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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link
Wang jiang nan

Scientific names  Common names 
Cassia caroliniana Walter Andadasi (Ilk)
Cassia ciliata Raf. Balatong-aso (Tag.) 
Cassia falcata L. Duda (C. Bis.)
Cassia foetida Pers. Gulinggam (Sul.) 
Cassia macradenia Collad. Kabal-kabalan (Tag.)
Cassia obliquifolia Schrank Katangan-aso (Tag.) 
Cassia occidentalis L. Suka (Ig.) 
Cassia occidentalis (L.) Rose Sumting (S. L. Bis.) 
Cassia planisiliqua L. Tambalisa (Tag.) 
Cassia planisiliqua Burm.f. Tighiman (Tag.)
Cassia plumieri DC. Coffee senna (Engl.)
Ditremexa occidentalis Britton & Rose Coffeeweed (Engl.)
Ditremexa occidentalis (L.) Britton & Rose Antbush (Engl.)
Senna occidentalis (L.) Mogdad coffee (Engl.)
  Negro-coffee (Engl.)
  Septic weed (Engl.)
  Stinking weed (Engl.)
  Styptic weed (Engl.)
Balatong-aso is a common name shared by: (1) Katanda, Cassia tora and (2) Balatong-aso, Cassia occidentalis
Cassa occidentalis is a synonym of Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. The Plant List
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Hant-thenga.
BENGALI: Kalkashunda.
BURMESE: Ka.sau.poap, Sham:ka.sau., Sham:ka.zau, Tan.kywè:kri:
CAMBODIA: Phak ngot.
CHINESE: Wang jiang nan, Li cha, Ye bian dou, Gou shi dou, Yang jiao dou, Jiang mang jue ming.
CZECH : Kasie západní.
DANISH : Negerkaffe, Neger-kaffe.
EAST AFRICA: Mnuka uvundo, Mwingajini.
ESTONIAN : Läänekassia.
FRENCH : Bentamaré, Bonne casse, Pois-puant, Café bâtard, Casse-café, Cassie puante, Herbe puante, Séné d'occident.
GERMAN : Kaffeekassie, Stink-kassie.
GUJARATI: Kasundri.
HAUSA : Raiídor.
HAWAIIAN: 'Au'auko'1.
HINDI: Bari kasondi.
INDONESIA: Menting, Kopi andelan.
JAPAN: Habuso.
KOREAN: Gang nam cha, Seok gyeol myeong, Seok gyeol myeong pul, Soggjolmjong.
LAOS: Phet.
MALAYALAM: Mattantakara.
MALAYSIA: Kacang kota, Ketepeng hutan.
MARATHI: Rantakda, Kasivda, Kasoda, Rankasvinda.
NEPALESE : Kasaudi, Panvar.
PORTUGUESE : Balambala, Café-negro, Folha-do-pajé, Fedegoso-verdadeiro, Ibixuma, Lava-prato, Mangerioba, Mamangá, Mata-pasto, Maioba, Pajamarioba, Pereriaba, Taracurú.
SANSKRIT: Kasamarda, Vimarda, Arimarda.
SINHALESE : Pani thora.
SPANISH : Bricho, Brusca, Caffecillo, Frijolillo, Guanina, Rematilla, Taperiba.
SWAHILI : Mwengajini, Mwengia.
TAMIL: Nattam takarai, Payaverai.
TELUGU: Chennangi chettu, Thangedu.
THAI : Chumhet lek, Chumhet tet, Lang khet, Khet.
VIETNAMESE : Cây muồng hòe, Muồng hòe, Muồng tây.

Balatong aso is an erect, somewhat branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.8 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and about 20 centimeters long. Rachis has a large gland at the base. Leaflets are rank-smelling, occurring in 5 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, and somewhat pointed at the base and tapering gradually to a fine, pointed tip. Flowers are yellow, 2 centimeters long, and borne on axillary and terminal racemes. Calyx tube is short, sepals imbricate; petals are 5, subequal. Stamens are 10, rarely all perfect, 3 to 5 being reduced to staminodes or sometimes absent; anthers mostly basifixed opening by terminal pores or with the slit more or less continued downward. Ovary is sessile or stalked. Fruits are pods, about 10 centimeters long, 9 millimeters wide, thickened and containing about 40 seeds.

- Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes as a weed in waste places in and about towns.
- Native of tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

• Seeds yield fatty matter (olein and margarine), 4.9; tannic acid, 0.8; sugar, 2.1; gun, 28.8; starch, 2.0; cellulose, 34.0; water, 7.0; calcium sulphate and phosphate; chrysophanic acid, 0.9; malic acid, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, iron, and silica, together, 5.4; and achrosine (coloring matter), 13.58 parts in 100.
• Stem yields considerable alkaloid.
• Leaves yield cathartin, a coloring matter.
• Roots yield a resin - a bitter, non-alkaloidal principle.
• Oxymethylanthraquinone is isolated from the plant; traces of it from the leaf; 0.25% from the fruit; and 0.3% from the root.
• Toxic components are anthraquinones, emodin glycosides, toxalbumins and alkaloids.
• Phytochemical screening yielded anthraquinones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavanoids, saponins, phytosterols, gums and mucilages.
• Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins (leaf, seed), alkaloids (S), saponins (LS), carbohydrates (LS), glycosides (S), phytosterols (LS), oils and fats (LS), phenols (LS), protein and amino acid (LS) and flavonoids (S). (see study below) (30)
• Leaf extract yielded tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, and flavonoids. (see study below) (42)
• Proximate analysis of seeds yielded high dry matter (92.50%), crude protein (29.54%) and crude fiber (10.18%), but with low ether extract, nitrogen free extract, ash, and calorific values. Vitamin analysis showed the seeds to be rich in vitamin B3 (1.85 mg/100 g), but low in vitamins B2, B1, C, and A. Mineral analysis showed (per 100 g) calcium 960 mg, potassium 1,200 mg, phosphorus 810 mg, sodium 600 mg, magnesium 640 mg, iron 234.60 mg, zinc 53.12 mg, and copper 10.48mg. Amino acid profile (per 100 g protein) showed a high concentration of leucine 7.60 g, histidine 2.11 g, proline 2.33 g, and glycine 4.11 g. (45)
• Preliminary phytochemical screening on various extracts (hexane, ethylacetate, methanol) of leaves yielded the presence of saponins (M, ), tannins (M), alkaloids (M, EA, H), phenols (M), anthraquinones (M, EA), reducing sugar (H), glucosides (H), and resins (M, EA). (see study below) (50)
• Study of aqueous (A) and ethyl acetate (EA) leaf extracts yielded tannins, anthraquinones (A only), flavonoids, cardiac glycosides (EA), saponins (A_, alkaloids *EA), phenols (A),, phlobatannins (EA). (see study below) (63)
• Aqueous leaf extract yielded carbohydrate, tannins, triterpenoids, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, diterpenoids, and cardiac glycosides, with absence of alkaloids and anthraquinones. (see study below) (78)

• Roots are very bitter.
• Considered anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, vasoconstrictor, antioxidant, laxative, insecticidal and antidote.

• As domestic medicine, considered tonic, diuretic, stomachic, febrifuge.
• Seeds considered antiperiodic, analogous to quinine.
ª Studies have suggested hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, wound healing, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diuretic, larvicidal, antitrypanosomal, antihypertensive, anthelmintic, antitussive, antioxidant properties.

Part utilized
Entire plant– roots, leaves and seeds.

- Seeds can be roasted and sometimes substituted for coffee.
- Seeds used as coffee adulterant. Apparently, there is no caffeine in mogdad coffee. (83)
- In Senegal and the Antilles, seeds used as a substitute for coffee.
- Leaves and flowers, cooked, are edible.
- Despite reports of being poisonous, leaves have been used in the diet of Maldives for centuries. (83)
· Seeds used as emeto-cathartic. Also, employed as febrifuge, usually as an infusion in coffee.
· Used for chronic gastroenteritis, constipation, indigestion, gastric pains, asthma and fever, poisonous snake and insect bites.
· Pounded fresh material applied as poultice for snakebites.
· Plant used for dropsy, rheumatism, fevers and venereal diseases.
· Ointment used for ringworm, eczema and variety of skin diseases.
· Roots used for gonorrhea, black-water fever, malaria, and dysentery.
· In Peru, decoction of roots used for fevers; seeds brewed for asthma.
· In Brazil, roots are used as tonic, febrifuge, diuretic and anthelmintic; also used for fevers, menstrual problems, tuberculosis.
· Infusion of roots and bark used for malaria and hematuria.
· Infusion of bark used for diabetes.
· Leaves used as purgative and antiherpetic.
· Poultice of leaves used for skin irritation and eczema.
· In Lagos, leaf infusion used as specific for black-water fever.
· In Lagos and Liberia, infusion of leaves used as purgative.
· In Dahomey, decoction of leaves used as febrifuge.
· In the Dutch Indies, poultice of leaves used for toothache.
· In the French colonies of western Africa, infusion of leaves used for yellow fever.
· In Malaya, poultice of leaves used for headache.
· In the West Indies, root used as diuretic.
· In Panama, leaf decoction used for stomach colic; poultice of crushed leaves as anti-inflammatory; and fresh crushed leaves to expel intestinal worms.
· Used as abortifacient.
· In Jamaican folk medicine, used for diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, fever, cancer, eczema, and venereal diseases.
· In India, used for fever, menstrual problems, tuberculosis, anemia, sore eyes, rheumatism, hematuria. Bark infusion used in diabetes.

· In Northern Nigeria, leaves used as a cure for hepatitis. (47)
· In African pharmacopoeia, fresh leaves used for constipation and malaria; also use as enema for its abortive properties. (58)
· In Nigeria, used for treatment of malaria. (63) Leaves used for the treatment of measles: Dried root and leaves are milled and mixed with black soap and used to bathe twice daily. (70)
· In Zambia, traditional healers used the roots for treatment of gonorrhea: Roots are boiled and drunk as tea. (71)
· In African traditional medicine, used for treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. (74)
· In Andhra Pradesh, India,
the leaf and stem used for treating fractures and bone diseases. (85)

· Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride:
Study evaluating the effects of Cassia occidentalis on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats concludes that the antioxidant content of Cassia occidentalis might play a major role in hepatoprotection and controlling tissue damage caused by reactive oxygen species. (1)
Protective effect on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice / Antimutagenic:
Cassia occidentalis possesses antimutagenic activity against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice. The study suggests that through the modulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, C. occidentalis may be influencing the hematotoxic and immunotoxic responses of cyclophosphamide. (2)
Antimicrobial screening of Cassia occidentalis L. in vivo and in vitro: Ethanol extracts of C. occidentalis and metabolite-rich fractions (anthraquinones, sennosides and flavonoids) of leaves, pods and flowers were tested against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The anthraquinones were found to be more active against E. coli and S. aureus.
Antimicrobial: In a study of various extracts, methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against seven human bacterial pathogens and two fungal strains. The most susceptible organism was P. aeruginosa followed by P. mirabilis and C. albicans.
Antihepatotoxic Activity of Cassia occidentalis:
An ethanol extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis was evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide as hepatotoxins.
Study of the aqueous extract of CO on its mutagenic potential against chromosomal aberrations showed antimutagenic activity by modulating the xenobiotic activation and detoxification mechanisms. (5)
Antimalarial: (1) The antimalarial activity of C occidentalis has been confirmed. The plant showed more than 60% inhibition of parasite growth in vitro. (2) In a study of the extracts of 3 medicinal plants for antimalarial activity, M morindoides and P niruri showed 74 and 72% suppression, while C occidentalis was slightly less active at 60% chemosuppression of Plasmodium berghei in mice.
Antibacterial: In an Argentinian study of 132 water extracts from 54 plant families, C occidentalis was one of those that showed greater antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi. (14)
Antidiabetic: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with improvement in parameters of body weight, lipid profiles and histopathologic changes showing regeneration of pancreatic B-cells.
(7) A methanolic extract of leaves tested against alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction of blood glucose in diabetic mice. (35) Study evaluated a methanol fraction of C. occidentalis leaves against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant and dose-dependent effect on biochemical parameters and hepatic marker enzymes (p<0.05) with histopathologic pancreatic protective effect. (44)
Antimicrobial / Phytochemicals: Preliminary screening showed anthraquinones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, sterols, flavanoids, saponins, phytosterols, gums and mucilages. Of the extracts studied, the methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against tested organisms, esp: P aeruginosa, P mirabilis and Candida albicans. (8)
Toxicological Reproductive Study: In the rain forests and other tropical regions of South America, CO is considered a potent abortifacient. Results of this study showed no statistically significant difference between the control and treated groups in many of the observed parameters. However, there was the presence of dead fetuses registered in both doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of CO. Further studies are needed and its use is not recommended in pregnancy. (9)
Poisoning / Hepatomyoencephalopathy: Recurrent outbreaks of an acute encepalopathy illness to in India, earlier attributed to a viral encephalitis, were probably caused by the consumption of C. occidentalis beans with its phytotoxins. causing a multisystem disease - a hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks. (10)
Wound healing: Study showed the topical application of a methanol extract of C. occidentalis and a pure compound Chrysophanol, an anthraquinone derivative, promoted wound healing activity in excision, incision and dead space models in rats.
Anti-Allergy / Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Lipid Peroxidation : Study showed CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing antioxidant activity. (12)
Cytotoxicity / Antibacterial: Study showed dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer lines and antibacterial potential activity against B subtilis. (15)
Relaxant Effect / Antihypertensive: Study of the relaxant effects in rat aortic rings of an aqueous extract of the leaf of C occidentalis showed dose-dependent inhibition of contraction elicited by noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Results suggest the effect may be due to a direct relaxant effect and may justify its extensive use in folk medicine as an antihypertensive agent. (16)
Analgesic / Antipyretic: Ethanol and water extracts of Cassia occidentalis showed significant dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties. Results provide a rationale for the use of the plant in pain and inflammatory disorders. (17)
Seed Gum / Carboxymethylation / Mucilage: The seeds are a rich source of galactomannan gum and the gums derived from the seed endosperm can be used in industries to replace conventional gums. Study showed the carboxymethyl gum exhibited relatively high viscosity and stability. (19)
Potential Typhoid Fever Treatment: Study suggests the aqueous extract of Senna occidentalis has a potential for typhoid fever treatment. However, AST, ALT, urea and creatinine levels suggest a side effect on the liver and kidney which warrant further investigation. (23)
Diuretic Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract on wistar strain albino rats for acute toxicity and diuretic activity. Results showed diuretic activity with increased urinary electrolyte concentration, a significant increase in urinary output, and an increase in potassium ion excretion greater than sodium ion. (24) Study evaluated the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of C. occidentalis aqueous extract of leaves. Results showed increased urinary excretion of 107.58% at higher dose tested. Reference drugs furosemide and HCTZ induced increases of 84.27% and 48.05%, respectively. Acutely, the extract induced Na+ and Cl- elimination, and sub-chronically, an increase in K+ elimination was observed. Extract also improved kidney function indexes and oxidative stress markers. Effects were dose dependent. (80)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study showed leaves of C. occidentalis stimulated healing of wounds induced by the dermal venom of Bothrops mooheni in mice, and can be considered an alternative treatment for snakebite wounds. (25 )
Antifungal: Crude extracts of various parts (leaf, seed, and pod) were examined for fungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus clavatus and A. niger. Results showed as good or better activity than standard drugs Nystatin and Griseofulvin, except for the activity of leaf extracts against Aspergilli. Seeds exhibited the highest antifungal activity. (26)
Larvicidal / Mosquitocidal against Malarial Vector: Study of methanolic extract of C. occidentalis leaf showed larvicidal activity. (27)
Anti-Trypanosomal Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna occidentalis for anti-trypanosomal activity in mice infected with T. brucei. Results showed the extracts possess trypanocidal properties and a potential source of a new trypanocidal agent. (28) Study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of an ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaves. Treatment of infected animals with extract significantly (p<0.05) prevented the trypanosome-induced increase in biochemical indices, and significant (p<0.05) ameliorated associated hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. (48)
Histological Female Reproductive Effects / Antifertility: Study evaluated the histological effects of an aqueous extract on female reproductive organ in wistar rats. Results suggest an antifertility effect on the ovary, with photomicrographs showing moderate vascular congestion, mild tissue separation and mild infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells. (29)
An aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis showed maximum inhibition against E. coli, Pseudomonas spp, and Staphylococcus spp. C. occidentalis showed potential as an antimicrobial agent in the form of pellets of paste. (30)
Larvicidal / Barcroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus: Study evaluated the larvicidal activity of C. occidentalis against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae transmit parasites and pathogens of deadly diseases like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya. In this study, C. occidentalis exhibited a realistic mortality for larvae of filarial vector, and suggests a natural weapon for mosquito control. (31)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Roots: Study evaluated roots of Cassia occidentalis for antimicrobial activity. Results showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. The activity showed more susceptibility to gram positive than gram negative bacteria in a concentration dependent manner. Extract was most effective against B. subtilis and least against Vibrio cholerae. (32)
· Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Aqueous extract of the leaves of Cassia occidentalis showed hepatoprotective activity on paracetamol-induced toxicity in adult Wistar rats. (33)
· Antianxiety / Antidepressant: Study of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves in rodents showed antianxiety (elevated plus maze model and actophotometer) and antidepressant (despair swim test and tail suspension test) activity. The ethanol extract showed more significant activity than the aqueous extract. (34)
· Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of extract of leaves showed analgesic activity in a radiant heat tail-flick method and anti-inflammatory activity in a rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan. (36)
· Nephroprotective / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of evaluated the nephroprotective activity of a 70% hydroalcoholic extract against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed nephroprotective activity with reduction of gentamicin induced elevation of urinary sodium, potassium, urinary glucose, BUN and creatinine levels, with almost normal kidney architecture. (37)
· Anthelmintic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose dependent activity. Albendazole was used a reference. (38)
· Immunomodulatory / Anti-tumor: In a study on modulation of immune functions by medicinal plants, an aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis showed no mortality and apparent toxicity in treated animals. CO showed stimulatory effect on specific and non-specific immunity. CO showed antitumor activity against Ehrlich Ascites tumor cell line and antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. (39)
· Acute and Subacute Testing / Stem and Leaf: A preclinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of C. occidentalis stem and leaf in in male and female Wistar rats did not show acute and subacute toxicity. In acute toxicity testing, no hazardous symptoms or death were reported, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. In subacute treatment, there were no changes in body weight, hematologic or biochemical profiles, and no micro- or macroscopic organ changes. Results suggest safety for use by humans. (40)
· Biocidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of leaf extracts of C. occidentalis against 11 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial isolates. The n-hexane and dichlormethane fractions of the plant extract exhibited appreciable antibacterial action against nine of the 15 bacterial isolates, comparing favorably with the standard antibiotic, streptomycin. (see constituents above) (42)
· Myeloprotective in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bone Marrow Suppression / Leaves: Study of crude methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression showed myeloprotective properties, with significant increase (p<0.05) in Hb, Hct, and TWBC when compared to control. (43)
· Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of various leaf extracts (hexane, methanol, ethylacetate) showed effective antibacterial and antifungal activity, with the methanol extract showing highest activity with significant inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The plant also showed ability to scavenging for free radicals. (see constituents above) (50)
· Antipyretic / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia occidentalis in different in-vitro models strong antipyretic and antioxidant activity as evidenced by hypothermal activity against yeast-induced pyrexia in rats and free radical scavenging activity attributed to polyphenolic compounds. (51)
· Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the claimed antimalarial properties of 58 crude extracts from 15 plants used in traditional medicine against malaria and fever in the Southern African regions using air-dried extracts of powdered plant parts (roots, leaves, seeds, or bark) for schizontocidal activity against 3D7 Plasmodium falcifarum strain. An ethanol extract of C. occidentalis leaves showed high in-vitro antimalarial activity against P. falcifarum chloroquine-sensitive strain (IC50<3 µg/mL). An n-hexane extract showed an IC50 of 19.3 ± 2.0 µg/mL. (52)
· Antimalarial / Roots: Study evaluated the in-vivo and in-vitro antiplasmodial activities of various extracts of Senna occidentalis roots against P. falcifarum and P. berghei. The most effective chemotherapeutic agent was the methanolic extract. The extracts prolonged the mean survival time in all the experimental groups relative to the non-treatment group )p<0.0001). Results suggest SO roots possess bioactive anti-plasmodial compound. (56)
· Anthelmintic / Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of a methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis against Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli worms. Acute toxicity evaluation showed the extract to be safe according to OECD guidelines, with no mortality and toxicity in mice even at 25,000 mg/kg. There was a concentration-dependent relationship with worm mortality with a mean worm mortality significantly higher for A. galli than for piperazine. EC50 was 11.78 mg/ml for A. galli and 17.78 mg/ml for H. gallinarum. (53)
· Antitussive / Roots: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of C. occidentalis roots for antitussive activity in rats by sulfur dioxide-induced cough reflex method. A dose extract of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant antitussive activity comparable to codeine phosphate. (54)
· Antiasthmatic / Antihistaminic / Mast Cell Stabilizing / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiasthmatic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. occidentalis on in-vitro (histamine-induced contraction in isolated goat tracheal chain) and in-vivo (milk-induced eosinophilia, mast cell degranulation and capillary permeability in mice) animal models. Results showed antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing, and decreasing capillary permeability effects which suggest a potential role in the treatment of asthma. (55)
· Genotoxicity Evaluation / Leaves: Study evaluated the genotoxic potential of C. occidentalis leaf extract by in-vivo assays system in rats using OECD guidelines. Results showed the CO-A002 did not produce adverse effect and is safe at a dose of 400 mg/kg p.o. (57)
· Myostimulant Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of dried leaves for effect on isolated rabbit duodenum. Results showed a myostimulant effect with increase in rhythm and amplitude of isolat4ed intestine muscle. The effect was suppressed which suggests the presence of muscarinic cholinergic compounds in the aqueous extract. (58)
· Antimicrobial / Fruit Essential Oil: Study evaluated volatile oils from fresh fruits of Senna occidentalis and S. hirsuta by GC and GC-MS and antimicrobial assays. Fifty-eight constituents were identified. S. occidentalis was dominated by cyperene (10.8%), ß-caryophyllene (10.4%), limonene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.8%). S. occidentalis fruit oil exhibited better antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Aspergillus niger with MICs 78-312 µg/mL compared with S. hirsuta oil. (59)
· Mosquitocidal and Antiplasmodial: Study evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments against adults showed both S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control. In anti-plasmodial assay, S. occidentalis IC50 were 48.80 µg/,; (CQ-s) and 54.28 µg/ml (CQ-r). Results showed potential sources of metabolites for newer and safer malaria control tools. (61)
· ß-Hematin / Antimalarial / Leaves: Study evaluated the heme-polymerization activity and antimalarial activity of Senna occidentalis in in-vitro assays. The potency of many antimalarials is related to their abilities to inhibit hemozoin (ß-hematin formation). Results showed good inhibition of ß-hematin formation by methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves. In vitro antimalarial studies showed dose dependent suppression of plasmodial growth. Secondary metabolites such as anthraquinones, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids may be responsible for the antimalarial activities observed. (62)
· Antimicrobial against Vibrio cholerae / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of extracts of leaves of Senna occidentalis and spondias mombin and stem sap of Musa sapientum against two epidemic strains of V. cholerae. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of S. occidentalis and S. mombin showed vibriocidal activities, Senna occidentalis water extract showed an MIC of 166.25 mg/ml and MBC of 332.50 mg/ml against the two strains tested. However, both extracts of SO and SM< were not effective in vitro on the epidemic strains tested. Results suggest the herbs could be useful in drug research. (see constituents above) (63)
· Antibacterial / Antitubercular / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antitubercular activities of ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extracts of Senna occidentalis. On in vitro antibacterial screening, the crude extracts showed varying activities with highest zone of inhibition at 12 mm and anti-tubercular activity with MIC ranging from 97.6-390.6 µg/mL. The EA extract showed significant antibacterial activity against most of the test microorganisms, with the most susceptible being P. aeruginosa with 12mm ZOI, followed by B, subtilis with 10 mm ZOI. The ethanol extract was most effective in inhibiting growth of M. smegmatis and M. bovis with MICs of 97.6 and 195.3 µg/mL, respectively. (65)
· Antidiabetic Effect / insulinomimetic / Leaf Supplementation: Study evaluated the effect of Senna occidentalis leaf supplement on blood glucose level, liver enzymes, and total protein in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Quantitative phytochemical screening showed the supplement has high amount of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids in percentage composition of 20%, 10.80%, 15%, 0.55% and 7.20%. respectively. Supplement treated animals showed significant reduction in blood glucose, along with increase in total protein. Study showed Senna occidentalis leaf supplement has potent hypoglycemic effect due to high content of active principles that possess strong and potent insulinomimetic and ß-cell regenerating potential as evidenced by histopathlogical studies of pancreatic tissue. Caution is mentioned because of cytotoxic saponins which may be present in the supplement capable of causing damage to both pancreas and liver. (66)
· Anthelmintic /Tapeworm: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Senna occidentalis on rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Praziquantel (PZQ) was used as reference drug. Effects were evaluated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed dose dependent anthelmintic activity. At highest concentration of 80 mg/ml, mortality was seen in 12.82 ± 0.24 hours. Electro microscopy showed irrevocable destruction all over the body tegument with sloughing of microtriches and shrinkage of scolex, along with exposure of basal lamina, decrease in nucleus lucency, and intense vacuolization. (67)
· Central Nervous System Depressant Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the central nervous system depressant effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of S. occidentalis in mice. The extract showed significant decrease in the onset of sleep. significant decrease (p<0.05) in number of head dips with no significant difference in time taken to complete the task. Results suggest CNS depressant and sedative effect. (68)
· Trypanosuppressive Activity / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of crude methanol extract of leaves of S. occidentalis on biomarkers of oxidative stress in Wistar rats with experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Acute toxicity study showed an LD50 ≥ 5000 mg/kg. Treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress induced by trypanosomes, suggesting possible antioxidant properties of the extract and its trypanosuppressive activity in trypanosomes. (69)
· Emodin / Antibacterial Anthraquinone / Roots: Study of ethanolic root extract of C. occidentalis for antibacterial activity isolated a biologically active component identified as emodin. MICs against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 7.8 x 10-3 and 3.0 x 10-3, respectively. Emodin showed remarkable bacteriostatic effect on gram positive bacteria tested, especially S. aureus, higher when compared to standard neomycin. It showed no activity against two gram negative bacteria, K. pneumonia and E. coli. (72)
Effect of Roasting on Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of roasting on the phytochemical properties of Senna occidentalis seeds. Phytochemicals analyzed were tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, oxalate and phenolics. Results showed roasting time and temperature have significant effects on seed parameters analyzed. There was increased in tannin, alkaloid, saponin, and phenolic contents and a decrease in the contents of flavonoids and oxalates. (73)
Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant / Anti-Atherosclerogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of leaves of C. occidentalis in male rats with hypercholesterolemia. After treatment, the extract induced a significant increase (p<0.01) in water consumption and food intakes. The extract significantly (p<0.05) prevented the elevation in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. There was a decrease in the atherogenic, triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) index in rats. There was also a significant inhibition changes and formation of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. (74)
Haematinic Potency / Crude Extracts: Study evaluated the haematinic potencies of aqueous crude extracts of Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis and compared with a proprietary haematinic, Haematopan B12. Test animals were bled to induce anemia. All experimental animals showed accelerated recovery. The extracts showed comparative haematinic potencies as Haematopan B12. (76)
Anticonvulsant / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of seeds using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure model. The ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kbw showed potent dose dependent anticonvulsant activity. The extract also showed marked antioxidant property by DPPH assay and H2O2 method with IC50s of 14.8, compared to ascorbic acid with 14.56 and 14.3, respectively. (77)
Effect on Rat Kidney / Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Senna occidentalis on renal function and histopathology. Various concentrations from 350 mg/kg to 3000 mg/kbw were used for 28 days on Wistar rats. There were no behavioral changes nor deaths observed even at concentration of 5000 mg/kbw during acute toxicity testing. There were no significant effects on biochemical parameters. Histology sections of kidney showed well preserved glomeruli and tubules with only few animals showing mild to moderate sclerosis. Oral administration of 3000 mg/kbw for 28 days did not produce significant effects. (see study above) (78)
· Anti-Breast Cancer / Anti-Angiogenic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-breast cancer, anti-angiogenc and antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of selected local botanicals i.e., Cassia occidentalis, Callistemon viminalis, Cleome viscosa and Mimosa bamata. All the selected plant extracts demonstrated effective cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells, with C. occidentalis with IC50 of 70 ± 0.11 µg/ml. In the in-vivo CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) model, all plants exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting the blood vessel density. All plants exhibited considerable antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. (79)
· Inhibitory Effect on Uterine Contractions / Roots: Study evaluated the ex vivo activity of ethanol root extract of Senna occidentalis on isolated rat uterus primed with diethyl stilbestrol. The extract significantly inhibited ACh-induced uterine contractions (p<0.05) and CaCl2-induced uterine contractions (in Ca2+-free medium) (p<0.05) in a non-competitive but concentration-dependent manner. Results showed the root extract inhibited agonist-induced uterine contractions probably through interaction with voltage-operated calcium channels. (81)
· Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and NO Inhibitory Constituents / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of 36 extracts of nine Indian medicinal plants by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The ethyl acetate extract of C. occidentalis roots exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of TNF-a and NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Five compounds isolated from the roots of C. occidentalis suppressed LPS-induced IL-1ß, TNF-a, and NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Emodin and chrysophanol also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. Results suggest C. occidentalis roots as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated ailments. (82)
· Osteogenic Effect / Prevents Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteopenia / Stem and Leaf: Study evaluated the effects of extract and fraction of leaf and stem of Cassia occidentalis in fracture healing and glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia models of rat. The extracts were tested on rat femur osteotomy (fracture healing) model. The ethanolic stem extract was more effective than the leaf extract in enhancing bone regeneration at the site of osteotomy. The butanol fraction of the stem was more effective in bone regeneration at the femur osteotomy site and in preventing bone loss in the GIO model. Skeletal preservation involved stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. Six osteogenic compounds were isolated of which apigenin-6C-glucopyranoside was most effective in vitro. Results showed the standardized extract and butanolic fraction of stem has osteogenic and anti-resorptive effects. resulting in protection against glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Results validate the use of Cassia occidentalis for fracture healing and its beneficial effect in glucocorticoid induced osteopenia. (85)
· Amelioration of Hematological Damage Caused by Diethylnitrosamine / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects pf ethanol extract of leaves on hematological parameters in diethyl nitrosamine induced toxicity in rats. DEN caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in RBC, Hb, and platelets. with decrease in WBC, MID, and GRA. Administration of ethanol extract/silymarin significantly (p<0.05) moderated the hematological indices. (86)
· Purification of Antibacterial Proteins / Seeds: Crude ammonium sulphate precipitated and dialyzed proteins of S. occidentalis seeds were evaluated for antibacterial potential by agar well diffusion and broth dilution techniques against ten bacterial isolates made up of five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria. The proteins were active against all Gram positive bacterial isolates (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Enteroccocus sp., L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis) but were inactive against all Gram negative bacterial isolates. Results suggest the seeds contain proteins that have narrow spectrum, synergistic antibacterial activity against important food spoilage bacteria with potential for development as antibacterial agent for food preservation. (88)
· Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on an easy, one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of C. indica and Senna occidentalis. Alkaloids, flavanoids, and tannins in the plant extracts were thought to be responsible for the bioreduction process. (89)

General info:
• Almost all parts (leaf, root, seeds) of the pant are used as food and medicine by tribal populations in India.   (83)
• Poisonous when taken in considerable amounts by domesticated animals, known to cause deaths in cows, horses and goats. The seeds contain emodin, mucilage, proteins, tannic acid, fatty acids and essential oils. There are many anthraquinone derivatives and alkaloids in CO, and no single principle toxin has been identified. Toxicity seems to occur with seasonality, when the beans become palatable with the taste of raw edible beans.
Animals: Plant causes poisoning in different plant species. all parts are toxic, but with differing levels of toxicity. Most poisoning in animals come from pods and beans. In cattle, it is reported to cause severe muscle degeneration, liver degeneration and death. The toxic effects can be rapidly fatal.
Vet clinical signs: Toxicity manifestations include lethargy, recumbency, jerky respiration, tremors, diarrhea, ataxia, hyperpnea, incoordination. Death may occur within 24 hours.
Risk of Poisoning in Children: The beans may be an object of use in the games, playing house, play-cooking and accidental ingestions. Pica, an abnormal craving for food as a manifestation of disease or iron deficiency, can be a risk for poisoning in children. Case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 percent in children.
Poisoning / Hepatomyoencephalopathy: In India, cases of acute encepalopathy were subsequently attributed to consumption of C. occidentalis beans causing a multisystem disease - a hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome. Public education has the potential to prevent future outbreaks.   (10)
Toxic Cardiomyopathy in Poisoned Rabbits: Ground endosperm of seeds given to rabbits caused a fatal cardiomyopathy with mitochondrial degeneration, lipid accumulation, myofibrillar degeneration, myocytolysis and minor reparative changes. (22)
Clinical & Pathological Features of Toxicity: The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chickens are on skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and heart. Pathological findings are necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones, derivatives and alkaloids. The clinical spectrum and histopath are similar in animals and children.
· Non-Toxicity in Acute and Subacute Testing / Stem and Leaf: A preclinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of C. occidentalis stem and leaf in in male and female Wistar rats did not show acute and subacute toxicity, suggesting safety for use by humans.
· Anthraquinones / Toxicity: Study identified the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of different fractions of methanol extracts of seeds yielded five anthraquinones (AQs), viz. physcion, emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol. In cytotoxicity analysis of the AQs in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, rhein showed to be the most toxic moiety. Study indicate AQ aglycones are responsible for producing toxicity, which may be associated with symptoms of hepatomyoencephalopathy in CO poisoning cases.
· Hepatic Toxicity: Study of fresh leaves in albino rats showed hypoproteinaemic effects, with increase in ALT, AST, and ALP, suggesting the leaves may be slightly toxic as a concoction for liver ailments.
· Sub-Acute Intoxication / Seeds: Study evaluated the toxic effects of prolonged administration of seeds to male Wistar rats. Rats of the experimental group showed lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation. Histopathological studies showed fiber degenerations in skeletal and cardiac muscles, vacuolar degeneration in liver parenchyma, and mild necrosis in proximal convoluted tubules. Alterations were dose dependent. The CNS showed moderate to severe degeneration and spongiosis, especially in the cerebellum. Electron microscopy showed mitochondrial lesions in all analyzed tissues. (60)
· HME: Hepatic Myencepalopathy Syndrome: There have been few reports of human toxicity of Senna occidentalis seeds. In western Uttar Pradesh, India, for two decades an acute
brain disease in children, recurring every year, with a 70-80% fatality rate, was initially diagnosed as a viral encephalitis of unknown origin. Later it revealed itself as a multi-system disease affecting the liver, muscles, and brain caused by phytotoxins, and was renamed hepatic myencepalopathy (HME). Today the toxicity is attributed to the consumption of seeds of Senna occidentalis. (64)
· Long Term Use Effects on Hematopoietic Tissues / Seeds: While all plant parts have reported toxicity, most of the toxicity is due to seeds. Despite its toxicity, it is widely used for therapeutic purposes in humans. This study evaluated the effects of chronic administration of seeds on hematopoietic organs, including bone marrow and spleen in male Wistar rats. Results showed rats treated with 2% seeds showed changes in hematoligcal parameters. There was a significant decrease of myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ration. Chronic treatment promoted reduction in cellularity of both bone marrow and spleen. In bone marrow smears, there was change in iron stores and spleen hemosiderin accumulation. Histologically, there was bone marrow eythroid hyperplasia consistent with increased reticulocyte count. Results suggest long-term administration of seeds can promote blood toxicity. (75)
· An Uncommon Cause of Liver Failure: Study reports an unusual case of an elderly woman who presented with an acute hepatoencephalopathic syndrome after ingestion of Senna occidentalis leaves self-medicating for knee osteoarthritis.
Despite intensive care management, mechanical ventilation, prophylactic antibiotics, fresh frozen plasma, and IV vitamin K, among others, the patient died on the third day of admission. Autopsy was denied. Postmortem liver biopsy showed changes consistent with drug-induced liver injury. Senna occidentalis toxicity is a rapidly progressive hepatomyoencephalopathic disease with high mortality rats. There is no known antidote. The report discusses the consequences of Senna toxicity, the importance of identification and systematic study of these cases to better understand its pathophysiology, possible treatment options and implications on public health. (84)
· Toxic Effects on Lymphohematopoetic System: Study evaluated the toxic effects of Senna occidentalis seeds on the lymphohematopoetic system in rats during the growth and pre-natal period. Results showed S. occidentalis can compromise some immunological parameters in rats exposed to seeds during different development periods. The exposure promotes toxic effects on erythrocytes. The toxic effects were directly related to S. occidentalis toxic effects rather than a nutritional alteration caused by reduced feeding. (87)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Leaf powder, extracts, tinctures in the cybermarket.

Updated Dec 2020 / Nov 2017 / July 2016

                                                   PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Senna occidentalis Blanco1.73b-cropped.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Seeds / Senna occidentalis (L.) Link - septicweed / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Hepatoprotective Effect of Hygrophila spinosa and Cassia occidentalis on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage in Experimental Rats / K. Usha, G. Mary Kasturi and P. Hemalatha / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2007 / 22(2): pp132-135
Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice / BIN-HAFEEZ Bila et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, April 2001; Vol 75, Issue 1: pp13-18
/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00382-2
Antimicrobial screening of Cassia occidentalis L. in vivo and in vitro

Antihepatotoxic Activity of Cassia occidentalis / Shailendra Sara et al
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina / Dr. Alice B. Russell, Department of Horticultural Science;
Protective Effect of Cassia Occidentals Extract on Chemical-Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Mice / Drug and Chemical Toxicology
1999, Vol. 22, No. 4, Pages 643-653 , DOI 10.3109/01480549908993173
In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi./ Perez, C : Anesini, C / J-Ethnopharmacol. 1994 Aug; 44(1): 41-6

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats / Laxmi Verma, P K Singour et al / Pharmacognosy Research, 2010, Volume : 2, Issue : 3, Page : 132-137
Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia occidentalis L (Leaf) against various Human Pathogenic Microbes / Vedpriya Arya, Sanjay Yadav, Sandeep Kumar, JP Yadav / Life Sciences and Medicine Research, Volume 2010
Toxicological reproductive study of Cassia occidentalis L. in female Wistar rats / Aragão TP, Lyra MM, Silva MG, Andrade BA, Ferreira PA et al /
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4; 123(1): pp 163-166
Cassia occidentalis poisoning as the probable cause of hepatomyoencephalopathy in children in western Uttar Pradesh / V. M. Vashishtha, Amod Kumar, T. Jacob John & N.C. Nayak / Indian J Med Res 125, June 2007, pp 756-762
Wound healing activity of Cassia occidentalis in albino Wistar rats / M Sheeba, S Emmanuel. K Revathi, S Ignacimuthu / IJIB: International Journal of Integrative Biology, 2009; Vol 8, No 1: pp 1-6
Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn / G Sreejith, P G Latha et al / Indian Journ of Experimental Biology, Vol 48, May 2010, pp 494-498
Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates
/ V.M. Vashishtha, T.J. John & Amod Kumar / Indian J Med Res 130, July 2009, pp 23-30
In-vivo antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis , Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri / L. Tona; K. Mesia; N. P. Ngimbi; B. Chrimwam et al / Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Jan 2001; Volume 95, Issue 1: pp 47-57 / DOI: 10.1080/00034980020035915
Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity / Madhuilka Bhagat and Ajit Kumar Saxena / Indian Journ of Pharmacology, 2010, Vol 42, Issue 4, Pp 234-237
Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn / K R Sini, B N Sinha et al / Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (1) :195-200
Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia occidentalis / A. V. S. Sastry, V. Girija Sastry, B. Appalanaidu et al / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(2):566-575
Carboxymethylation of Cassia occidentalis seed gum / Sarika Gupta, Pradeep Sharma, P L Soni / Journal of Applied Polymer Sciencem V 94, No 4, Pp 1606–1611, 15 November 2004 / DOI: 10.1002/app.20958
Sorting Senna names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
A Toxic Cardiomyopathy Caused by Cassia occidentalis. I. Morphologic Studies in Poisoned Rabbits /
P. J. O'Hara and K. R. Pierce / Veterinary Pathology March 1974 vol. 11 no. 2 97-109 / doi: 10.1177/030098587401100201
The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Senna Occidentalis Leaves on Rats Infected With Salmonella Typhi.
/ Saidu, A.N., Aina, E.O., Mann, A and 1Leje, U.I / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 1863-1867, 2011
Acute toxicity and Diuretic studies of leaves of Cassia occidentalis Linn / Arun, Mittal; Sushma, Aggarwal; Kumar, Gupta Anil; Satish, Sardana / Journal of Pharmacy Research;Sep2011, Vol. 4 Issue 9, p3042
Cassia occidentalis: effect on healing skin wounds induced by Bothrops moojeni in mice / Maraísa B. Delmut*, Leila M. L. Parente, José R. Paula, Edemilsom C. Conceição, Adriana S. Santos and Irmantraut A. H. Pfrimer / Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & Drug Research / DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.7243/2050-120X-2-10
Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Cassia occidentalis / Vipul S. Davariya*, Anjana K. Vala / Int. J. Res. Phytochem. Pharmacol., 2011; 1(2): pp 36-38
Comparision of Anti-larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis, Bamboosa vulgaris and Sapindus mukurossi / Venkateswarlu G*,Manoranjan S, Sharada N, Sravan Prasad M, Azeez MD, Rajeshwari.E / Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 3: pp 118-119 [AJPRes.]
Anti-trypanosoma Activity of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae) on Trypanosoma brucei brucei Infected Mice / Lawal Mustapha, Oboh Angela* and Malann Yoila David / International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2013; Vol 2. No 1: pp 32-37
HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Cassia occidentalis LEAF ON THE OVARIES OF A FEMALE ADULT WISTAR RAT (Rattus novergicus). / Chris-ozoko L.E, Ekundina V.O, Okpara I.C / Continental J. Medical Research 7 (1): 10 - 14, 2013
Studies on the phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Cassia occidentalis L. /
Sathya, A, V. Ambikapathy and A. Panneer Selvam / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2012, 2 (4):530-533
Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus / Deepak Kumar, Rakesh Chawla, P. Dhamodaram, and N. Balakrishnan / Journal of Parasitology Research, Vol 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/236838
Evaluation of Anti bacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia occidentalis Linn root extracts / Krishna Mohan Chinnala, Jithendra Debtha, Vidya Sagar Jenugu Srinivas Ampati / Annals of Biological Research, 2010, 1 (3) : 81-84
Antidiabetic Potentials Of Cassia occidentalis Leaf Extract On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Mice
Onakpa M.M.* and Ajagbonna O.P. / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.4, No.4, pp 1766-1769, Oct-Dec 2012
Anti-oxidant and Nephroprotective Activities of Cassia occidentalis Leaf Extract against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats / M Gowrisri*, Sarita Kotagiri, Vrushabendra Swamy BM, Archana Swamy P, Vishwanath / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 3, July-September 2012
Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract Of Cassia Occidentalis Linn. / Sayyad RR*, Kare RD, Jagtap SM, Katkar ST, Kadam JH. / Int. J. Pharm. Res. Sci., 2014, 02(1), 42-46
Studies on immunomodulatory activity of some herbs used in Indian systems of medicine / Bilal Bin hafeez / Thesis / 2002 / Jamia Hamdard University
Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats / Mirtes G.B. Silva, Ticiana P. Aragão, Carlos F.B. Vasconcelos, Pablo A. Ferreira, Bruno A. Andrade, Igor M.A. Costa, João H. Costa-Silva, Almir G. Wanderley, Simone S.L. Lafayette / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2011; Volume 136, Issue 2: pp 341–346 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.070
Coffee senna / Common names / Flowers of India
The biocidal and phytochemical properties of leaf extract of Cassia occidentalis linn. / Taiwo F. O., Akinpelu D. A., Aiyegoro O. A.*, Olabiyi S. and Adegboye M. F. / African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 7(27), pp. 3435-3441, 5 July, 2013 / DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2013.5673
Myeloprotective activity of crude methanolic leaf extract of Cassia occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression in Wistar rats / Emeka E Neboh, Silas A Ufelle / Adv Biomed Res 2015, 4:5
Review on Nutraceutical Potential of Cassia occidentalis L. – An Indian Traditional Medicinal and Food Plant / S. Manikandaselvi, V. Vadivel, P. Brindha* / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 37(2), March – April 2016; Article No. 25, Pages: 141-146
Activity-Guided Chemo Toxic Profiling of Cassia occidentalis (CO) Seeds: Detection of Toxic Compounds in Body Fluids of CO-Exposed Patients and Experimental Rats / Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Ratnasekhar Ch, Mohana K. R. Mudiam, Vipin M. Vashishtha, S. Raisuddin, and Mukul Das / Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2015, 28 (6), pp 1120–1132 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00056
Effects of Cassia occidentalis aqueous leaf extract on biochemical markers of tissue damage in rats
/ AA Nuhu* and R Aliyu / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2008; 7 (4): 1137-1142
Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage / M. A. Ibrahim, A. B. Aliyu, A. B. Sallau, M. Bashir, I. Yunusa, and T. S. Umar / Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 May-Jun; 2(3): pp 175–180. / doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.65513
Senna occidentalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial activities of Senna occidentalis (L.) leaves Extract
/ Oluwakayode Odeja, Grace Obi, Christiana Ene Ogwuche, Elias Emeka Elemike* and Yemi Oderinlo / Clinical Phytoscience (2015) 1:6 / DOI 10.1186/s40816-015-0007-y
Determination of Antipyretic and Antioxidant Activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Methanolic Seed Extract
/ Vijay Vikram Singh, Jainendra Jain, Arun Kumar Mishra / Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 9, Issue 6, Nov-Dec 2017
ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS TRADITIONALLY USED IN MOZAMBIQUE / Cátia Ramalhete, Dinora Lopes, Silva Mulhovo, Virgílio E.. Rosário, Maria José U. Ferreira / Workshop Plantas Medicinalis e Fitoterapeuticas nos Tropicos, IICT/CCCM, 29, 30c 31 Outubro de 2008
Anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis L. methanolic leaf extract on Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum and its acute toxicity / John N. Kateregga, Maria Nabayunga, Patrick Vudriko, James G. Ndukui / International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Vol 3, No 1 (2014)
Assessment of antitussive activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. root extract / Chinnala Krishna Mohan, Debeta Jitendra / International Journal of Pharmacy Education and Research, Jan-Mar 2014: 1(1): 53-56
Antiasthmatic potential of aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis / G Vadnere, R Somani, AK Singhai  / Planta Med 2006; 72 - P_297 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-950097
In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activities of senna occidentalis roots extracts against plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium berghei / Teahton, Julius W. / Thesis: 2016 / Kenyatta University Institutional Repository
Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Cassia occidentalis in Rodents / Narinder kumar, Sumer Singh, Amarinder Singh, GD Singh, Surjeet Singh, Pankaj Chibber / International Journal of Scientific Research and Education, Vol 4, Issue 10, Oct 2016 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18535/ijsre/v4i10.09
MYOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF LEAVES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS (CCAESALPINIACEAE)) ON ISOLATED RABBIT DUODENUM / Mea Arsene, Kouakou K J. Abo K J C, Nguessan K J, Irie Bi J S, Kahou Bi G P / International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2017 / DOI:: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.573001
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link and Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby: constituents of fruit essential oils and antimicrobial activity / Emmanuel E Essien, Paul S Thomas, Roberta Ascrizzi, William N Setzer and Guido Flamini / Natural Product Research, 2019; 33(11) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1425842
Sub-acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats / Marcos Barbosa-Ferreira, Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, Silvana Lima Gorniak / Food and Chemical Toxicology, April 2005; 43(4): pp 497-503 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.017
Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falcifarum / Kadarkarai Murugan, Narayanan Aarthi, Giovanni Benelli et al / Parasitology Research. 2015; 114: pp 3657-3664 / https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4593x
Effect of Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae) leaves extract on the formation of ß-hematin and evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity / Abdullahi M Daskum. Chessed Godly, Muhammad A Qadeer and Lau Yee Ling / International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2019; 7(3): pp 46-51
Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Spondias mombin, Senna occidentalis, and Musa sapientum against Vibrio cholerae 01 / Shittu Olufunke Bolatito, Olabode Olanrewaju Olugbenga, Omemu Adebunkola Mobalaji, S A Oluwalana, Samuel Adeniran, and Akpan Inyang / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014; 3(5): pp 948-961 / ISSN: 2319-7706
Senna occidentalis seed: Is it health risk or potential medicine? / Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos, Gomathi Periyasamy, and Biruk Sintayehu / IJP: International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2014; 1(3): pp 161-167 / eISSN: 2348-3962
In vitro Antibacterial and Antitubercular Activities of Leaf Extracts of Senna occidentalis / K T Olatunji,Y Ya'aba, S B Mohammed, I J Akah, O C Daniel, P O Oladosu / Microbiology Research Journal International, 2019; 28(3) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i330135
Effects of Senna occidentalis leaf supplement on blood glucose level, liver enzymes and total protein in alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats / N M Gidado, Y Tanko, N H Sada, A Mohammed / Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 2016; 9(1) / DOI: 10.4314/bajopas.v9i1.11
In Vitro Anthelmintic Effects of Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Leguminosae) on Rat Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta / Suman Kundu, Saptarshi Roy, Suranjana Nandi, Bidisha Ukil, Larisha M Lyndem / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; 7() / ISSN: 0975-1491
Central Nervous System Depressant Effect of Senna occidentalis Linn. (Fabaceae) Leaf Extract in Mice / A Ukwubile Cletus, Musa Y Dibal, Troy S Malgwi, M Ibrahim Hadiza, Y Abdulrahman Adama / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 2017; 18(5) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JPRI/2017/25432
Effect of Crude Methanol Extract of Senna occidentalis on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress of Wistar Rats with Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infection / Muhammad Y, Umar A M. Mohammed H, Ahmed G, Gumel M A and Alhassan M / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2017; 6(5): pp 2699-2705
Use of medicinal plants for the treatment of measles in Nigeria / M A Sonibare, J O Moody, E O Adesanya / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, March 2009; 122(2): pp 268-272 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.01.004
Emodin, an antibacterial anthraquinone from the roots of Cassia occidentalis / J C Chukwujekwu, P H Coombes, D A Mulholland, J van Staden / South African Journal of Botany, May 2006; 72(2): pp 295-297 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2005.08.003
Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia / K C Chinsembu / Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 2016; 26(2) / https://dx.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.07.030
Effect of roasting regime on phytochemical properties of Senna occidentalis seeds / Abiodun A Olapade, Oreofeoluwatomi A Ajayi / International Journal of Food Studies, 2016; 5(2) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.7455/ijfs/5.2.2016.a8
Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-atherosclerogenic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats / Ntchapada Fidele, Barama Joseph, Dimo Theophile et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017; 17, Article no 76 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1566x
Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds on the hematopoietic tissue of rats / A V F F Teles, R A Fock, S L Gorniak / Toxicon, Dec 2015; 108: pp 73-79 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon/2015.09.042
Haematinic potencies of the aqueous crude extracts of Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits / AA Adedapo, AE Ayodele, AAP Ogunshe, MO Oyeyemi, SO Idowu, OE Ola-Davies, IO Ademola / African Journal of Biomedical Research, 2009; 12(1)
Evaluation of Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activity of Senna occidentalis Seeds Extracts / Vijay Vikram Singh, Jainendra Jain, Arun Kumar Mishra / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics, 2019; 9(2) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v9i2.2400
Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Senna occidentalis on Rat Kidney / RT Isah, MO Mohammed, AT Muhammad, SM Sahabi, ZU Umar, RI Mahmud. U Abubakar / African Journal of Biomedical Research, 2018; 21(2)
Evaluation of anti-breast cancer, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant properties of selected medicinal plants / Sonali S Kamble, Rajesh N Gacche / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, Jan 2019; Vol 25: pp 13-19 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2018.11.006
Diuretic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) in rats / Fidele Nichapada, Joseph Barama, David Romain Kemeta Azambou, Paul Faustin Seke Etet, Theophile Dimo / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Sept 2015; 8(9): pp 685-693 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.07.030
Ex vivo Inhibitory Activity of Ethanol Root Extract of Senna occidentalis (Labiaceae) on Isolated Rat Uterus / ZAM Nworgu, SO Oyiana, EE Bator / Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2019; 27(1) / DOI: 10.5455/NJBAS.
Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Constituents from Cassia occidentalis Roots / Neeraj L Patel, Sravani Pulipaka, Shashi P Dubey et al / Natural Products Communications, 2014 / https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1400900519
Senna occidentalis / Wikipedia
Senna occidentalis Poisoning: An Uncommon Cause of Liver Failure / Ish, Pranav MD, DNB, DM; Rathi Sahaj, MD, DM; Singh Harpreet MD, Anuradha S MD / ACG Case Reports Journal. April 8, 2019; 6(4) / DOI: 10.14309/crj.0000000000000035
Extract and fraction of Cassia occidentalis L. (a synonym of Senna occidentalis) have osteogenic effect and prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia / Subhashis Pal, Padam Kumar, Eppalapally Ramakrishna, Sudhir Kumar, Konica Porwal, Brijesh Kumar, Kamal R Arya, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2019; 235: pp 8-18 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.01.029
Ethanol Extract of Senna occidentalis Leaves May Ameliorate Haematological Damages Induced by Diiethylnitrosammine in Wistar Rats / O E Yakubu, V O Nwaneri-Chidoziem P N Ibuzo, R E Yohanna, O M Oledu / Journal of Plant Sciences, 2929; 15: pp 33-36 / DOI: 10.3923/jps.2020.33.38
Toxic effects of Senna occidentalis on lymphohematopoetc systemL evaluation of its exposure in rats during the growth and prenatal period / Mariano Souza D P / Thesis / Record No 20103023774
Purification of antibacterial proteins from Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) seeds / Adamu Zainab, Nzelibe Humphery Chukwuemeka, Inuwa Hajiya Mairo, Yahaya Yunusa Pala, Abubakar Abdul Rahman Umar / GSC biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2019; 7(2): pp 118-126
Green Synthesis, Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Canna indica and Senna occidentalis Leaf Extracts / AA Akinsiku, K O Ajanaku, J A Adekoya, EO Dare International Conference on African Development Issues, 2015/

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