Balatong-pula is a copiously branched, suberect, slender, herbaceous perennial. Stems are smooth or finely downy, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 7.5 to 15 centimeters long, with 13 to 21 leaflets which are narrow and oblanceolate. Racemes are long, all leaf-opposed, and 7.5 to 15 centimeters in length. Lower flowers are fascicled. Calyx is covered with silky hair, has narrow teeth, and is as long as the tube. Corolla is red. Pods are 3.5 to 5 centimeters long and slightly recurved, containing 6 to 10 seeds.
- In open grasslands or waste places at low altitudes.
- In Cavite and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Bukidnon and Misamis Provinces in Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India to southern China through Malaya to tropical Australia.
- Leaves yielded a glucoside, rutin, 2.5 %.
- Study of methylenechloride/ methanol (1:1) extract of aerial parts yielded an aromatic ester, a sesquiterpene and a prenylated flavonoid. (11)
- Plant also yields chalcones and rotenoids.
- Seed extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids, sterols,triterpenoids and fixed oil.
- In a phytochemical analysis of various solvent extracts of T. purpurea, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts yielded flavonoids, tannins, phenols, cardiac glycosides. (see study below)
- Ethanol extract of roots yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins; an aqueous extract of roots yielded
phytosterols and carbohydrates. (see study below) (45)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded phenol, lipid, carbohydrates, steroids, saponin, flavonoids, and protein.
GC-MS analysis of ethanol plant extract yielded 13 bioactive compounds, with high peak area for myo-inositol, 4-c-methyl-C7H14O6 with RT 10.26 has peak area 55.66% and squalene C30H50 with RT 24.65 has peak area 19.89%. (46)
- Study evaluated aqueous extracts of whole plant for volatile and semi-volatile compunds. GC-HRMS analysis confirmed the presence of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, sucrose, 2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydroxyheptanal, 4-(3-hydroxyprop-1-enyl)-2-methoxyphenol, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, (E)-1,3-diacetoxypropan-2-yl octadec-9-enoate, 1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl pentadecanoate, (E)-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl octadec-9-enoate and oleic acid. ICP-OES analysis yielded essential metal ions Ca, Mg, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Se with 869.16±7.52, 285.21±5.44, 25.12±1.88, 7.58±0.92, 1.04±0.14 and 11.87±0.78 mg/kg, respectively. (see study below) (48)
- Study of seed extract yielded alkaloids, glycosides flavonoids, phenols, saponins, proteins, carbohydrates, tannins, and terpenes.
- Bioassay fractionation of petroleum ether extract yielded two bioactive 5-deoxyflavones, pseudosemiglabrin and glabratephrin. (see study below)
- Study of stem isolated four new flavones with modified prenyl groups, namely (E)-5-hydroxy-tephrostachin (1), purleptone (2), (E)-5-hydroxyanhydrotephrostachin (3), and terpurlepflavone (4), along with seven known compounds (5–11). Known compounds were identified as derrone (5), glavranin (6), obovatin methyl ether (7), genistein (8), tachorosin (9), kaempferritin (10) and D-pinitol (11). (see study below) (69)
- Plant is considered cooling, deobstruent, cordial, diuretic, laxative and tonic; internally as blood purifier.
- Root is bitter.
- Considered anti-allergic, anticarcinogenic, anti-lipidperoxidative, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory.
Roots, seeds, leaves and bark.
- Used for coughs, tightness of the chest, bilious febrile attacks, obstructions of the liver, spleen and kidneys.
- Recommended as blood purifier, for boils and pimples.
- Roots used for dyspepsia and chronic diarrhea. Also used for ulcer and colic pains.
- Infusion of seeds used as cooling medicine.
- Decoction of pounded leaves used for snake bites.
- In Ceylon, used as anthelmintic for children.
- In Punjab, infusion of seeds considered cooling.
- In Ayurveda, plant is digestible, anthelmintic, alexiteric, antipyretic.
- In Sri Lanka, decoction of roots used as nematicide for treatment of Toxocara canis larvae which causes lung disease. Also used for colic, diarrhea and dyspepsia, and as anthelmintic.
- Fresh root-bark, ground and made into a pill, mixed with a little black pepper, used for obstinate colic.
- In traditional Indian medicine, a common ingredient of formulations for liver ailments. Also, used for bilious febrile attacks, liver and splenic affections, cirrhosis and hepatitis.
- Oil from seeds used for scabies, eczematous itching, and other skin eruptions.
- Used for piles, syphilis and gonorrhea.
- Fish poison: Used as fish poison—tephrosin from leaves and seeds paralyze fish. Larger doses are lethal to fish but non-toxic to mammals and amphibians. (39)
Leaves used as fodder in India and South Africa.
- Green manure: Grown as green manure in paddy fields in India and in tobacco and rubber plantations in other countries.
- Fuel: In India, dry plants collected as fuel.
- Coffee substitute: Seeds used as substitute for coffee.
- Repellent: Used as insect repellent.
• Modulatory Effect / Chemopreventive: Study results suggest that T. purpurea is an effective chemopreventive agent in the skin that may suppress benzoyl peroxide-induced cutaneous toxicity. (1)
• Immunomodulatory : The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea significantly inhibited sheep RBCs-induced delayed type-hypersensitivity reactions and significantly dose-dependently reduced hemagglutination antibody titer. Results of the study in mice indicate the ability to modulate both cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system.(2)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant: Study of the ethanolic seed extract clearly indicated potent antihyperglycemic and anti-lipid peroxidative effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.(3)
• Antibacterial: The ethanolic root extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed significant activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two other pseudomonas strains and two coliform strains. (4)
• Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide Hepatotoxicity: Study in albino rats evaluating the hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of T purpurea and stem bark of T undulata against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity showed significant reduction of serum enzymes and other chemical indices, significant improvement in liver glutathione, and dose-dependent reduction of necrosis on histopath exam. (5)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed the leaves of T purpurea have antioxidant potential. The ethanolic extract showed to be more portent than the aqueous decoction. The antioxidant content may be responsible for its use in the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. (6)
• Renal Protective: Study evaluated the protective and curative effects of TP extracts on gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. Results showed the ethanol extract of leaves possess marked nephroprotective and curative activities without toxicity. The mechanisms of activities were attributed to phenolic and flavonoidal compounds like quercetin. Results suggest a promising role for TP in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by pharmaceutical nephrotoxins. (7)
• Wound Healing: Histopathological study of wound healing potential using three types of wound models in rats (incision wound, excision wound and dead space wound) showed significant increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibers and blood vessels formation. (8)
• Wound Healing / Aerial Parts: Flavonoid-rich fraction of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea showed a potential for enhancing the burn wound healing process, probably through to its free radical scavenging property. (14)
• Anticarcinogenic / Anti-Lipid Peroxidative / Root: Study showed the ethanolic root extract has potent chemopreventive efficacy and significant anti-lipidperoxidative effect in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. (9)
• Anti-Ulcer Healing: Study showed the aqueous extract of roots of Tephrosia purpurea possess significant anti-ulcer property which could be due to a cytoprotective action of the drug or through a strengthening of the gastric and duodenal mucosal and enhancing of mucosal defense mechanisms. (10)
• Phytochemical / Antimicrobial: Study showed a petroleum ether extract to have the most potent antimicrobial activity against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. (12) In a phytochemical analysis of various solvent extracts of T. purpurea, methanol extract showed maximum inhibitory activity against S. aureus, E. coli and a few fungal strains. (see constituents above) (41)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed prominent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (13)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Aerial Parts and Roots: Study of an ethanol extract of aerial and root parts of T. purpurea in rats showed dose-related anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (15) An ethanolic fraction of root extract of T. purpurea using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and hot plate and writhing response models in Wistar albino rats showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity in acute and subacute inflammation. (47) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 50% alcoholic root extract using carrageenan induced model. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity, the root extract at 20 mg/kbw showed maximum activity. (50)
• Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study evaluated the potential of Tephrosia purpurea in the treatment of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) in female albino Wistar rats. T. purpurea showed potent effect on rats estrous cycle by normalizing it after being induced with PCOS. Results suggest the seeds have a potential effect on PCOS bringing the reproductive cycle of rats to normalcy. (18) (also read: 58)
• Acute and Subacute Toxicity Evaluation: Study evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity of a 50^ ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea. In acute toxicity study, it was well tolerated up to 2000 mg/kg with no mortality or behavior changes in mice. In subacute studies, it showed no significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Results demonstrate a wide margin of safety for therapeutic use and corroborates its traditional use as an anti-hepatocarcinogenic agent. (19)
• Antioxidant / Roots: An ethanolic extract of root was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties. Results showed significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay, greater than those obtained with ascorbic acid and rutin. (20)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-induced Hepatic Damage / Root: An ethanolic extract of root showed hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities. (21)
• Ameliorative / Arsenic induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the protective activity of TP extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar albino rats. Supplementation with TPE orally/daily for 28 days showed a protective effect against arsenic induced toxicity. (22)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-induced Toxicity / Leaves: An ethanol extract of leaves and flavonoid isolated from leaves were evaluated for CCl4-induced hepatotoxicty in rats. Results showed hepatoprotective activity attributed to the ethanol extract of leaves rather than the isolated flavonoid. (23)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Leaf Extract / Antibacterial: Study describes the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a leaf extract of Tephrosia purpurea. The nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial activity against E. coli, Enterobacter faecalis, S. aureus, K. pneumonia. Results showed the prepared gold nanoparticles can be used as a good antibacterial agent. (24)
• Anti-Tumor / Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study evaluated the preventive property of T. purpurea methanol extract in DENA (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant antitumor activity at 300 mg/kg. (25)
• Antihelmintic / Leaves: Study of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves showed statistically significant anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Albendazole was used as standard drug. (26)
• Antioxidant / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition / Roots: Study showed T. purpurea root extract can be exploited to treat diseases associated with free radical formation, oxidative stress and xanthine oxidase activity. (27)
• Spasmolytic / Anti-Asthma: Herbal drugs isolated from T. purpurea studied for anti-asthma effects in guinea pigs showed spasmolytic activity. (29)
• Anti-Histaminic / Anti-Spasmodic / Aerial Parts: Study of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea against experimental animal models (isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum) showed the anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic potential. (30)
• Immunological / Anti-Malarial / Aerial Parts / Plasmodium berghei: Stem extract of T. purpurea showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falcifarum. Stem extract yielded a new prenylated flavone, terpurinflavone, along with known compounds lanceolatin A, (- )-semiglabrin and lanceolatin B. The new compound showed the highest antiplasmodial activity. Study of an aqueous extract of aerial parts seeks to determine the effects on the immune system of P. berghei infected BALB/c mice. (31)
• Larvicidal / Culex quinquefasciatus: Study evaluated the larvicidal activity of Tephrosia purpurea against late third or early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Results suggested 100% mortality and suggests an alternative pesticide that is biodegradable, more selective and less noxious. (32)
• Pain and Inflammation Attenuation / Leaves: Study of different fractions of leaves of T. purpurea showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using acetic-acid induced writhing and tail flick tests in rats and mice models. (33)
• Gastroprotective and Inflammation Attenuation / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of a methanolic extract of T. purpurea aerial parts in pylorus ligated and ethanol induced ulcer model in wistar rats. Results showed antiulcerogenic as well as ulcer healing properties. (34)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluating an aqueous seed extract of T. purpurea showed potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (35)
• Root Glycosides in Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated roots of Tephrosia purpurea in the treatment of ulcer and colic pain in ulcerative colitis model in mice. Results showed an aqueous extract fraction to yield a glycoside, 1, 4a, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-1-(tetrahydro-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-2'-yl oxy) cyclopenta (c) pyran-4-carboxylic acid. The glycoside was assumed responsible for the treatment effects on ulcerative colitis. (36)
• Anticancer / MCF7 Cell Line: Study showed various fractions of Tephrosia purpurea and Ficus religiosa showed anticancer potential in the MCF7 cell line. (37)
• Antiepileptic / Antioxidant: Study of T. purpurea in male albino rats of Wistar strain with status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine-lithium showed reduction in severity of the status epilepticus. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. (40)
• Cardioprotective Effects and Cataract Prevention in Diabetic Rats: Study evaluated the effects of T. purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with STZ-induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed an aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevented not only the STZ-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications, as well as reduced the risk of developing cataract. (42)
• Diuretic Potential: Study evaluated the diuretic potential of methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea in male wistar rats. Results showed significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume, electrolyte concentration, and alkaline pH compared to control group of animals. (43)
• Neuroprotective / Haloperidol Induced Parkinson's Disease Model: Study evaluated the neuroprotective activity of T. purpurea on haloperidol induced Parkinson's disease on Sprague-Dawley rat model. An ethanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent increase in behavioral activity and improved muscular coordination, with significant reduction of LPO, increased antioxidant enzymes CAT and non-enzymatic activity of reduced GSH. Results suggest significant antioxidant activity and neuroprotection against haloperidol induced neurotoxicity. (44)
• Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma / Roots: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanol extract of roots of TP against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines in Swiss albino mice. Results showed dose dependent anticancer effect comparable to standard drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU). (see constituents above) (45)
• Volatile and Semi-Volatile Compounds / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Antidiabetic: Volatile and semi-volatile compounds of aqueous extracts of Tephrosia purpurea were analyzed using GC-HRMS. The aqueous extract of whole plant sowed antioxidant potential (>65%), anti-diabetic (68.45 ± 4.23%), anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial (MIC values 23-52 mg/ml) qualities. (48)
• Wound Healing / Dexamethasone Induced Anti-Healing Effects: Study evaluated the effect of T. purpurea on wound healing and effect in dexamethasone suppressed albino rats using three wound screening methods viz., re-sutured incision, dead space and excision wound models. Tephrosia purpurea reversed dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in the three models. In excision wound screening method better wound contraction and epithelization may be due to antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of T. purpurea. Reversal of suppressed wound healing may be due to better collagen deposition and maturation influenced by flavonoids. Histological and biochemical studies are required to explain the absence of improvement in incision and dead space wound models. (49)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extracts of leaves root, stems and seed of T. purpurea for antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. The leaves extract showed highest antioxidant activity: DPPH 186.3 ± 14.0 µg/mL, FRAP 754.1 ± 50.8 µmol Fe(II)/mg, reducing power activity 65.7 ± 4.2 µg/mg QE/mg, and higher total phenolic and flavonoid content. Leaves extract showed effective cytotoxicity t colorectal cancer cells (IC50 95.73 ± 9.6 µg/m. Activities were attributed to rich phenolic and flavonoid content. (51)
• Seasonal Impact on Flavonoid Glycosides and /Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated the seasonal impact on flavonoid glycosides content and antioxidant activity to determine the optimal time for harvesting. Plant materials were collected in different seasons. Results suggest that metabolism and production of flavonoids are vigorously affected by seasonal factors, with significant differences in TPC, TFC, and flavonoid glycoside composition. The 95% ethanolic extract of the August sample--the flowering season--exhibited the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities in DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays. (53)
• Benefits on Lipids, Blood Sugar, Membrane Bound Enzymes/ Seed: The administration of Tephrosia purpurea ethanolic seed extract exhibited antihyperglyceic and antihyperlipidemic effects and improved membrane integrity by increasing membrane bound enzyme activities in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (55)
• Proprietary Herbal Formulation / Hepatoprotective: BV-7310 is a standardized mixture of four Ayurvedic plants, namely Phyllanthus niruri, Tephrosia purpurea, Boerhavia diffusa, and Andrographis paniculata. Study evaluated the combined effect of these plant extracts on alcohol-induced liver damage. The BV-7310 showed potent antioxidant activity in DPPH assay. BV-7310 prevented alcohol induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models and may prove beneficial for treatment of alcoholic liver disease and other conditions associated with liver toxicity. (57)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Stem: Study evaluated a methanolic stem extract of T. purpurea for anti-inflammatory activity using Carrageenan induced model. Diclofenac sodium was reference drug. The ME produced significant anti-inflammatory activity; 40 mg/kbw showed maximum activity. (59)
• Anti-Proliferative / Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells: Study investigated the anti-cancer activity of T. purpurea in HepG2 hepatocellular cells. Leaves and root extracts inhibited HepG2 cell growth at IC50 of 102.33 ± 10.26 µg/mL and 276.67 ± 20.43 µg/mL, respectively at 24 hours. Chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic bodies formation, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were observed inf HepG2 cells. Caspase-3 expression was significantly (p<0.05) increased. Results showed both extracts of T. purpurea induced apoptosis mediated cell death in HepG2 cells. (61)
• Cosmetic Formulation / Invention: Invention relates to a cosmetic or pharmaceutical composition presenting body slimming, pigmenting, anti-ageing, or anti-inflammatory activity. (62)
• Anti-Hyyperlipidemic in Induced Hyperlipidemia: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of T. purpurea stems, leaves, and whole plant extracts using Poloxomer 407ninduced hyperlipidemia in rats. The hydromethanolic extract of whole plants inhibited cholesterol and trigyceride synthesis. Lowering of triglycerides was attributed to increased lipoprotein lipase activities while lowering of cholesterol was attributed to HMG Co A reductase inhibition. (63)
• Bioactive Flavonoids / Cytotoxicity / Aerial Parts: Study isolated two naturally occurring flavonol glycosides from aerial parts of T. purpurea. Bioassay fractionation of petroleum ether extract yielded two bioactive 5-deoxyflavones, pseudosemiglabrin and glabratephrin. Both showed cytotoxicity to HepG2 hepatic human cell line with IC50s of 0.87 and 4.03 µg/mL, respectively. (64)
• Formulation of Novel Anticancer Drugs: Study evaluated Tephrosia purpurea as a source of lead drugs against various pharmacological targets against caner and other diseases. TLC and HPLC were used to separate different phytocompounds i.e., flavonoids, phenols, steroids, and saponiin at various concentrations and used against Diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) and alcohol induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Results showed reduction of liver cancer marker and antioxidant marker along with histopathological changes. (65)
• Attenuation of REM Sleep Deprivation-Induced Oxidative Stress / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of Tephrosia purpurea in 72 h REM sleep deprivation (RSD) induced changes in discrete regions of rat brain. Results showed the leaf extract effectively normalized the increased corticosterone, LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx, and decreased GSH, vitamin C and E levels as a result of 72h RSD exposure. Activity was attributed to the plant's remarkable antioxidant activity. (66)
• Use of Oligosaccharides to Stimulate beta-endorphin Production / Invention:Invention relates to the use of at least an oligosaccharide containing 2 to 6 sugars and at least 2 galactose motifs as cosmetic or dermatological agent, in particular for stimulating beta-endorphin production in the skin The invention seeks to provide care for sensitive skin, to fight against skin sensitivity and reactions, and provide local analgesic action. These oligosaccharides can be isolated from Tephrosia genus, in particular the species Tephrosia purpurea. (67)
• Phytotoxic Effect / Potential as Natural Herbicide: Study evaluated the bio-herbicidal potential of ethanolic extracts of plants on the growth and germination of invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus. Results suggest Tephrosia purpurea along with Abutilon indicum, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia occidentalis may be used in the development of plant based natural, affordable, and eco-friendly herbicides as alternative to synthetic herbicides. (68)
• Antiplasmodial / Prenylflavone Derivatives / Stem: Study of stem isolated four new flavones (1-4) along with seven known compounds (5-11). Some of the compounds showed antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive D6 strains of Plasmodium falcifarum with compound 1, (E)-5-hydroxy-tephrostachin being the most active IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µM with relatively low toxicity, IC50 > 21 µM, against four cell lines. Terpurlepflavone (4) and tachrosin (9) showed low antiplasmodial activity. (see constituents above) (69)