwaj, Najam A. Shakil, Vidyanath Jha, Rajinder Kumar Gupta / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol 3, Issue 4
Schoenoplectiella articulata / Umberto Quattrocchi / CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names ...
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMS OF DISTRICT J. P. NAGAR (AMROHA), U. P. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE / Shiv Pratap Singh* and Beena Kumari / International Journal of Applied and Pure Science nd Agriculture 2017 / DOI:10.22623/IJAPSA.2017.3044.XL7UY
Characterization of Polyphenols and Mineral Contents in Three Medicinal Weeds / Yaman, Kumar Sahu, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Pablo Martin-Ramos, Erick K Towett / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2910; 28(3) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330137
Less known uuses of Schoenoplectus articulatus of Lower Assam / Dilip Kr Roy, BK Siinha, Bikarma Singh / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Aug 2010; 9(6) /

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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