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Family Rutaceae
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Mu ju

Scientific names Common names
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Bael (Tag.)
Aegle marmelos var. mahurensis Zate Bael fruit (Engl.)
Aegle marmelos var. tamilnadensis (Kader) Prama. & Mast. Bengal quince (Engl.)
Aegle tamilnadensis S.A.Kader Bitter orange (Engl.)
Belou marmelos (L.) Lyons Elephant's apple (Engl.)
Bilacus marmelos (L.) Kuntze Holy fruit (Engl.)
Crataeva marmelos L. Indian bael (Engl.)
Crataeva religiosa Ainslie Indian quince (Engl.)
Feronia pellucida B.Heyne ex Roth. Japanese bitter apple (Engl.)
  Maredoo (Engl.)
  Stone apple (Engl.)
  Wood apple (Engl.)
  Wood stone (Engl.)
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC : Safargal hindî, Safarjal e hindî, Shull.
BURMESE : Opesheet, Ohshit.
CHINESE: Meng jia la ping guo, Ying pi ju, Yin du gou qi, Mu ju.
FRENCH : Bel indien, Cognassier du Bengal, Coing de l'Inde, Oranger de Malabar, Oranger du Malabar.
GERMAN : Belbaum, Bengalische Quitte, Indische Quitte.
GUJARATI: Bel, Belli, Bili.
HINDI: Bel, Beli, Belgiri, Bila, Bilin, Mahavilva, Shil, Shul, Siphal, Sirphal, Shriphal, Vilva, Willaw, Willau.
HUNGARIAN: Bengálibirs.
INDONESIAN: Majabatuh, Maja.
ITALIAN: Cotogno del Bengala, Cotogno d'India.
JAPANESE: Berunoki, Igure marumerozu.
KANNADA: Baelada mara, Belpatra, Bilva, Maaluraa.
KHMER: Bnau, Phneou, Pnoi.
MALAY: Bel, Bila, Bilak, Maja, Maja batuh, Maja pahit, Modjo, Pokok maja batu.
MARATHI: Bel, Vel, Kaveeth.
NEPALESE: Bel, Belapatra, Belpatra, Gudu.
ORIYA: Belo.
PERSIAN: Bah hindi shull.
POLISH: Klejowiec jadalny.
PORTUGUESE: Marmelos de Bengala, Marmeleiro de India.
SANSKRIT: Bilva, Bilwa, Shivadrumaa, Shivaphala, Vilva,Vilvam.
SPANISH: Bela, Milva.
TAMIL: Kuuviram, Vilvama, Vilvam , Vilva marum.
TELUGU: Bilva, Bilva pandu, Maaredu, Kapitthaphalamu, Velagapandu.
THAI: Matum, Mapin, Tum.
TURKISH: Hind ayva agh.
URDU: Bel, Bel kham, Belgiri.
VIETNAMESE: Bau nau, Tráimam, Mbaunau.

Gen info
- In India, considered a sacred tree among the Hindus. The Maha Vilva tree is associated with Lord Shiva and is usually planted near temples dedicated to the Lord Shiva. The trifoliate leaf or tripatra symbolize the three functions of creation, preservation and destruction. The offering of leaves is an essential to the ritual while worshiping Lord Shiva all over India. (60)
-  Bael has been used as medicinal and food item since 5000 BC. It is mentioned in the famous Sanskrit epic poem Ramayana, and mentioned in the book Charaka Samhita, a comprehensive compilation of Ayurvedic information.   (61)

Bael is a small, deciduous, smooth tree. Spines are straight, strong, axillary, and about 2.5 centimeters in length. Leaflets are 3 to 5, ovate-lanceolate, shallowly toothed, the lateral ones being sessile and the terminal ones long-petioled. A gummy sap exudes from the wounded branches, hanging down in long strands, slowly hardening. Flowers are 3 centimeters across, greenish-white and sweet-scented. Fruit is nearly spherical, 10 to 14 centimeters in diameter. Rind is grey or yellow; the pulp sweet, thick, aromatic, gelatinous, and orange-colored. Seeds are numerous, oblong and flat.

- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
- Native to Assam, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.

- Rind yields an essential oil - Marmelle oil.
- Dry pulp, moistened with cold water, yields a red liquid containing mucilage and (probably) pectin.
- Fruit, ripe or unripe, moistened with a ferric chloride solution, gives a tannic reaction, strongest in the parts of the pulp next to the rind.
- Fruit yields 2.08 % ash, 3.72 % in the pulp separated from the rind.
- Wood yields the following composition: Soluble potassium and sodium compounds, 0.16%; phosphates of calcium and iron, 0.13%; calcium carbonate, 2.16%; magnesium carbonate, 0.19%; silica with sand and other impurities, 0.01%.
- Distillation of fresh leaves yielded one ounce of thin volatile oil having a faint, yellowish-green color, a neutral reaction, a peculiar aromatic odor, and a slightly bitter taste.
- Plants contains a bitter principle and a balsamic principle resembling Balsam of Peru.
- Roots, leaves and bark yield reducing sugars and tannin.
- Fruit pulp yields marmelosin, considered one of the most important active principle of the fruit.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins saponins and sitosterol. (25)
- Leaf essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation yielded 82 compounds, with 81 identified components. Major component was limonene (64.1%), with two other abundant components (E)-ß-ocimene (9.7%) and germacrene B (4.7%) (see studies below) (34)
- Phytochemical screening of crude extracts yielded alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids. (see study below) (42)
- Bael fruit contains nutrients like vitamins (riboflavin), minerals, trace elements, and phytochemicals, including flavonoids, polyphenols, and antioxidants. (53)
- Proximate analysis of fruit pulp powder (%) yielded 6.04 moisture, 4.10 ash, 49.09 vitamin C, 4.35 protein, 1.54 fat, and 74.31 carbohydrate. Phytochemical screening of fruit pulp powder yielded the presence of tannin, phenol, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and terpenoids. (55)
- Mineral analysis of fruit pulp powder (ppm) yielded sodium 184, potassium 1596, calcium 94.9, magnesium 243, zinc 1.39, copper 1.34, and iron 18.24. (55)
- Nutrient analysis of leaf extracts (g/100 g dry weight) yielded proximate principles: carbohydrate 7.3 ± 0.12, reducing sugar 2.0 ± 0.09, glucose 1.0 ± 0.08, cellulose 8.0 ± 0.15, crude fiber 14.93 ± 0.23, protein 1.325 ± 0.17, free amino acids 0.1198 ± 0.79, lipid/fat 1.24 ± 0.19, free fatty acid 0.32 ± 0.14.   (57)
- Micronutrient analysis of leaf extracts yielded (mg/100 g dry weight) of calcium 240.48 ± 0.21, phosphorus 10 ± 0.11, iron 14.30 ± 0.11, magnesium 728.75 ± 11.10, thiamin 0.0154 ± 0.0031, riboflavin 0.113 ± 0.014, niacin 0.999 ± 0.053, ascorbic acid 275 ± 26.32, retinol 72.80 ± 4.79, tocopherol 14.829 ± 2.06. (57)

- Unripe fruit considered astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic, anti-diarrheal.
- Fresh juice is bitter and pungent.
- Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic, cooling, laxative.
- Considered antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, demulcent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound-healing, insecticidal and gastroprotective properties. (see studies below) (
- Phytochemicals have suggested antineoplastic radioprotective, antidiarrheal, antibacterial, antidyslipidemic, chemoprotective, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, larvicidal, phytoremediative, neuroprotective, insecticidal, antiulcer, antifertility, wound healing, antidepressant, anxiolytic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antifungal, antimutagenic, nootropic properties.

Parts used
Root, bark, fruits, flowers.


- Fresh, ripe fruit is edible.
- Fruit pulp made into juice, jams, syrup, puddings and cake.
- Some tribes use it for pickling or as preserves; also, as a refreshing and mildly laxative drink or sherbet.
- Also prepared as a marmalade from the full grown and tender fruit, cut in thin slices.
- In India, beating the seeded pulp together with milk and sugar makes a popular sherbet drink.
- Young shoots and leaves eaten as vegetable in Thailand; as food seasoning in Indonesia.
- Mucous fluid from the stem and fruit is rubbed on the hair in place of oil by the rural folk.
- Decoction of root-bark used for hypochondriasis, melancholia, intermittent fever, palpitations.
- Poultice of leaves applied to inflamed parts.
- Bitter fresh juice, diluted with water, used as remedy for catarrh and fever.
- Decoction of leaves used for asthma.
- Fresh juice of leaves, sweetened with honey, used as laxative or febrifuge; also, used for asthma.
- Sweet-scented extract from flowers used as lotion for the eyes.
- Infusion of flower used as cooling drink.
- Unripe or half-ripe fruit used for diarrhea, believed effective because of the tannins and mucilaginous substances.
- Used by inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent for over 5000 years. Leaves, bark, roots, fruits, and seeds are extensively used in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda, and various fold medicine. (51)
- Hindu physicians used a confiture made from preserved sliced fruits for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Sherbet drink of ripe fruit - two ounces of pulp in 3 or 4 ounces of water or syrup - is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia.
- Bael-marmalade or an aromatized confection is a useful breakfast during convalescence from dysentery or diarrhea; also, used daily as a preventive during cholera epidemics. Also, used to prevent the growth of piles.
- Fruit used in tuberculosis.
- For fractures, pulp is dried and ground to powder form, mixed with ghee, tumeric powder in a glass of lukewarm water, drunk twice daily. (66)
- Leaf paste applied to premature graying hair.
- Leaves said to cause abortion and sterility in women.
- Decoction of unripe fruit mixed with fennel and ginger is used for hemorrhoids.
- Astringent rind of the ripe fruit used in acute dysentery, its effect enhanced by combining it with opium.
- Powder of dried pulp used in dysentery accompanied by gripping pains in the loins and costiveness. - Tonic is prepared from 12 to 15 gm of the powdered pulp; 16 to 20 grains as febrifuge; 20 grains to 2 drachms, as nauseant and antidysenteric.
- In Iranian folk medicine and Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine, used for treatment of diabetes.
- In Indian traditional medicine, used for diarrhea.
- Scent: Perfume is distilled from the flowers. The limonene-rich oil has been distilled from the rind and used for scenting hair.
- Fruit employed in the treatment of scum in vinegar manufacture.
- Wood: Used for small-scale turnery, tool and knife handle, pestles and combs. Shell of hard fruits fashioned into pill and snuff boxes.
- Gum or resins: Abundant gum from the seed used as household glue and adhesive by jewelers.
- Detergent: Fruit pulp has detergent action, used as a soap substitute for washing clothes.
- Used in construction as water-proofing walls - mixed with lime plaster and added to cement.
- Added to watercolors or as protective coating for paintings.
- Dye: There is 9% tannin in the pulp of wild fruits, 20% in the rind. Rind is employed in tanning; also, yields a yellow dye for calico and silk fabrics.
- Insecticidal: Leaf extract used as insecticidal against the brown plant hopper, a rice plant pest in Asia.
- Ritual: In the Hindu culture, leaves are important ingredients of offerings to the "Lord Shiva."

Radioprotective / Free Radical Scavenging:
Results demonstrated that AME protected HPBLs against radiation-induced DNA damage and genomic instability. Its radioprotective effect may be from scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals and increase oxidant status. (1)
Antidiarrheal Activity: A study of the effect of the methanolic extracts of four medicinal plants, including Aegle marmelos, against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, showed the methanolic extracts to significantly reduce induction time of diarrhea and the total weight of feces, establishing the efficacy of the extracts as antidiarrheal agents. (2)
Safety: Study evaluated the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Aegle marmelos in rats. Results demonstrate the extract of leaves have a high margin of safety. (3)
Anti-Dyslipidemia / Fruit: Study was done to evaluate the antidyslipidemic effect of AM unripe fruit aqueous extract against isoproterenol-induced cardiac stressed rats. Results showed the extract to have significant antidyslipidemic effect. (4)
Anti-Dyslipidemia / Leaves: Study showed AM leaves possess antihyperlipidemic effects in rats with ISO-induced myocardial infarction.
Antibacterial: Study showed significant anti-bacterial activity that was both organism and solvent dependent. Results show the ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts can be used as potential source of antimicrobial agents. (5)
Hepatoprotective / Alcohol-Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study in alcohol-induced liver disease in albino rats showed that Bael leaves have excellent hepatoprotective effects compared with the standard herbal drug, silymarin. (6)
Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluating an ethanolic extract of leaves in carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in mice exhibited hepatoprotective activity. (17)
Sperm Motility Effects: Study showed the water extract of leaf of A. marmelos possesses anti-motility action on spermatozoa in rats.
Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant Effects / Leaves: (1) Study on diabetic rats showed the aqueous extract of leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and presents a potential for diabetic management. (2) Leaf extract effectively reduced oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar.
Marin / Anti-Allergic: Study isolated marin, 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)marinara. Marin exhibited an inhibitory effect on histamine release from the mast cells involving mechanisms related to intracellular Ca++ signaling events by blocking Ca influx into mast cells. (10)
Learning and Memory Effects: Study evaluating the effect of chronic administration of A. marmosets as cognitive enhancer in diabetic rats. Results showed a significant protective effect against diabetes-induced spatial learning and memory deficits. The effect was attributed to hypoglycemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of A. Marmosets (11)
Anti-Diarrheal / Decreased Colonization: Decoration of unripe fruit affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain interferons. Decoction also showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus and significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Analgesic: Serial extracts of leaves showed marked analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. (13)
Gum / Mucoadhesive Tablets: Gum isolated from the pulp showed good flow property. Results suggest the gum is suitable for use as a release retardant for the manufacture of sustained release tablets.
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Fruit: Fruit of Aegle marmelos was evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Tested against six food pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi, results showed more antifungal activity. Results showed A. marmelos may be recommended as an antimicrobial and antioxidant of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling fungal growth and oxidation process. (18) Study evaluated a methanolic fruit extract for antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, phenols, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, and amino acids. Extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial and fungus. (54)
Hypoglycemic Effect: Bael leaves produce hypoglycemic effect probably through enhancement of peripheral utilization of glucose, correction of impaired hepatic glycolysis and limiting gluconeogenic formation. (19)
Skimmianine / Effect: Study isolated skimmianine, a quinoline alkaloid from the roots of AM. Skiammianine markedly inhibited the histamine release from mast cells probably involving mechanisms related to intracellular Ca++ signaling evens and protein kinase C signaling with a role in granule exocytotic processes. (20)
Insecticidal: Study showed aegle oil may be used as botanical insecticide against different stored grain insect pests causing infestation in stored wheat and pulses. (21)
Genotoxicity Modulation: Various concentrations of AM was studied on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced genotoxic effects in mice bone marrow. Results showed protection against DOX-induced genotoxicity and may be due to inhibition of free radicals and increased antioxidant status.
Anti-Ulcer / Root: Study of a 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos root showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effect in a gastric ulcer model in rats. (22)
Antihyperlipidemic: Study of various extracts on hyperlipidemic activity in rats showed dose-dependent reduction of total cholesterol triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and significantly increased HDL. (25)
Anti-Ulcer / Fruit Seed: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of A. marmelos seeds in indomethacin-induced, stress-induced, and pylorus ligation-induced ulceration models. Results showed anti-ulcer activity with reduction in gastric juice volume, free acidity, total acidity and increase in pH. The antiulcer activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin-like (flavonoid) contents. (26)
Phytoremediation / Fruit Seed: In a study on Dust Collection Efficiency of dust capturing herbs, shrubs, and trees, Aegle marmelos showed medium efficiency (11 to 20%). (27)
Anti-Fertility / Antispermatogenic: Study evaluated the antifertilty effect of an aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos in male rats. Results showed a highly significant decrease in weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and vas deferens, with significant reduction of serum testosterone. Results conclude an antispermatogenic and antifertility effect. (28)
Antifungal: Study evaluated various extracts of leaf, fruit, and stem for potential against four fungal strains: Candida albicans, P. chrysogenum, A niger and F solani. A methanolic fruit extract showed strong antifungal activity against most of the strains, while a leaf extract showed moderate potential. (29)
Antidiabetic / Leaf and Callus: Study showed methanol extracts of leaf and callus produced maximum anti-diabetic effect. The in vitro callus culture of A. marmelos showed more potential for diabetes management than the original leaf extract . (30)
Antibacterial / Leaves, Fruit, and Peels: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves, fruits and peels of AM for antibacterial activity. Of all parts, the fruit showed the best result. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed better activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The activity was attributed to antibacterial compounds in tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids and polyphenols.(31)
Wound Healing / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. Results showed A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidant status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. (32)
Essential Oil / Leaves / Limonene / Bioactivities: Bioassay screening of essential oil showed marginal toxicity against MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and good larvicidal activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipens), nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans, insecticidal activity against termites, fruit flies, and fire ants. It also showed remarkable brine shrimp lethality. Most of the biologic activity was attributed to limonene. (see constituents above) (34)
Antibacterial / Ripe Fruit: Study of pellets of dried extract from ripe fruits showed significant antibacterial activity against tested gram positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. epidermis) and gram negative (E. coli, Shigella flexneri, P. aeruginosa) bacteria. (35)
Anxiolytic / Antidepressant: Study reviewed the anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of A. marmelos. A methanol leaf extract showed significant anxiolytic and antidepressant activities possibly through increasing monoamines level at post synaptic sites. (36)
Antioxidant / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the antioxidant potentials of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extracts. Phytochemical screening yielded steroid terpenoids, saponins, tannins, lignin, flavonoids. Results showed the fruit pulp extracts to be a good natural antioxidant. (37)
Antimutagenic / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antimutagenic and antibacterial activity of various dried fruit extracts of Aegle marmelos. Results showed promising antimutagenic activity. All extracts showed antibacterial activity equivalent to standard streptomycin. (38)
Antiulcer / Fruit Seed: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extract of A. marmelos seeds for antiulcer activity using indomethacin-induced ulceration, stress-induced ulceration, and pylorus ligation induced ulcerations. The aqueous extract showed significant ulcer healing property. The activity was attributed to quercetin like (flavonoid) contents. Ranitidine was used as standard. (39)
Nootropic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-amnesic activity of A. marmelos and its influence on the cholinergic system of brain of rats. Results suggest nootropic potential with significant neuroprotection and memory enhancement, with a potential for the management of Alzheimer;s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. (40)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos showed hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Silymarin was used as reference standard. (41)
Antimicrobial: Study suggested the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids in an ethanolic extract were responsible for antibacterial activity, with maximum zones of inhibition against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and B. subtilis. (42)
Antidiabetic / Fruit: Study evaluated the protective effect of an aqueous fruit extract of A. marmelos on pancreatic histopathology in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed a protective effect on the pancreas, with improved functional state of the pancreatic ss-cells and partially reversed the damaged cause by streptozotocin to the pancreatic islets. The effects observed were better than with animals treated with glibenclamide. (44)
Antibacterial / Leaves: An aqueous:ethanol extract showed good antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes, K. pneumonia and S. epidermis. GC-MS analysis yielded many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that may be contributed to its antibacterial activity. (45)
Immunomodulatory / Fruit: Study evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in immunosuppressed and Aegle fruit extract treated immunosuppressed albino rats. Results showed immunomodulatory property which can be assessed for cytokine and complement activation activities.   (46)
Potential for Herb-Drug Interaction: Study showed an aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos possesses agonist activity on cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors using isolated rat ileum, fundus and tracheal tissue preparations. (47)
Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines During Colonic Inflammation / Fruit: Study examined the inflammatory modulating effect of A. marmelos fruit extract in dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed suppression of disease symptoms with significant reduction of increased mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL) 2, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α during colitis. Results suggest the restorative potential of AME in healing the DSS-induced colitis in mice by modulating NF-kB and regulation pro-inflammatory mediators involved in colonic injury. (48)
Anti-Cancer / Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of methanol extract of leaves. GC-MS analysis yielded 1,2,3-propanetriol as major component followed by cinnamic acid methyl ester, 3,4-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy- 1(2H)-naphthalenone, phytol, nicotinamide, etc. Results showed induction of apoptosis when HepG2 cells were treated with ME, with evidence of DNA fragmentation in HepG2 carcinoma hepatocytes. (49)
Neuroprotective / Seed: Study investigated the neuroprotective effect of a hydroalcoholic seed extract on hypoxic neurotoxicity induced in wistar rats. Results showed a neuroprotective effect and suggest a potential for A. marmelos in the therapy of various neurodegenerative diseases, which may be due, in part, to its free radical scavenging property. (50)
• Antidiarrheal / Effect on Colonization / Unripe Fruit: Study evaluated a hot aqueous extract of dried unripe fruit pulp for antimicrobial activity and effects on the pathogenicity of infectious diarrhea. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed on its effect on colonization. Results showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus. Viability of six test bacterial strains were no affected. Despite limited antimicrobial activity, unripe fruit pulp decoction affected bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. (52)
• Effect on Hyperlipidemia: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of A. marmelos at a daily dose of 5 g for one month. Results showed improvement in all lipid parameters with significant reduction of total cholesterol (10%), LDL-C (12.6%), VLDL-C (27.4%), triglycerides (34.7%), brining the values to near normal levels. There was also a significant increase in HDL-C. Study showed absence of potential toxicity. (56)
• Anti-Inflammatory Synergism with Murraya koenigii / Arachidonate COX Inhibitory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of leaves and Aegle marmelos using carrageenan induced inflammation and paw edema on albino wistar rats. Individually, both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory property. Combined doses of the two extracts produced pronounced synergistic anti-inflammatory activity. Results suggest the methanol extracts may possess arachidonate COX inhibitory property. (58)
• Nephroprotective / Nephrocurative / Leaves: Study evaluated the nephroprotective and nephrocurative potential of aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed significant (p<0.001) reduction in nephrotoxicity. (59)
• Antifertility Effects / Mechanisms of Action: A study gathered scientifically confirmed material on the antifertility actions of A. marmelos. Study reported that an ethanolic extract of leaf possesses anti-spermatogenic activity via antimotility action on spermatozoa. An aqueous leaf extract also diminished viability of human sperm. A methanolic bark extract caused dose- and duration-dependent infertility by reducing reproductive organ mass and serum testosterone concentrations, with resulting decline in sperm density, motility, viability, and acrosomal integrity. The bark also contains marmin and fagarine, both known to reduce male fertility and inhibit ovulation and steroidogenesis. (62)
• Radioprotective / Mechanisms of Action / Review: Radiotherapy use in cancer care and palliation is compromised by side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Studies have shown that Aegle marmelos, bael, has been observed to prevent radiation-induced illness effects, with potential to be an effective, non-toxic radioprotective agent. (63)
• Nootropic / Fruits: Study evaluated the nootropic protective effect of methanolic extract of marmelos fruits on scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Spatial memory was assessed by Morris water maze test and biomarker enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, malondialdehyde, SOD) were estimated. Results showed significant reversal of scopolamine induced spatial memory deficits and inhibition of changed levels of biomarker enzymes due to scopolamine. Results suggest potential as adjuvant medicine in the treatment of cognitive disorders. (64)
• Effect on Inflammatory Bowel Disease / Unripe Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract (AMFE) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis and indomethacin-induced ulcerative colitis) in Wistar albino rats. Disease pathogenesis was measured using disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic and microscopic scores, mesenteric mast cell protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed dose dependent decrease in intestinal inflammation following treatment with AMFE. Significant protection in mast cell degranulation was observed. AMFE treatment significantly decreased MDA levels and increased SOD activity. (65)


Updated September 2023 / February 2018 / February 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit at Narendrapur W IMG 4099.jpg / J M Garg / 02.02.08 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa 1800 - Belbaum - Bael Tree / Bildquelle: Hortus malabaricus III. Fig. 37, 1683 / Payer.de
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa 1800 - Belbaum - Bael Tree / [Bildquelle: Medicinal plants / by Robert Bentley and Henry Trimen. Plates by David Blair. In four volumes., 1880. -- vol. 1, pl. 55] / Payer.de
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aegle marmelos fruit /  © Da Ravinto / Non-commercial use / click on image or link to go to source page /
Da Ravinto
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aegle marmelos flower Forestowlet / CCO 1.0 / Public Domain / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to different doses of -radiation: a micronucleus study / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Ponemone Ventkatesh and Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga / Mutagenesis vol. 18 no. 4 pp. 387-393, July 2003
Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea / F Gricilda Shoba and Molly Thomas /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 76, Issue 1, June 2001, Pages 73-76
/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00379-2
Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant / Veerappan, A.; Miyazaki, S.; Kadarkaraisamy, M.; Ranganathan, D / International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology
Antidyslipidaemic effect of Aegle marmelos Linn. fruit on Isoproterenol induced myocardial injury in rats / G. Krushna, M. A. Kareem & K. L. Devi / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 6 Number 2
In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Phytochemical Extracts from Leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) / C. Rajasekaran, E. Meignanam, N. Premkumar et al / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 1124-28. 2008.
The Hepatoprotective Effect of Bael Leaves (Aegle Marmelos) in Alcohol Induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats / Vinodhini SINGANAN, Malairajan SINGANAN and Hazeena BEGUM / International Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 2, No 2, 83-92, 2007
Comparative effects of Aegle marmelos extract and alpha-tocopherol on serum lipids, lipid peroxides and cardiac enzyme levels in rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction / N Rajadurai and P S M Priince / Singapore Med J 2005; 46(2) : 78
/ Sharmila Upadhya, Kshama Shanbhag, Suneetha G et al / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(4):476-480
Anti-allergic effects of Marmin, a coumarine isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa : In vitro study / Agung Endro Nugroho, Sugeng Riyanto et al / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHYTOMEDICINE, Vol 3, No 1 (2011)
The Effect of Chronic Administration of Aegle Marmelos Seed Extract on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats / Amir Farshchi, Golbarg Ghiasi, Samireh Farshchi, Amin Taleb Ghobadi et al / Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2011, 42-48
Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage / S Brijesh, Poonam Daswani, Pundarikakshudu Tetali et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9:47doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-47
Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. / Veerappan Arula, Shigeru Miyazaki and Renganathan Dhananjayan /
Journal of Ethno-pharmacology Volume 96, Issues 1-2, 4 January 2005, Pages 159-163 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.013
FORMULATION OF MUCOADHESIVE TABLET BY USING AEGLE MARMELOS GUM / Rohini S. Kharwade, Neha S.Vyavhare, Sachin M.More / Intl Journ of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol 2, No 1, Jan-Mar 2011
Hepatoprotective Activity of Aegle marmelos in CCl4 Induced Toxicity - An In-vivo Study
/ P Sumithat and T Thirunalasundari / Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(9): 05-09
/ Hamid Reza Gheisari, Fahimeh Amiri, Yalda Zolghadri / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2011
Clinical Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Trigonella Seeds and Aegle marmelos Leaves
/ Mohammad Yaheya Mohammad Ismail / World Applied Sciences Journal 7 (10): 1231-1234, 2009
EFFECTS OF SKIMMIANINE, A QUINOLINE ALKALOID OF AEGLE MARMELOS CORREA ROOTS, ON THE HISTAMINE RELEASE FROM RAT MAST CELLS / Agung Endro Nugrohoa,d, Sugeng Riyanto, Mohamad. Aspollah Sukari and Kazutaka Maeyamad / Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol. 6, No. 2, 141-148, 2010
Insecticidal Activity Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Essential Oil Against Four Stored Grain Insect Pests / Rajesh Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Chandra Shekhar Prasal et al / Internet Journal of Food Safety, Vol.10, 2008, p.39-49
Investigation on Antiulcer Activity of Aegle marmelos Root as Experimental, Biochemical and Histological Study / Mansi Verma / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 10 (2010)
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF Aegle marmelos (L) Corr., LEAF EXTRACT IN TRITON WR- 1339 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS / R Bhuvaneswari and K Sasikumar* / Pharmacie Globale (IJCP) 2013, 3 (04)
ULCER HEALING POTENTIAL OF AEGLE MARMELOS FRUIT SEED / Ganesh N. Sharma*, Susheel K. Dubey, Nitin Sati, Jyotsana Sanadya / Asian Journal of Pharmacy & Life Science, Vol. 1 (2), March-June, 2011
Antifertility studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant on male albino rats / Alka Chauhan, Meera Agarwal*, Sonalika Kushwaha & Anju Mutreja / Egyptian Journal of Biology, 2008, Vol. 10, pp 28-35
STUDY OF ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF AEGLE MARMELOS: A MEDICINAL PLANT / Neha Parihar and Sanjay Kumar / IJPAES / Internation Journal of Plant, Animal, and Environmental Sciences, Vol 3, No 1, Jan-Mar 2013.
Antidiabetic activity of leaf and callus extracts of Aegle marmelos in rabbit / Sevugan Arumugama, Subramanian Kavimanib, Balamuthu Kadalmanic, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmedd, Mohammed Abdulkadar Akbarshac, Mandali Venkateswara Raod* /doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2008.34.317 / ScienceAsia 34 (2008): 317-321
Antibacterial properties of Aegle marmelos leaves, fruits and peels against various pathogens
/ *Amit Pandey, Rashmi Mishra / JPBMS, 2011, 13 (13)
In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models / M. K. Gautam, V. Purohit, M. Agarwal, A. Singh, and R. K. Goel / The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2014 (2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/740107
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and Its Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Cancer
/ Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, MSc, PhD, MBA, MS, Karadka Ramdas Thilakchand, MBBS, Manoj Ponadka Rai, MBBS, Suresh Rao, MBBS, MD, Ponemone Venkatesh, MSc, PhD / Integrative & Complementary Medicine
Biological Activities and Volatile Constituents of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa from Nepal / Prabodh Satyal, Katherine E. Woods, Noura S. Dosoky, Sanjaya Neupane, and William N. Setzer / Journal of Medicinally Active Plants, Volume 1, Issue 3, 10-27-2012
SUPRIYA DAS*, ASHISH SARKAR, ANKIT SETH, NIRMALA GUPTA AND DR. R.C. AGRAWAL/ International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,Vol 4, Issue 3, 2012
Anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Aegle marmelos: An overview / C. Rajeshkannan, S. Murugesan, G. Lakshmanan / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (1): 118-122
ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AEGLE MARMELOS FRUIT PULP / S. RAJAN*, M. GOKILA, P. JENCY, P. BRINDHA, R. K. SUJATHA / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011
ANTIMUTAGENIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. / Elavarasi Natarajan*, Bharathi Purushothaman, Anija, Asha Krishna, Gowri / nternational Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research , Vol 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp 670-679
ULCER HEALING POTENTIAL OF AEGLE MARMELOS FRUIT SEED / Ganesh N. Sharma*, Susheel K. Dubey, Nitin Sati, Jyotsana Sanadya / Asian Journal of Pharmacy & Life Science, Vol. 1 (2), March-June, 2011
EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS EXTRACT USING DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL MODELS IN RATS / Ashajyothi Chavan, Ramachandra Yarapa Lakshmikantha* and Padmalatha Rai Satwadi / IJPCBS 2012, 2(4), 538-544
SANTOSH KUMAR SINGH / Indian J.Sci.Res. 4(1) : 53-56, 2013 ISSN : 0976-2876
Identification of Phytochemical Constituents of Aegle marmelos Responsible for Antimicrobial Activity against Selected Pathogenic Organisms / D.Venkatesan*, C.M. Karrunakarn, S. Selva Kumar and P.T. Palani Swamy/ Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1362- 72, 2009.
Aegle marmelos / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes: a histopathological study / Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. / J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(3):87-96.
Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos / Farina Mujeeb, Preeti Bajpai, and Neelam Pathak / BioMed Research International, Volume 2014 (2014) / doi.org/10.1155/2014/497606
Studies on Immunomodulatory Effects of Aegle marmelos Fruit Extract in Albino Rats
/ Madhan Shankar S R. * and Sirrajunnisha A / PSGCAS Search: A Journal of Science and Technology Vol 1 No 1, pp 21-26
Interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. with cholinergic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptors: An ex vivo study / Sanjeev Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Mahaseth, Mukesh Tiwari, Ratika Sehgal, Preety Rajora, Rajani Mathur / Indian Joural of Pharmacology, 2015, Vol 47, Issue 1 / Pp 109-113
Aegle marmelos fruit extract abates dextran sodium sulfate induced acute colitis in mice: Repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines during colonic inflammation / Nirmal Kumar Kasinathan , Bharathi Raja Subramaniya, Ilakkiya Pandian, Niranjali Devaraj Sivasithamparam / Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition, Volume 4, No 2, pp 307-317: April 2014 / DOI : 10.1016/j.bionut.2014.03.0
Anti-cancer Property of Aegle marmelos Leaves: Finding the Facts Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 cell. / Ali A. Alshatwi, Tarique N Hasan, Naveed A Syed, Reham I Alagal and Gowhar Shafi / The FASEB Journal. 2013;27:lb169
Evaluation of Neuroprotective Activity of Aegle Marmelos(Fruit) Against Sodium Nitrite Induced Neurotoxicity in Albino Wistar Rats / Vengal Rao P*, Ashok Kumar CK, Jeevan Kumar V, Nathasha Jacksom D and Prasanth Kumar M / International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Research. 2014,5(1),374-377
Phytochemistry and medicinal uses of the bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa): A concise review
/ Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Harshith P Bhat, Nandhini Joseph, Farhan Fazal / Food Research International, Vol 44, Issue 7, August 2011: pp 1768-1775 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.008
Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage / S Brijesh, Poonam Daswani, Pundarikakshudu Tetali, Noshir Antia and Tannaz Birdi / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine,  (ISCMR) 2009; 9:47 (2009) / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-9-47
Nutritional and therapeutic potential of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) fruit juice: a review / RL Bhardwaj, Urvashi Nandal / Nutrition & Food Science, Vol 45, Issue 6, pp 895-919 / https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-05-2015-0058
In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Fruit Extract of Aegle marmelos (Bael) / Nandedkar PH, Sonawane PA and Chevan VK / Int J Pure App Biosci, 5(5): 595-599 (2017)
Nutritional and Phytochemical Evaluation of Fruit Pulp Powder of Aegle marmelos (Bael)
/ Kriti Sharma and Ekta Singh Chauhan** / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 10, Issue 2, April-June 2017
Preliminary Study on the Effect of Aegle marmelos in Hyperlipidemia / Rekha Kumari / International Journal of Scientific Study, May 2016, Vol 4, Issue 2 / DOI: 10.17354/ijss/2016/252
Biochemical and Nutritional Analysis of the Leaf Extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa / Samidha M Pawaskar, K C Sasangan / Inter J Cur Res Rev, Vol 8, Issue 11, June 2017
Study of synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos / D. Susanna, D. Bhavana, D. Mounika, V. Sandhya, D. Vijay Anand Raju, R. Nagakishore and Bolay Bhattacharya* / Annals of Biological Research, 2015, 6(6): 33-38
Evaluation of nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Aegle marmelos on albino rats using experimental model / Biswajit Kalita, Monica Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Vol 6, No 5 (2017) / DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20171659
‘MAHAVILVA’ A SACRED TREE WITH IMMENSE MEDICINAL SECRETS: A MINI REVIEW / VN Ariharan* and P Nagendra Prasad / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol 6, No 4: pp 342-352 (Oct-Dec 2013)
Suggested reading: Bael (Aegle marmelos L. Corrêa), a Medicinal Tree with Immense Economic Potentials / Chamila Kumari Pathirana, Terrence Madhujith, Janakie Eeswara / Advances in Agriculture, Vol 2020; Article ID 88714018 / DOI: 10.1155/2020/8814018
Anti-Fertility Role of Aegle Marmelos (Bael) / Arun Kumar Srivastava, Vinay Kumar Singh / Journal of Applied Health Sciences and Medicine, 2022; 2(2): pp 21-2 / eISSN: 2583-1887
Radioprotective Effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): A Concise Review / Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Harshith P Bhat, Manisha Maria Pereira, Nishan Mathias, Ponemone Venkatesh / The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine,  2010; 16(10) / DOI: 10.1089/acm.2009.0604
STUDY ON NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS L FRUITS / M Kiran, NVSM Viswanadha Murty, Girja Sastry V / Journal of Integral Sciences, 2018; 1(1) / eISSN: 2581-5679
Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit on inflammatory bowel disease / Jayannnti P Behera, Bisweswar Mohanty, Roja Ramani, Bandana Rath, Supriya Pradhan /  Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2012; 44(5): pp 614-618 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.100389
Bael (A. marmelos) / Dr Saswati Parichha / Orissa Review, 2004

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