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Family Asteraceae
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob.


Scientific names  Common names
Ayapana officinalis Spach [Illegitimate] Apana (Tag.) 
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. Ayapana (Tag.) 
Eupatorium ayapana Vent. [Illegitimate] Inapana (Ilk.)
Eupatorium luzoniense Llanos Ayapana tree (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl Triplinerved eupatorium (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Blume Water hemp (Engl.)
  White snakeroot (Engl.)
  Yapana (Engl.)
Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl is a synonym of Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. The Plant List
Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R.M.King & H.Rob. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Ayapan.
CAMBODIAN: Pang'kacha:t.
GERMAN: Dreinerviger Wasserdost.
HINDI: Ayapan.
JAVANESE: Rajapanah.
MALAYALAM: Ayappana, Ayambana, Vishapach, Chuvanna kalyonni.
SANSKRIT: Ayapama, Ajapama.
SUNDANESE: Jukut prasman, Daun prasman.
VIETNAMESE: Ba dot, Cay ba dot, Ca dot.

Ayapana is a smooth, perennial herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in height, half woody at the base, creeping and rooting at the lower part. Young shoots have a somewhat mealy appearance due to the presence of small particles of a white balsamic exudation. Leaves are smooth, opposite, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, triplinerved, pointed at both ends, distantly toothed or nearly entire margins. Flowering heads are numerous, 6 to 13 millimeters long, bearing about 20 pink flowers, 6 to 7 millimeters long. Fruit are achenes, narrowly oblong, 5-angled, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus is about 3 millimeters long.

- Planted occasionally for medicinal purposes, but nowhere spontaneous.
- Occasional garden cultivation.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Now pantropic.

- A rich source of naturally occurring coumarin chemicals.
- Leaves contain a volatile oil, ayapana oil, 1.14%.
- Plant yields cineol, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terneol, ayapanin, ayapin, borneol, coumarin, sabinene, umbelliferone among many others.
- Hemarin, one of the coumarins is used as an anti-tumor remedy in herbal medicine.
- Phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract yielded hexadecanoic acid (14.65%), 2,6,10-trimethyl,14-ethylene-14-pentadecne (9.84%), Bicyclo[4.1.0] heptane, 7-butyl- (2.38%), Decanoic acid, 8-methyl-, methyl ester (3.86%), 1-undecanol (7.82%), 1-hexyl-1-nitrocyclohexane (2.09%), 1,14-tetradecanediol (6.78%), Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl ester (19.18%) and 2-hydroxy-3-[(9E) -9-octadecenoyloxy] propyl(9E)-9-octadecenoate (8.79%). (11)
- Essential oil yielded 39 constituents representing 97.1-98.0% of the oils. Study yielded secondary metabolites viz.,
A. triplinervis: ayapanin (1), ayapin (2), daphnetin (3), daphnetin dimethyl ether (4), daphnetin- 7-methyl ether (5), hydrangetin (6), umbelliferone (7), stigmasterol (8), thymol methyl ether (9), thymoquinol dimethyl ether (10), and thymoquinone (11). (see study below) (3)
- Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of all plant parts yielded saponins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, among others. (see study below) (16)
- GC-MS analysis of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 30 compounds representing 98.24% of the oil. Major compounds were 2-tertbutyl–1,4-methoxybenzene (74.3 %) and ß–Selinene (8.6 %). (see study below) (19)

- Similar to chamomile in effects; stimulant and tonic in small doses, laxative in quantities.
- Leaves are sudorific, tonic, febrifuge, alterative, stomachic and antiscorbutic.
- Antitussive, astringent, anticoagulant, depurative, cicatrizant, antitumorous and antiseptic.

Parts utilized
Leaves, flowers, whole plant.

Leaves used for making tea or a diet drink with its agreeable and spicy taste.
- In the Philippines,Bruised leaves used for cleaning surfaces of foul smelling ulcers.
- As infusion. used for dyspepsia, other bowel and lung problems.
- Hot infusion is emetic and diaphoretic.
- Bitter leaves used for fever, colds and diarrhea.
- Leaves applied to forehead for relieve headaches.
- Used for cuts, scrapes and wounds.
- Peruvian indians takes the leaf and stem for colic, stomach pains, edema.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and hemorrhages.
- An infusion of the leaf and stem used as digestive stimulant.
- Believed to be antineoplastic and used for cancerous tumors.
- In South America, leaves used for infusions, decoctions, baths, and teas.
- In Argentina, used to stimulate menstruation.
- Used for bleeding hemorrhoids, wounds, and poison bites.
- In Brazil, leaf juice is swished around the mouth for gingivitis and mouth ulcers.
- In the Amazon, leaf juice is used for snake bites, as a sedative and for wound ulcers.
- In French Guiana, used for nausea and vomiting caused by malaria. Decoction of whole plant is used as antivomitive. Leaf infusion used as febrifuge, sudorific, digestive; for colds, grippe. Strong dose is vomitive; weak dose is laxative. (27)
- In Surinam, leaf infusion drunk to treat high blood pressure. Leaf decoction used to treat chronic diarrhea. Leaves used to treat oral sores. (27)
- In Trinidad, the plant is used for chest colds, constipation, fevers, pneumonia and yellow fever.
- In Malaya, used for bronchitis and diarrhea.
- In the Andes and inter-Andean valleys, used as hepatic stimulant and diuretic; leaves used for asthma and as expectorant.
- Used for skin treatment and whitening by the native people of East Kalimantan.
- In Trinidad and Tobago, used as anthelmintic.
- In Madagascar, leaf infusion used for burning sensations in the stomach, indigestion, diarrhea, insomnia, nausea, ulcers and vomiting. Plant juice used as emollient and astringent. Whole plant used for influenza, fever, colds, pneumonia. Mixture of decoction of Ayapana triplinervis and leaf decoction of Ageratum conyzoides used for flatulence, itches, boils. (14)
- The Shipibo-Conibo Indians of Peru use the leaves and stems for intestinal colic, stomach pains, edema and as depurative. In the Guyanas, used as laxative, alexiteric, febrifuge and sudorific. (15)
- In West Bengal, India, leaf extract used during menses to control excessive menstruation. (26)
- Perfumery: Yields a pale green oil used for perfumery. (17)

- Insecticidal: Methanol extract of plant used as insecticide against paddy brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens.) (17)
- Soil binder: Grown as soil binder for stabilization of slopes. (17)

Antimicrobial Activity: Results showed that crude leaf extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve has antibacterial and antifungal properties. (1)
Antimicrobial Activity: Study of extracts of leaves of Eupatorium ayapana showed the petroleum ether extract to have higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than the methanolic extract. (2)
Essential Oil / Thymohydroquinone: Study investigated the leaf oil composition. Three essential oil samples showed a high percentage of the aromatic compound thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether. (see constituents above) (3)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of E ayapana leaves in Wistar albino rats showed decrease of the activity of serum enzymes, bilirubin, uric acid and lipid peroxidation. Results suggest that MEEA possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. (5)
Anthelmintic / Flowers / Essential Oil: Essential oil from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve has been shown to possess good efficacy against Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia solium (Garg, S.C., Nakhare, S., 1993. Studies on the essential oils from the flowers of Eupatorium triplinerve. Indian Perfumer 37, 318-323). (6)
Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Eupatorium triplinerve exhibited a dose dependent anthelmintic activity against both Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli in vitro models. Alpinia galanga showed no activity against P. posthuma but exhibited potent dose dependent activity against A. galli. (7)
Anti-Melanogenesis / 7- Methoxycoumarin / Skin Whitening: A methanol extract of leaves of E. triplinerve showed antimelamogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. 7-methoxycoumarin was isolated as an active compound. The results validated the traditional use of the plant by the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. (8)
Antinociceptive / Antioxidant / Neurobehavioral Effects:
Study evaluated the putative effects of E. triplinerve on the central nervous system. Results showed mild sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressive effects on the CNS. Antinociceptive effects not related to the opioid system and antioxidant activity were also observed. (10)
Antioxidant Mediated Antiulcer Effect / Induced Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effect of a methanolic extract of fractions of E. triplinerve on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male adult mice. Results showed an antiulcer effect against UC at colon specific area through its radical scavenging activity. (12)
Study evaluated various extracts of E. triplinerve for antimicrobial activity. Methanol extracts showed low MIC values of 62 and 75 µg/ml against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Non-polar fractions showed antimicrobial activity with MIC range from 16 to 125 µg/ml against gram-negative bacteria, mainly E. coli. (see constituents above) (16)
• 7-Methoxy Coumarin / Antinociceptive: Study isolated 7-methoxy coumarin from an ethyl acetate fraction of alcoholic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve. The compound showed dose-dependent antinociceptive action as evidenced by reduced abdominal constrictions in mice and decreased time spent in paw licking and biting response in formalin assay. (18)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: Study of essential oil from aerial parts showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity against all test pathogens. The highest zone of inhibition was against Salmonella typhi at 21 mm followed by Shigella sonnei at 18 mm. (see constituents above) (19)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a petroleum ether extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory and nociceptive activities in Swiss albino mice. The extract exhibited significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing, reduced paw-licking time response in formalin test and increased in withdrawal latency time in tail immersion test. There was significant reduction of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats. (20)
• Antibiofilm / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated various plant extracts of E. ayapana for antibiofilm, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. All extracts exhibited pronounced antibiofilm formation against Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. An EtOAc extract showed excellent activity against DPPH radicals. Ch2Cl2 and EtOAc extracts exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity against nitric oxide with IC50 of 65.7 and 66.9 µg/l, respectively. (21)
• Antiviral / Inhibition of Zika Virus / Essential Oil and THQ: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus causing infection associated with neonatal microcephaly and neurological disorders. Study evaluated the effect of essential oil (EO) from A. triplinervis, whose main component thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (THQ) has shown potential to prevent ZIKV infection in human cells. Study showed both EO and THQ inhibit ZIKV infection in human cells with IC50s of 38 and 45 µg/mL, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations, EO and THQ reduced virus progeny production by 3-log. Results suggest THQ is a new potent antiviral phytocompound against ZIKV. (22)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extracts of Ayapana triplinervis, The NPs showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. (23)
• Analgesic / Toxicity Study / Stems and Roots: Study evaluated stem and root extracts for analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing in Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity study showed no toxic effects up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kbw. The hydroalcoholic extract of stem and root showed analgesic activity with significant inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing. (24)
• Cytotoxic / Antioxidant / Thrombolytic / Membrane Stabilizing / Antimicrobial: Study of Eupatorium ayapana showed highest phenolic content in CCl4 soluble partitionate with 1,203 mg GAE/gr of extractives. In Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, a methanol extract showed highest activity with LC50 0.149 µg/mL. In thrombolytic testing, a petroleum ether soluble partitionate showed significant activity with 15.75% clot lysis. The petroleum ether soluble fraction showed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 1.67 µg/ml. In assay for membrane stabilizing activity, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction exhibited significant activity with 57.61% and 55.13% RBC hemolysis in hypotonic solution and heat-induced conditions. The CCl4 soluble extract showed good to excellent inhibition of antimicrobial growth. (25)

Anticoagulant Effect: Ayapana leaves contain naturally occurring coumarins with its blood thinning and anti-coagulant effect. A patient on blood thinning medications should avoid the concomitant use of ayapana and should consult a physician.

- Wildcrafted.

- Extracts and essential oil in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated August 2020 / March 2018 / May 2016

                                                     PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl [as Eupatorium ayapana Vent.] / Descourtilz, M.E., Flore médicale des Antilles, vol. 3: t. 203 (1827) [J. T. Descourtilz]. / Illustration contributed by the Missouri Botanical Garden / PLANT ILLUSTRATIONS / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ayapana (Ayapana triplinervis) /Raintree Nutrition
Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eupatorium Triplinerve Against Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria and Phytopathogenic Fungi / M D . S HAFIQUR R AHMAN * AND M OHAMMAD J UNAID
Essential oil of Ayapana triplinervis from Reunion Island: A good natural source of thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether /
Anne Gauvin-Bialecki *, Claude Marodon / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology Vol 36, Issue 11, November 2008, Pages 853-858 / doi:10.1016/j.bse.2008.09.006
Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium ayapana./ Fitoterapia. 2002 Apr;73(2):168-70.

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Eupatorium ayapana against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Pomby A Bose et al / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS • IJPT | January 2007 | vol. 6 | no. 1 | 27-33
Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants with particular reference to their use in animals in the Indo±Pakistan subcontinent / M S Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal et al / Small Ruminant Research 38 (2000) 99±107
The Anthelmintic Activity of Eupatorium triplinerve and Alpinia galanga in Pheritima posthuma and Ascardia galli: A Comparative Study / K.R. SubaSh, N. JagaN Rao, biNoy VaRgheSe CheRiyaN, g.MuthulaKShMi bhaaRati, K. SaNdeeP KuMaR / Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012 August, 6(6): pp 947-950
Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl Leaves, a Skin Care Herb from East Kalimantan, Using a Melanin Biosynthesis Assay / Enos Tangke Arung, Harlinda Kuspradini, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Ryuichiro Kondo / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Vol 5, No 2, April 2012, Pages 87–92 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2012.01.003
GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the methanolic extract of Eupatorium triplinerve / Christy Selvamangai, Anusha Bhaskar* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)1-4 1
Antinociceptive, neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl on rats. / Melo AS1, Monteiro MC, da Silva JB, de Oliveira FR, Vieira JL, de Andrade MA, Baetas AC, Sakai JT, Ferreira FA, Cunha Sousa PJ, Maia Cdo S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 May 20;147(2):293-301. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 20.
GC-MS Analysis of Phytocomponents in the Methanolic Extract of Eupatorium triplinerve / Christy Selvamangai, Anusha Bhaskar* / International Journal of Drug Development & Research | October-December 2012, Vol. 4, Issue 4
Antioxidant mediated antiulcer effect of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl against acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice / Manigandan Krishnan , Richard L. Jayaraj , Jayasekar Megala , Namasivayam Elangovan / Biomedicine and Aging Pathology Doi : 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.12.002
Ayapana triplinervis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plants used in the traditional medicine of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands
/ E. Roeder, H. Wiedenfeld / Pharmazie 66: 637–647 (2011) / doi: 10.1691/ph.2011.1572
Ayapana /Tropical Plant Database / RainTree
Antimicrobial bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Eupatorium triplinerve / Tamyris Regina Matos Lopes, Fábio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Flavia Filocreão Malheiro, Marcieni Atáıde de Andrade, Marta Chagas Monteiro, and Ana Cristina Baetas Goncalves / Pharm Biol, 2015; 53(6): 897–903 / DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.948634
Ayapana triplinervis / Ken Fern: Tropical Plant Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Anti-nociceptive Effect of 7-methoxy Coumarin from Eupatorium Triplinerve vahl (Asteraceae)
/ Binoy Varghese Cheriyan, Parimela Kadhirvelu, Jagan Nadipelly, Jaikumar Shanmugasundaram, Vijaykumar Saveli, and Viswanathan Subramanian / Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jan-Mar; 13(49): pp 81–84 / doi:  10.4103/0973-1296.197650
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil from Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl. Aerial Parts / N.SUGUMAR*, S.KARTHIKEYAN and T.GOWDHAMI. / International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 31, pp 14-21 / doi:10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.31.14
Eupatorium ayapana, a good natural source of anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents / Sukanlaya Leejae, Teeratad Sudsai, and Chat Krobthong
Ayapana triplinervis Essential Oil and Its Main Component Thymohydroquinone Dimethyl Ether Inhibit Zika Virus at Doses Devoid of Toxicity in Zebrafish / Juliano G. Haddad, Morgane Picard, Sebastien Bénard, Claire Desvignes, Philippe Desprès, Nicolas Diotel and Chaker El Kalamouni / Molecules 2019, 24, 3447 / doi:10.3390/molecules24193447
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING LEAF EXTRACT OF AYAPANA TRIPLINERVIS AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY / Sona S Dev, K U Vineetha and Sneha Francis / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2019
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF STEMS AND ROOTS OF EUPATORIUM TRIPLINERVE VAHL. / Mathew George, Lincy Joseph, Ansa Thomas / International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences, July-August 2019; 5(4) / (ISSN): 2319-8141
Total Phenolic Content, Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, Thrombolytic, Membrane Stabilizing And Antimicrobial Activities of Eupatorium Ayapana Vent. / Israt Zahan Asha, Md. Imdadul Huque Khan, Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee, Satyajit Roy Rony / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, 2017; 6(8): pp 23-28
Ethno-gynecological study on the medicinal plants traditionally used in southern districts of West Bengal, India / Shibabrata Pattanayak et al / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, July 2016; 15(3): pp 182-186
Ayapana triplinervis / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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