HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Euphorbiaceae
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg.

Jia ma la

Scientific names  Common names 
Aconceveibum trinerve Miq Apuyot (Sul.)
Croton montanus Willd Buas (Ilk.)
Croton philippensis Lam Darandang (Tag.)
Echinus philippensis  Baill Kamala (Engl.)
Euonymus hypoglaucus H.Lév.   Kamela (Engl.)
Euonymus hypoleucus H.Lév.   Panagisen (Ibn.)
Macranga stricta  (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Mull.Arg.  Panagisian (Ibn., Klg., Neg.)
Mallotus bicarpellatus T. Kuros. Pañgaplasin (Ilk.)
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. Pikal (Sbl.) 
Mallotus reticulatus Dunn Sala (Tag., Bis.)
Mappa stricta Rchb.f. & Zoll. Tafu (Ibn.)
Rottlera affinis  Hassk. Tagusala (P. Bis)
Rottlera aurantiaca  Hook. & Arn. Tutula (Tagb.)
Rottlera philippinensis  (Lam.) Scheff. Indian kamala (Engl.)
Rottlera tinctoria  Roxb. Kamala (Engl.)
Tanarius strictus  (Rchb.f. & Zill.) Kuntz Kumkum tree (Engl.)
  Monkey-face tree (Engl.)
  Red kamala (Engl.)
  Rottlera (Engl.)
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Qanbîl, Wars.
ASSAM: Gangai, Puddum, Lochan.
BURMESE : Hpawng-awn.
CHINESE: Cu kang chai, Xiang gui shu, Jia ma la.
CZECH: Rotlera filipinská.
DANISH: Kamala
DUTCH: Kamala.
ESTONIAN: Punamarjane kamalapuu.
FRENCH: Croton tinctorial, Rottlière des teinturiers.
GERMAN: Kamalabaum.
HINDI: Kaamalaa, Kamaalaa, Kambila, Raini, Rohan, Rohini, Roolii.
ITALIAN: Kamala.
KANNADA: Kampillaka, Kunkuma damara, Kumkuma damara, Chandrahittu.
KHMER: Annadaa.
LAOTIAN: Kh'aay paax, Khiiz moon, Tangx thôôm.
MALAY : Balik angin, Galuga furu, Kapasan, Kasirau, Ki meyong, Rambai kuching.
MALAYALAM: Cenkolli, Cenkolli, Kampipala, Kapilam, Kurangumanjas, Kuruku, Pipponnakam, Ponni, Pinoo, Ponnagam, Ponnakam, Ponoo, Punna, Shenkolli, Sinduri, Tavitu, Thavatta.
MANIPUR: Ureirom laba.
MARATHI: Kapila, Kesari, Shendri.
RUSSIAN: Mallot filippinskii, Mallot kamala, Malotus filippinskii.
SANSKRIT: Kampilyaka, Kapila, Kampillaka.
SPANISH: Kamala.
TAMIL : Kamala, Kanapotta, Kapila, Kapilapodi, Kurangu manjanathi, Manjanai, Thavattai, Thirisalakkaai.
TELUGU: Kunkuma chettu.
THAI: Cha tri khao, Ma khai, Makai khat, Sa-bo-se, Thaeng thuai, Kham saet.
VIETNAMESE: Ba chia, Canh kiên, Rùm nao.

Gen info
- Mallotus is a genus is of the spurge family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1790.  It contains about 150 species of dioecious trees or shrubs. (35)
- Mallotus macrofossils have been recovered from the late Zanclean stage of Pliocene sites in Pocapaglia, Italy.   (45)
- Kamala as common name may be confused with kamala meaning 'lotus' in many Indian languages, an unrelated plant, flower, and sometimes, metonymic spiritual or artistic concept. (43)

Banato is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 10 meters, with the branchlets, young leaves and inflorescence covered with brown hairs. Leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate, with a pointed tip and rounded base, 7 to 16 centimeters long, with toothed or entire margins, the apex pointed, and the base rounded. Upper surface of the leaf has two smooth glands; the lower surface, glaucous and hairy with numerous, scattered crimson glands. Male flowers are numerous, 3 millimeters in diameter, axillary, solitary or fascicled spikes, 5 to 8 centimeters long. Female flowers are in solitary racemes, 3 to 7 centimeters long, and three-cornered. Fruit is somewhat spherical, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter, unarmed but densely covered with red or crimson powder, with three cells, each containing a dark grey, rounded seed that is flattened on one side.

- Common in thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes.
- Native to the Philippines
- Widely distributed in India
- Also found in Pakistan, Myanmar, China and Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Australia.

- Phytochemical screening of stems yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, gum, oil and resins, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. (see study below)
- Phytochemical screening of fruits yielded carbohydrate, protein, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and steroids. (29)
- Early study yielded the following constituents: water, 3.4%; resinous coloring matter, 78.18%; albuminous matter, 7.34%; and ash, 3.84%.
- An ethereal extract yielded three substances: a crystalline compound rottlerin, a wax, and a resin.
- Perkin's ethereal extract yielded a dark, brownish, resinous product which yielded six distinct substances. Five of these are: rottlerin, isorottlerin, a wax, and two resins.
- Extract of kamala from the glands and hairs yielded a resin, a wax, and the crystalline compound rottlerin.
- Kamala also contains a minute amount of essential oil, which when gently warmed emits a peculiar odor.
- The kamala resin yields the yellow rottlerin, the principle constituent, and also mallotoin and kamalin.
- Study yielded rottlerin (reddish-yellow resin), 47-80%; fixed oil, 5.83-24%; citric acid; mallotoxin; kamalin.
- The seed contains a fixed oil, camul oil and a bitter glucoside.

- Bark yields 6.5% tannin.

- Phytochemical screening of fruit yielded flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins, and amino acids. (see study below) (30)
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic extract of M. philippinensis yielded five compounds: 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6- geranylchromene (mallotophilippen F) (1), 8-cinnamoyl-2,2-dimethyl-7- hydroxy-5-methoxychromene (2), rottlerin (3), isoallorottlerin=isorottlerin (4) and the so-called “red compound,” 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6- trimethylchromene (5). (see study below) (38)
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic extract of M. philippinensis yielded five compounds (1-5): 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6- geranylchromene (mallotophilippen F) (1) 8-cinnamoyl-2,2-dimethyl-7- hydroxy-5-methoxychromene, isolated from a natural source for the first time (2), rottlerin (3), isoallorottlerin=isorottlerin (4) and the so-called “red compound,” 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6- trimethylchromene (5). (see study below) (40)
- Study of red colored extract from acetone extract of fresh whole uncrushed fruits of M. philippinensis yielded one new dimeric chalcone, kamalachalcone E (1) along with three known compounds 1-(5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (2), rottlerin (3) and 4′-hydroxyrottlerin (4).  (see study below) (45)
- Study of leaves of M. philippensis isolated a new lignan dimer, bilariciresinol (1), along with platanoside (2), isovitexin (3), bergenin (4), 4-O-galloxyl bergenin (5). and pachysandiol A (7). (47)
- Methanolic extract of fruits yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, fixed oils and fats, proteins and amino acids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, with absence of phytosterols. (see study below) (48)
- Study of acetone extract of M. philippensis fruits yielded five new phenolic compounds including two chalcones (1,3), a functionalized phloroglucinol (2), two flavanones (4,5) and six known compounds. (see study below) (54)

- According to Ayurveda, leaves are bitters, cooling and appetizer.
- Fruit is anthelminthic, vulnerary, detergent, maturant, carminative.

- Studies have suggested antibacterial, anticancer, anthelmintic, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antispasmodic, astringent, contraceptive, laxative, immunomodulatory, vermifuge, and purgative and vulnerary properties.

Parts used
Leaves, bark and seeds.

- Fungal skin infections: Pound leaves or seeds and apply on affected areas.
- The red glands of the fruit is antiherpetic and
- Powder taken with milk for tapeworms, repeated as necessary.
- In
India, used for bronchitis, abdominal diseases, spleen enlargement. Leaves and bark are used for poulticing cutaneous diseases and pounded seeds are applied to wounds. Fruit powder used to treat skin conditions.
- Bark used for typhoid and meningitis. The gland and hairs of the fruits used for treatment of intestinal worms, and also as purgative. Oil use for skin problems and non-healing wounds. The glands/hairs of fruit mixed with coconut oil are used to dress wounds and burns.
- In India, bark decoction used for abdominal pain. Kernels are used as anthelmintic. Used in treatment of rheumatic diseases
: Among the tribe of Chhota Nagpur, root is grounded and applied to painful articular rheumatism. In Burma, seeds are ground to a paste and applied to wounds and cuts.
- Used as external application in Herpes circinnatus.
- Used as contraceptive.
- Taken internally to remove leprous eruptions.
- Elsewhere, used for constipation, anorexia, cancers, dermatosis, cramps, dysmenorrhea.
- In Pakistan, dried seed powder mixed with half cup of curd is given thr
ee times daily for 1 to 2 days for constipation and to kill intestinal worms.
- In Manipur India, bark decoction with sugar given in urinary tract stone problem. (33)
- In Ayurveda, it is one of the most widely and readily available herb, used as purgative, vulnerary, febrifugal, cathartic, lithotriptic, antiallergic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and digestant.
- In Myanmar, seeds ground to a paste are applied to wounds and cuts. Powdered seeds mixed with sulphur sandalwood oil is applied externally in rheumatic joints and dermatitis. (44)

- Dye: Glands of ripened fruits yield a yellow to orange-red colored dye, called Kamala dye. Fresh fruits yield about 1.4%-3.7% red powder containing pigment Rottlerin. Red dye used for preparing traditional Bhutanese fabrics and coloring silk clothes. The dye along with a mordant (alum) used for dyeing silk and wool. The dye is considered superior for woolen and silk fabrics. Besides textile, the powdered dye is used in perfume and leather. It also finds use in paintings and decoration of wooden crafts, especially by the Bokshas of the Himalayas. (37) To dye silk and wool, 4 parts of kamala, 1 part of alum, and 2 parts sodium bicarbonate are mixed in powder state, with small amount of sesamum oil, and boiled. The bright orange to red color is fairly fast to soap, acids and alkalies, fading somewhat on much exposure to sunlight. (44) Powder obtained from the glands and hairs, besides its medicinal properties, was once valued as a dye; used for coloring silk and wool. Today, kamala is rarely used as a dye because of expense and competition of less expensive synthetic dyes. (18)
- Food coloring: Rottlerin and its derivatives are used for coloring foodstuffs, lemonades, lime juice, and other beverages.
- Oil: Oil derived from the seeds is used in paints and varnishes, as hair-fixer, and ointment additive. Oil used as fixative in cosmetic preparations.
- Wood: Wood pulp used for making writing and printing paper. Wood sometimes used as timber for implements. Bark used to make rope. Wood often used as fuel wood.
- Paper:
Wood is suitable for making paper pulp.
Leaves are used as fodder.
- Kamala powder:
Yield of kamala powder is only 1.5-4% of the weight of the fruit, which makes the product expensive. It is often adulterated with other vegetable dyes or minerals. (44)

Antifilarial Activity / Leaves:
The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. (3)
Antimicrobial / Bark:
In an ethnopharmacological screening in Nepal, the bark from Mallotus philippensis was found to be active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
* Anti-allergic:
Two new phloroglucinol derivatives were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis. They inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells suggesting the new phloroglucinol
derivatives have anti-allergic effects. (5)
Antibacterial / Phytochemical / Stem Bark:
(1) Study showed excellent inhibition with chloroform and methanol extracts of the stem
bark on testing with E coli, K pneumonia, P aeruginosa, S typhi and B subtilis, (2) Mallotus philippinensis was one of plants in a study of 61 Indian medicinal plants that exhibited antimicrobial properties, supporting its folkloric use as antimicrobial treatment for some diseases.
Antifertility / Seeds: Study showed when females treated with Kamala seed extract were mated with non-treated males, rate of infertile mating increased in a dose-dependent manner with reduced pregnancy rate and number of implantation sites. Data indicate, Kamala reduced levels of FSH and LH and affected various reproductive parameters of female rats.
t / Bark: Study extracted six phenolic compounds from the bark of MP. Results showed the fractions separated possess strong antioxidant and antiradical properties. Results suggest a potential as antioxidant for food, functional foods, or nutraceuticals. (10)
e / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity showed increased antioxidant enzyme activity with associated histopathological evidence of protection. (9)
Antineoplastic / Roots: Hexane extract of roots of MP showed good anti-proliferation activity against HL-60 lines. The antineoplastic effect was believed to have been triggered by induction apoptosis through caspase-2 activation.
Antibacterial / Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Kamala extract showed activity against Gram positive bacteria, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Leaf extract was more active than Kamala powder in scavenging free radicals. Flavanoids finger printing of leaves showed vitexin, isovitexin and rutin.
: Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, gum, oil and resins, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Extracts showed significant activity against human pathogens such as Strep pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio spp and Candida albicans. (see constituents above) (12) Study evaluated various fractions for antimicrobial activity against nine human pathogens. The ethyl acetate and butanol fraction exhibited strong antibacterial (P. vulgaris, S. typhi, B. subtilis, S. pneumonia) and antifungal (A. flavus, A. niger) activities. (22)
Bioactive Root Alkaloid / Antibacterial: Study isolated a potent bioactive alkaloid (MMH-1) from the root of M. philippensis. On antimicrobial testing, it was found to have medium activities on all six types of microorganisms.
Anthelmintic / Kampillaka: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Kampillaka Churna (powder of fruit hairs). Results showed anthelmintic efficacy in 42/50 patients with Gandupada krimi (Ascaris lumbricoides).
Rottlerin / Toxicity / Anthelmintic Activity: Approximate lethal dose of rottlerin in rat was 750 mg/kg. Extract was found lethal to trematodes; the alcoholic extract most effective in vitro and in vivo.
Wound Healing / Fruit: Study evaluated the healing potential of fruit glandular hair extract in rat using incision and dead space wound models. The MPE was found safe in rats given up to 10 times of optimal dose. Results showed wound healing effects probably due to decrease in free radical generated tissue damage, promoting effects on antioxidant status and faster collagen deposition as evidenced biochemically and histologically.
(19) Study of acetone extract of fruits for wound healing activity by excision model in experimental rats showed significant reduction in wound area with a high percentage of wound healing in a 10% (w/w) extract ointment treated animals. (24)
Scolicidal Activity / Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus glanulosus / Fruit: Study evaluated evaluated the scolicidal potential of a methanolic fruit powder extract against Echinococcus granulosus. Results showed significant solicidal activity compared with standard anti-parasitic drug Praziquantel, with almost no associated side effects.
Anti-Leukemic / Root: Study evaluated root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis. The hexane contract showed highest toxicity against p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis.
Anti-Diabetic / Bark: Study of hydroalcoholic bark extract showed antidiabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant increase in body weight and significant decrease in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. Effect may be due to the phenolics in the bark extract.
Comparative Study on Intestinal Parasites: In an open comparative randomized clinical study of Embelia robusta and Mallotus philippensis on 40 patients exhibiting symptoms of intestinal parasitic infection confirmed by stool tests (Ascaris, E. histolytica, Giardia lamblia and H. nana), Mallotus philippensis showed better efficacy than Embelia robusta, with a cure rate of 70% and 40% respectively.
Anti-Tuberculosis: Study screened 15 plants for antituberculosis activity. Seven plants, including M. philippensis, were active against M. smegmatis in primary screening. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of M. philippensis exhibited significant anti-mycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis.
Mallotus B from Rottlerin / Tuberculosis: Mallotus B is a prenylated dimeric phloroglucinol compound isolated from Mallotus philippensis, together with rottlerone, via intramolecular rearrangement of rottlerin. Mallotus B exhibited cytotoxicity for MIAPaCa-2 and HL-60 cells, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and causes defective cell division, and induces apoptosis as evidenced by cell morphology.
• Antimicrobial / Fruits:
Antimicrobial testing of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fruits showed antibacterial activity against selected gram positive and gram negative bacteria. There was strong activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, without any response against S. dysenteriae, Streptococcus sp. and Bacillus subtilis. (30)
• Anticestodal / Fruits: Study evaluated the anticestodal efficacy of M. philippinensis fruit extract in a rat cestodal (Hymenolepis diminuta) intestinal infection model.
The extract at 800 mg/kg twice daily showed curative effect against mature adult worms, with dose-dependent decline in EPG (eggs per gram) count in the feces. The effect was may be attributed to the presence of phloroglucinol derivatives, chalcone derivatives and some glycosides. (31)
• Anthelmintic / Vidangadi Churna: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Vidangadi churna, an Ayurvedic formulation
containing Embella ribes, Hordeum vulgare, Mallotus philippinensis, Terminalia chebula. The formulation showed potent anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. (32)
• Antibacterial / Multidrug Resistant Bacteria: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of three different plant extracts viz., Mallotus philippensis, Silybum marianum, and Stachys parviflora in four different solvent extracts against 8 pathogenic MDR bacterial strains (Brucella abortus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakazakii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). The extracts of selected plants showed maximum activity against all bacterial strains. (34)
• Rottlerin / Pharmacokinetic Assessment: Study assessed selective in vitro ADME properties and in vivo pharmacokinetics of isolated and characterized rottlerin using a newly developed and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based highly sensitive bioanalytical method. The method was simple, sensitive, and rapid. Rottlerin showed a number of drug-like pharmacokinetic properties (in vitro), moderate lipophilicity, considerable plasma stability, high plasma protein binding, displayed excellent half-life (>2 h), oral bioavailability (>35%) compared to other natural phenolics. (38)
• Anti-Tuberculosis Compounds: Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic extract of M. philippinensis yielded five compounds (1-5). The most active of which against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6- geranylchromene (mallotophilippen F) (1). 8-cinnamoyl-2,2-dimethyl-7- hydroxy-5-methoxychromene, isolated from a natural source for the first time (2), rottlerin (3), isoallorottlerin=isorottlerin (4) and the so-called “red compound,” 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6- trimethylchromene (5). Mallotophilippen F showed an IC50 of 16 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (39)
• Anticancer / GAPDH / Apoptotic and Antiproliferative Potential / Human Lung Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer potential of a purified seed protein from M. philippensis. The protein was identified using LC-MS/MS method and analyzed in vitro (A549 cell lines) in vivo (B16-F10 cells from melanoma cancer-induced Wistar rats) to estimate anticancer activity. MTT assay of GAPDH-treated A549 cells exhibited an IC50 of 3.03±0.39 µg/24h and 1.93±0.19/48h. AO/EtBr staining showed early and late apoptotic characteristics such as cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies GAPDH treatment also significantly increased levels of SOD, CAT, and GPx and reduced GST and GSH. Histopathology analysis confirmed nuclear alteration in lung tissue of treated groups. Results confirmed the apoptotic potential of GAPDH against lung carcinoma. (40)
• Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative / MCF-7 Cell Line / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis leaves for cytotoxic and apoptotic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The leaf extract reduced cell viability in a dose dependent manner. Results showed invitro cytotoxic potential and induced apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. (42)
• Antifungal / Antiproliferative / Fruits: Study of red colored extract from acetone extract of fresh whole uncrushed fruits of M. philippinensis yielded one new dimeric chalcone, kamalachalcone E (1) along with three known compounds 1-(5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-8-yl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (2), rottlerin (3) and 4′-hydroxyrottlerin (4). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for antifungal activity against different human pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi and antiproliferative activity against Thp-1 cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited IC50s of 8, 4, and 16 µg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans PRL518, C. neoformans ATCC32045 and Aspergiillus fumigatus, respectively. Compound 4 at 100 µg/mL showed 54% growth inhibition of Thp-1 cell lines. (45)
and induced apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. (42)
• Antimicrobial / Toxicological Study/ Fruit Hairs and Glands: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of hairs and glands covering the fruits of M. philippinensis for antimicrobial and toxicological screening. The extract was effective against all gram-positive cocci and bacilli used in the study. Gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A and P. aeruginosa and Candid albicans showed sensitivity. No mortality was observed at high dose of 1000 mg/kbw; however, male mice showed a significant decrease in weight. Histopathological studies indicated minor pathological changes in the kidney and liver of test animals. (46)
• Antidiabetic / Fruits: Study of methanolic extract of fruits exhibited potential antidiabetic activity, which was suggested by lowering of serum glucose level and significantly increased glucose tolerance. It also showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity, evidenced by lower serum cholesterol , LDL, and triglyceride levels and increased HDL cholesterol level. (see constituents above) (48)
• Protective in Aniline Induced Spleen Toxicity / Fruits: Study evaluated the protective effect of Mallotus philippensis on aniline induced spleen toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Aniline treated rats showed significant alterations in body weight and spleen weighty, hematological and tissue parameters. Treatment with EEMP showed attenuation of splenic toxicity induced by aniline, which may be due to its inhibitory potential of reactive oxygen species and potent free radical scavenging activity. (49)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Fruits: Study reports on the green and cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic extract of fruits of M. philippensis.  FTIR showed the presence of halides group, aliphatic amines group, alkynes, alcohols, and phenol groups. The AgNPs have potential applications in the biomedical field. (50)
• Cytotoxic Potential against Cancer Cell Lines / Bioactive Seed Proteins: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of seed crude proteins from M. philippensis against A5409, SW480, and MCF-7 cells lines. MTT assay showed decrease cell viability with IC50s of 4.18 µg to A549, 4.21 µg to SW480, and 8.99 µg to MCF-7 cells. The seed crude proteins did not exhibit toxicity in PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) but exhibited notable toxic effects against colon and lung cancer cells compared to breast cancer cells. (51)
• Cytokine Attenuation and Free Radical Scavenging / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of M. philippensis and a new flavanone isolated sing albino Wistar rats. Results showed the ME, EA fraction, and flavanone demonstrated significant reduction in carrageenan induced paw edema and diminished TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels. There was significant attenuation of malondialdehyde levels and increased activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue. There was significant decrease in granulo9oma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity attributed to inhibition of various cytokines and increased free radical scavenging activity. (52)
• Antiurolithiatic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic activity of alcoholic leaf extract of M. philippensis against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats. Treatment with doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced calcium, oxalate, and phosphate concentration in urine compared to control. Results showed antiurolithiatic effect evidenced by reduction and inhibition of growth of urinary stones. (53)
• Mallopenins / Antibacterial Phenolic Derivatives / Fruits: Study of acetone extract of M. philippensis fruits yielded five new phenolic compounds including two chalcones (1,3), a functionalized phloroglucinol (2), two flavanones (4,5) and six known compounds. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited significant antibacterial activities against M. luteus, S. mutans, B. cereus, S. aureus, and E. coli with MIC values ranging from 3.8 to 15.5 µM. (54)

- Wild-crafted.
- Supplement formulations and seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated December 2022 / April 2020 / December 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Mallotus philippensis - Red Kamala / Tatiana Gerus / Feb 2, 2010 / CC / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo-Fruit closeup / the ecosystem/ flora / (Red Kamala(Mallotus philippensis / Satish Nikam / Feb 27, 2011 / CC / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Ficheiro:Koeh-221.jpg / Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897 / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
An etheral extract of Kamala (Mallotus philippinensis (Moll.Arg) Lam.) seed induce adverse effects on reproductive parameters of female rats / Sonu Chand Thakur et al / Reproductive Toxicology • Volume 20, Issue 1, May-June 2005, Pages 149-156 / doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2004.12.008
Kamala or kamopillaka (Mallotus philippinensis Muell.) / Pankaj Oudhia / Society for Parthenium Management (SOPAM)
Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro. / Singh R, Singhal KC, Khan NU / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Oct;41(4):397-403.
Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants / R. S. L. Taylora et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 50, Issue 2, February 1996, Pages 97-102 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01335-0
Anti-allergic agents from natural sources / Anti-allergic activity of new phloroglucinol derivatives from Mallotus philippensis (Euphorbiaceae) / DAIKONYA Akihiro; KATSUKI Shigeki et al / Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin • 2002, vol. 50, no12, pp. 1566-1569
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of stem bark of Mallotus philippinensis var. Tomentosus / K Moorthy et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (13), pp. 1521-1523, 4 July 2007 /AJB ISSN 1684–5315
Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. / Kumar V P et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):182-8. Epub 2006 Mar 27.
Handbook of medicinal herbs / James A. Duke, Mary Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin
Effect of Mallotus Philippensis Muell.-Arg leaves against hepatotoxicity of Carbon tetrachloride in rats / Ramakrishna. S. et al. / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)
, 2021; 2(2): pp 74-83 / ISSN: 0975-9492
Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Fractions of Mallotus philippinensis Bark Extract / Muhammad Arfan, Hazrat Amin et al / Czech J. Food Sci.
, 2009; 27(2): pp 109–117
Antineoplastic activity of Mallotus philippensis / prr.hec.gov.pk
/ Jayaraman Velanganni, Devarsenapathi Kadamban et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 2, 2011
Sorting Mallotus Names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Study on a Bioactive Unknown Alkaloid Compound from the Root of Mallotus philippinensis (Lamk) Muell /
Myint Myint Htay
/ Universities Research Journal 2011, Vol. 4, No. 3
EFFECT OF KAMPILLAKA (Mallotus philippinensis) CHURNA ON INTESTINAL WORMS/ Mukesh Kumar Dubey, Vivek Agarwal / Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol.2, No.1 (2013) Pp 1-5
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull.Arg / Synonyms / The Plant List
Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae): Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry Review /
Mayank Gangwar, R. K. Goel, and Gopal Nath / BioMed Research International, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/213973
A Review on Endangered plant of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) M.Arg. / Jaya Sharma*, Dr.Ranjana Varma / Pharmacologyonline 3: 1256-1265 (2011)
Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg fruit glandular hairs extract promotes wound healing on different wound model in rats / Gangwar M, Gautam MK, Ghildiyal S, Nath G, Goel RK / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Apr 17;15:123. / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0647-y.
In-vitro scolicidal activity of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell Arg. fruit glandular hair extract against hydatid cyst Echinococcus granulosus / Mayank Gangwar, Vijay C Verma, Tryambak D Singh, Sushil K Singh, RK Goel, Gopal Nath / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2013, Pages 595–601
Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity /
Musa Khan, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi, Masroor Hussain, Khalid Mehmood and Rahmat Ali Khan* / Chemistry Central Journal 2013, 7:157 / doi:10.1186/1752-153X-7-157
Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of various fractions of Mallotus philippensis Muell. / Shafiullah Khan / Journal of medicinal plant research, 11/2013; 7(41):3066-3070. / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2013.5182
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIM ALS / S. Nithyapriya, A.C.Tangavelou and S. Karthikeyan / Int. J. Modn. Res. Revs., 2015; 3(1): pp 604-607 /
ISSN: 2347-8314
An Open Comparative Randomized Clinical Study of Plant Based Drugs Embelia Robusta Roxb and Mallotus Philippinensis Muell on Intestinal Parasites / Shishira Bharadwaj, Shraddha Nayak* & Joshi VK / J Gastroint Dig Syst 2013, 3:1 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-069X.1000122
Detection of anti-tuberculosis activity in some folklore plants by radiometric BACTEC assay
/ V.K. Gupta, C. Shukla, G.R.S. Bisht, D. Saikia, S. Kumar and R.L. Thakur / Letters in Applied Microbiology 52, 33–40 a 2010
Semisynthesis of Mallotus B from Rottlerin: Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity / Shreyans K. Jain, Anup S. Pathania, Samdarshi Meena, Rajni Sharma, Ashok Sharma, Baljinder Singh, Bishan D. Gupta, Shashi Bhushan, Sandip B. Bharate, and Ram A. Vishwakarma / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (9), pp 1724–1730 / DOI: 10.1021/np400433g
Herbal medicines used to cure various ailments by the inhabitants of Abbottabad district, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan / Arshad Mehmood Abbasi et al / Indian Journal of Tranditional knowledge, Vol 9(1), Jan 2010, Pp 175-183
Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Fruits of Mallotus philuppenensis (Lam.) Muell-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) / Kadam Prasad Vijay, Bhingare Chandrashekhar Laxman, Soni Surajkumar Bansilal, Rathi Sandesh Ashok / Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation
Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg. / Madhavi Adhav / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 3(5): 188-191

/ MAYANK GANGWAR, ARUNDHATI DALAI, AMRENDRA CHAUDHARY, TRYAMBAK D SINGH, SUSHIL KUMAR SINGH, R K GOEL, GOPAL NATH / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Suppl 1, 2012
ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIDANGADI CHURNA / SAJITH MOHANDAS*, SREEKUMAR T.R, VISHNU PRAKASH / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 6, Issue 3 (2013)
Current scenario of urolithiasis and the use of medicinal plants as antiurolithiatic agents in Manipur (North East India): A Review / Khaling Mikawlrawng, Suresh Kumar, Vandana / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2014; 2 (1): 1-12
Screening of local medicinal plant extracts against multi drugs resistance bacteria / Sayed Abdullah, Muhammad Nadeem / International Journal of Bioassays 5.10 (2016): 4985-4992
Mallotus / Wikipedia
Mallotus philippensis: A miracle stiick
/ I P Tripathi, Poonam Chaudhary, Poonam Pandey / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 6(7): 678-687 / ISSN: 2277-7105
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg.: A review on its pharmacology and phytochemistry / Abhishek Kumar, Meenu Patil, Pardeep Kumar et al / Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology, 2021; 10(1): pp 31-50 /
DOI: 10.34172/jhp.2021.03
Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Rottlerin from Mallotus philippensis Using a Highly Sensitive Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Bioanalytical Method
/ Diksha Manhas, Abhishek Gour, Nivedita Bhardwaj, Utpal Nandi et al /  ACS Omega, 2021; 6(48): pp 32637-32646 / DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c04266
Anti-tuberculosis Compounds from Mallotus philippinensis / Qi Hong, David E Minter, Manfred G Reinecke et al / NPC: Natural Product Communications, 2010; 5(2): pp 211-217
Apoptotic and Antiproliferative Potential of GAPDH from Mallotus philippensis Seed on Human Lung Carcinoma: In Vitro and In Vivo Approach / Periasamy Sakthidhasan, Perumal Satish Kumar, Madepalli Byrappa Gowdu Viswanathan / Protein & Peptide Letters, 2022; 29(4): pp 340-349 /
DOI: 10.2174/092986652966622030210435
Kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis) / Dr. Gupta / IAFA: Institute of Applied Food Allergy: AYURVEDA
Cytotoxic and antiproliferative potential of methanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis in MCF-7 cell line / Bemitha Benny, S Sandesh Krishna, Sujith Samraj, Preethy John, Uma Radhakrishnan / The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2022; 11(2): pp 60-63 / DOI: 10.31254/phyto.2022.11202 / ISSH: 2320-480X
Mallotus philippensis / Wikipedia
A Review on Endangered plant of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) M. Arg / Jaya Sharma, Dr Ranjana Varma / Pharmacologyonline, 2011; 3: pp 1256-1265
Antifungal dimeric chalcone derivative kamalachacone E from Mallotus philippinensis
/ Roshan R Kulkarni, Santosh G Tupe, Dhi9man Sarkar, Mukund V Deshpande et al / Natural Product Research, 2014; 28(4): pp 245-250 / DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2013.843178
Antimicrobial and toxicological studies on Mallotus philippensis (Kamala powder) / D lnawax Shaikh, Jajanzeb Shaikh et al / International Journal of Pharmacy / ISSN: 2249-1848 / CODEN: IJPNL6
A New Lignan Dimer from Mallotus philippensi
/ Nguyen Thi Mai, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Phan Van Kiem et al / Natural Product Communications / DOI: 10.1177/1934578X1000500317
Pharmacological effects of Mallotus philippensis extracts of fruits in streptozotocin induced type-2 diabetes / Archana B Pharm, D Swamycharan M Pharm, PhD / International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research, 2020; 4(2): pp 193-200 / ISSN: 2521-2206
Protective effect of alcoholic fruit extract of Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg in aniline induced spleen toxicity in rats / G Sumithira, V Kavya, Emil Mariya Shaji, T Shyamjith et al /  International Journal of Farmacia, 2017; 3(2): pp 73-83
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Ethanolic Fruit Extracts of Mallotus philippensis / Malarkodi Velraj, P Jasmine Shiney, Biplab Paul, Rashmi S, Nivethitha / Research J Pharm and Tech, 2017; 10(1): pp 21-25 / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00006.3
Cytotoxic potential of bioactive seed proteins from Mallotus philippensis against various cancer cell lines
/ Saklthidhasan, Periasamy; Perumal Sathish Kumar,  Madepalli Byrappa Gowdu Viswanathan / Applied Nanoscience, 2021 /  DOI: 10.1007/s13204-021-01974-6
Cytokine Attenuation and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of a New Flavnone, 4'-Dihydroxy-3",3"-Dimethyl-(5,6-Pyrano-2"-One)-8-(3''',3'''-Dimethyl Allyl)- Isolated from Mallotus philippensis: Possible Mechanism for Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity / Waseem Rizvi, Mohd Fayazuddin, Ompal Singh, Syed Shariq Naeem, Shagufta Moin, Kafil Akhtar, Anil Kumar / PLOS ONE, 11(12: e0167294 /
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167294
Antiurolithiatic Activity of Alcoholic Leaf Extract of Mallotus philippensis Lam. against Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis in Rats / Timir B Patel, Dharmesh K Golwala, Santosh Kumar Vaidya / AEGAEUM jourmal, 2020; 8(4) / ISSN: 0776-3808

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL