Bangkal is a smooth tree, 7 to 16 meters
high. The leaves are leathery, elliptic to oblong-ovate, 11 to 25 centimeters long,
blunt-tipped and rounded or heart-shaped at the base. Stipules are green,
ovate to elliptic, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers heads are solitary, peduncles and terminal,
4 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Flowers are white.
- In secondary forests at
low and medium altitudes from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya.
- Cultivated for ornamental purposes.
- Bioassay-guided fractionation of dried stems yielded two novel tetrahydro-beta-carboline monoterpene alkaloid glucosides, naucleaorine and epimethoxynaucleaorine, together with known compounds, strictosidine lactam , 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol, 3alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, 3alpha,23-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 3alpha,19alpha,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid methyl ester, and oleanolic acid.
- Roots yielded new naucleidinal derivative along with nine known compounds consisting of six indole alkaloids [naucleficine (1), naucleactonin A (2), naucleidinal (3), 19-epi-naucleidinal (5), strictosamide (6), and pumiloside (7)], two secoiridoids [aligenoside (8) and sweroside (9)], and vanillic acid (10) were isolated from the roots of Nauclea orientalis.
(See study below).
- Study of dried stem is
- Emetic, vulnerary.
- Considered antimalarial, anticancer.
- Fruits are edible, though bitter tasting. Eaten by indigenous Australians.
- Fruits palatable to bats and birds. In Malaysia, one of the food sources of proboscis monkeys.
- Used to treat wounds.
Leaves applied to boils
- Bark decoction for diarrhea and toothaches.
- Elsewhere, bark used as ingredient in birth control concoctions.
- Bark infusions used as emetic. Used to treat stomachaches and animal bites.
- Aboriginal people of North Queensland crush the fruits in water
to use as baby food; also used for coughs, colds, stomach pains and
- In Laos, decoction of dried stem (chipped stem wood and stem bark) mixed with two other plants used to treat fatigue
- Dye: In Otaheite, leaves used as ingredient in the red dye, or matte, for cloth.
- Lumber: Timber is not durable to weather exposure. Used for frames, internal floorboards, making canoes, woodcarving, papermaking.
• Antimalarial : Phytochemical analysis
isolated two novel tetrahydro-B-carboline monoterpene alkaloid glucosides:
naucleaorine and epimethoxynaucleaorine, together with five other known compounds. Some compounds showed moderate in vitro
activities against Plasmodium falcifarum.
• Phytochemicals: New Indole
Alkaloids from the Bark of Nauclea orientalis:
Four new alkaloids, nauclealines A and B and naucleosides A and B, together
with six known compounds were isolated from the bark of Nauclea orientalis.
/ Alkaloids: Study yielded nine indole alkaloids from
ammoniacal extracts of Nauclea orientalis. The compounds were found
to exhibit in vitro anti-prolilferative activity against human bladder
carcinoma T-24 cell line and epidermal growth-factor-dependent mouse
• Anthelmintic: Various extracts of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma). The extracts exhibited dose-dependent action with inhibition of spontaneous motility and death of earthworms.
• Cytotoxic Indole Alkaloids: Study yielded a pair of new isomeric indole alkaloids, naucleaoral A and B from the roots. Naucleaoral A showed significant cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, while compound B showed very modest cytotoxicity against both HeLa and KV cell lines.
• Antioxidant: Study of ethanol extract of leaves showed significant antioxidant activity which was attributed to the phenolic constituents.
• Roots / Constituents / Cytotoxicity: Roots yielded a new naucleidinal derivative along with nine known compounds consisting of six indole alkaloids. (See constituents above) The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity on HeLa and KB cell lines.