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Family Phyllanthaceae
Glochidion rubrum Blume
Tai min suan pan zi

Scientific names Common names
Bradleia coronata Wall. [Invalid] Bagnang-pula (Tag.)
Bradleia rubrua (Blume) Steud.  
Diasperus coronatus (Müller Arg.) Kuntze.  
Diasperus leiostylus (Kurz) Kuntze.  
Glochidion coronatum Hook.f.  
Glochidion diversifolius (Miq.) Merr.  
Glochidion foliosum S. Moore  
Glochidion graves S. Moore  
Glochidion insulare Hook.f.  
Glochidion leiostylum Kurz.  
Glochidion penangense S(Müll.Arg.) Airy Shaw  
Glochidion rubrum Blume  
Glochidion thorelii Beille  
Glodichon versicolor S. Moore  
Phyllanthus diversifolius Miq.  
Phyllanthus penengensis Müll.Arg.  
Glochidion rubrum Blume is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Dempul, Obah nasi.
CHINESE: Tai min suan pan zi.
INDONESI: Dempul, Ki timbul, Ketemung.
MALAYSIA: Gambiran, Senkam, Tetimah, Menyam, Terasi manis, Ubah kecil Rembang panas.
THAILAND: Chum set, Khat na.
VIETNAM: B[oj]t [ees]ch ven su[oos]c d[or], Bọt ếch ven suối; Sóc đỏ.

Bagnang-pula is a shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high. Branches are terete, gray, lenticellate. Branchlets are angular, glabrous or sparsely pubescent when young. Stipules are triangular, about 1 millimeters; petiole 1.5 to 4 millimeters. Leaf blade is ovate, elliptic, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 13 centimeters long and 2.4 to 5 centimeters wide, papery to submembranous, glabrous, base acute to obtuse, inequilateral, with 5 to 6 pairs of lateral veins. Flowers are greenish to yellowish whitish, axillary, sessile, with linear bracts at the base. Sepals are 6, free, glabrous on both surfaces. Fruits are lobed around seeds, circular, flattened, depressed above, Capsules are depressed globose, 3.5 to 4 by 6 to 10 millimeters, red, always hairy. Seeds are orange to red, 3.8 to 4 by 3.3 to 3.8 millimeters. (2) (3)

- In the Philippines, found in creek banks, open grasslands, roadsides and scrublands.
- Planted as ornamental tree, hedge or living fence.

- Native to Southeast Asia. Found in Taiwan, [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Methanol extract of leaves yielded four new compounds i.e., (−)-isolariciresinol 2a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (7R,8S)- and (7R,8R)-4,7,9,9′-tetrahydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-8-O-4′-neolignan 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosides (2 and 3, respectively), and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate (4). (see studies below) (7)
- Study isolated aqueous acetone homogenate of dried leaves yielded three hydrolyzable tannins, glochiin M1. glochiin M2, and glochiin C1—the first two are gallates of phorogucinol glucoside, the third is a complex tannin.

Studies have suggested antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, AGE inhibitory properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stems.


- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used for skin complaints.
- In China, macerated leaves used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. (5)
- In Vietnam, used for hemorrhoid; effect attributed to tannins.
- In Borneo, fresh leaves with water boiled inside a bamboo tank, drunk to treat blood in feces. (6)
- In Fiji and Taiwan, used for stomach disorders. (9)
Other ands
• Wood: Use for firewood and charcoal.

Lignan and Neolignan Glucosides / Leaves:
A methanol extract of leaves yielded thirteen compounds, four of them new and elucidated as (−)-isolariciresinol 2a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (7R,8S)- and (7R,8R)-4,7,9,9′-tetrahydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-8-O-4′-neolignan 7-O-β-d-glucopyranosides (2 and 3, respectively), and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate (4). (7)
Antioxidant: / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of 15 medicinal plants. Glochidion rubrum exhibited the best antioxidant activity, with its higher content of polyphenols and flavonoids. In addition, G. rubrum demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect (93.7%) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cell. (8)
Anti-Glycation End Products (AGE) Inhibition / Twigs: Study evaluated 80 Vietnamese herbal medicines for in vitro inhibition advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory activity, Ten herbal medicines, which included Clochidion rubrum twigs, showed significant AGEs formation inhibitory activity with IC50s <5 µg/mL, approximately 16-31 fold more than positive control, aminoguanidine (IC50 76.47 µg/ml). (10).


Updated February 2020 / June 2017
January 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / File:Glochidion rubrum.jpg / Photograph by Shih-Shiuan Kao / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph /Leaves and Fruits of Glochidion rubrum / Kinmatsu's Realms / Non-Commercia / click on image to ho to source pagel / Kinmatsu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Glochidion rubrum Blume / Synonyms / The Plant List
Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. 586. 1826. / FOC Vol. 11 Page 194, 197 / Flora of China
Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) / Botany and synonyms / Asian Plant
Glochidion rubrum / Vernacular names / GlobinMed
Glochidion rubrum / Medicinal Plants of China / Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. / 1985 / Useful Tropical Plants
Healing flora of the Brunei Dusun. (Research Notes) / Free Library by Farlex
Lignan and neolignan glucosides, and tachioside 2′-O-4″-O-methylgallate from the leaves of Glochidion rubrum / Wen-Hu Cai, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hideaki Otsuka, Takakazu Shinzato, Yoshio Takeda / Journal of Natural Medicines, October 2009; Volume 63, Issue 4: pp 408-414 / DOI: 10.1007/s11418-009-0344-6
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity studies of common medicinal plants in Taiwan / Lin, Yun-Ting / China Medical University Repository, Taiwan, 2012-07-27
Tannins of Euphorbiaceious Plants. XIIII: New Hydrolyzable Tannins Having Phloroglucinol Residue from Glochidion rubrum Blume / Lin-Geeng Chen, Ling-Ling Yang et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 43(12) 2088-2090 (1995)
Screening of herbal medicines from Vietnam with inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation (XIV). / Choi So Jin, Kim Young Sook, Kim Joo Hwan, Tran The Bach, Kim Hin Sook / Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, Seoul: Korean Society of Pharmacognosy,2015, 46(3): pp 268-278

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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