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Family Liliaceae
Allium sativum L.
Hsiao Suan

Scientific names Common names
Allium controversum Schrad. ex Willd. Ahos (Bis.) 
Allium longicuspis Regel Bawang (Tag.)
Allium ophioscorodon Link Bauang (Tag.)
Allium pekinense Prokhanov Common garlic (Engl.)
Allium sativum Linn. Garlic (Engl.)
Porum ophioscorodon (Link) Rchb. Nectar of the Gods (Engl.)
Porum sativum (L.) Rchb. [Illegitimate] Poor Man's Treacle (Engl.)
  Stinking Rose (Engl.) 
Allium sativum L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Thawm, Thoum, Thum, Toom, Toum, Saum.
ARMENIAN: Sekhdor.
BURMESE: Chyet thon phew.
CHINESE: Suan, Da suan, Da suan tou, Hsiao suan.
CROATIAN: Češnjak.
DANISH: Hvidløg.
DUTCH: Knoflook.
FINNISH: Valkosipuli.
FRENCH: Ail blanc, Ail commun, Ail cultivé, Ail de printemps, Ail sans bâton, Ail rose sans bâton.
GERMAN: Echter Knoblauch, Knoblauch, Gemeiner Knoblauch, Gewöhnlicher Knoblauch.
GREEK: Skorda, Skordo, Skordon, Skortho.
HEBREW: Shoum, Shum.
HINDI: Lahasun, Lahsan, Larsan, Lasun.
ITALIAN: Aglio, Aglio comune.
JAPANESE: Gaarikku, Ninniku.
KANNADA: Bellulli, Lashuna.
KHMER: Khtüm sââ.
KOREAN: Ma nul.
LAOTIAN: Kath'ièm.
MADURESE: Bhabang poté.
MALAY: Bawang putih, Bawang puteh.
MALAYALAM: Vallaipundu.
MARATHI: Lasuun.
PERSIAN: Seer, Sir.
POLISH: Czosnek, Czosnek pospolity.
PUNJABI: Lasun, Lasan.
RUSSIAN: Luk chesnok, Chesnok, Luk posevnoi..
SANSKRIT: Lashunaa.
SERBIAN: Beli luk.
SINHALESE: Sudulunu.
SPANISH: Ajo, Ajo comun, Ajo vulgar.
SUNDANESE: Bawang bodas.
SWAHILI: Kitunguu saumu.
SWEDISH: Vitlök, Vitloek, Hvitlök.
TAMIL: Vellaypoondoo, Vellaippuuntu, Wullaypoondoo.
TELUGU: Vellulli.
THAI: Krathiam, Hom tiam.
TURKISH: Sarımsak, Sarmesak, Sarmusak.
URDU: Leshun.

Bawang is a low herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. True stem is much reduced. Bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter, consisting of several, densely crowded, angular and truncated tubers. Leaves are linear and flat. Umbels are globose, many flowered. Sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple. Stamens are not exerted from the perianth.

- Extensively grown in Batangas, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Norte, Mindoro, and Cotobato.
- A native of southern Europe.
- Now widely cultivated in most parts of the world.

• Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and minerals. The sulfur compounds are responsible for the pungent odor and many of its medicinal effects.
• Saponins; tannins; sulfurous compounds; prostaglandins; alkaloids; volatile oils; allicin (bulb).
• The antihelmintic property is due to allyl disulphide content.
• The most important chemical constituents are the cysteine sulfoxides (alliin) and the nonvolatile glutamylcysteine peptides which make up more than 82% of the sulfur content of garlic. Allicin, ajoenes and sulfides are degradation products of alliin.
Some of garlic's effect is attributed to alicin, its active ingredient, which is converted to ajoene, allyl sulfides and vinyldithiins.
• Allicin (dially thiosulfinate or dially disulfide) is generated only when the garlic is crushed or cut, which activates the enzyme allinase which metabolizes alliin to allicin.
• Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allycysteine.
• Bulb: allicin; volatile oil, 0.9% - allyl disulfide, allypropyl disulfide; inulin; protein; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 0.2%; ash, 9.4%; choline, 0.7%; myrosinase.
• Leaves: Protein, i.2%; fat, 0.5%; sulfides.

• Proximate analysis of bulb extract g/100g yielded carbohydrate (66.0%), protein (16.23%), fats (2.44%), crude fiber (03.96%), moisture (5.52%) and ash (05.85%). Mineral analysis yielded calcium (23.40%), [potassium (10.95%), magnesium (3.90%), zinc (0.44%), phosphorus (9.85%), iron (5.20%), and copper (0.05%). (54)
- Nutrient value per 100g yields: 623 kkJ (149kcal), carbohydrates 33.06 g, sugars 1 g, dietary fiber 2.1 g, protein 6.36 g; (Vitamins) thiamine/B1 0.2 mg riboflavin/B2 0.11 mg, niacin/B3 0.7 mg, pantothenic acid/B5 0.596 mg, vitamin B6 1.235 g, folate/B9 3 µg, vitamin C 31.2 mg; (Minerals) calcium 181 mg, iron 1.7 mg, magnesium 25 mg, manganese 1.672 mg, phosphorus 153 mg, potassium 401 mg, sodium 17 mg, zinc 1,16 mg. (USDA Nutrient Database) (66)

• Considered antibacterial, anthelmintic, antimycotic, antiviral, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, fibrinolytic, hypotensive, promoting leucocytosis, lipid lowering and platelet aggregation inhibition.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer, chemopreventive, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, analgesic, virucidal, nephroprotective, anti-H. pylori, repellent properties.

Parts utilized
Bulbs: Features prominently as a condiment and flavor in Filipino cuisine.
Herbalists, with concerns that cooking diminishes medicinal potency, recommends eating raw garlic cloves.

Edibility / Culinary
- Widely used by Filipinos for flavoring dishes.
- In the Philippines, bulbs used for hypertension. Also used as diuretic, and eaten fresh or burned for coughs in children.
- Arthritis, rheumatism, toothaches: Crush several cloves and rub on affected areas.
- Crush clove applied to both temples as poultice for headache.
- Crush garlic or cut clove crosswise and rub directly to areas of insect bites.
- Decoction of leaves and bulbs for fever and as hypotensive, carminative, expectorant, and antihelmintic.
- Juice from freshly crushed garlic used for colds, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, asthma and bronchitis.
- Decoction use for tonsillitis.
- Steam inhalation of chopped garlic and a teaspoon of vinegar in boiling water used for nasal congestion.
- Fresh garlic has been used as a complement to INH therapy for tuberculosis. In Mexico, fresh bulb is eaten as a preventive for tuberculosis.
- In India, garlic juice diluted in water, applied externally to prevent hair from turning grey.
- Diluted juice used for earaches and deafness.
- In the Antilles, used as vermifuge.
- Also used for menstrual cramps.
- Used for digestive problems and gastrointestinal spasms.
- Infusion of a peeled broiled clove used for gas pains.
- Juice of bulb with common salt applied to bruises and sprains; also used for neuralgia and earache.
- Rubbed over ringworm for soothing effect.
- In WWI, fresh raw juice was used as antiseptic for control of wound suppuration.

• Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic: Topically, ajoene 0.4% cream, has been found 70% effective in certain dermatologic fungal infections. A 0.6% gel was effective in tinea corporis and tinea cruris.
Anticandidal: Study on the mode of action of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) against Candida albicans showed garlic treatment affected the structure and integrity of the outer surface of the yeast cells. Growth was affected in a number of ways: decreased total lipid content, higher phosphatidylserines and lower phosphatidylcholines, and decrease oxygen consumption of AGE-treated C. albicans. AGE exerts its effect by oxidation of thiol groups causing enzyme inactivation and subsequent microbial growth inhibition.
Antihypertensive: Studies suggest a beneficial antihypertensive effect but blood-lowering effects probably not dramatic. Other studies show a vascular benefit through improvement of aortic elasticity and possible slowing of the rate of atherosclerosis progression.
Antihyperlipidemia / Antioxidant:Controversial, but probably has beneficial effect on serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Some studies have shown a 4% to 12% lowering of total cholesterol. It seems to have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL).
Hypocholesterolemic / Fresh Bulbs: Study of feeding of fresh garlic bulbs to induced-hypercholesterolemic rats showed decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and increase in HDL levels.
Lipid Profile Benefits: Study concluded that garlic extracts may have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status. (7) Study evaluated the effect of Allium sativum on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in guinea pigs. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts showed significant hypolipidemic activity with significant reduction in triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc and atherogenic index. (36)
Anti-cancer / Chemoprotective: Possible anticarcinogenic properties, specifically colon, stomach and prostate cancers— in stomach cancers, probably through its inhibitory effect on H. pylori. In epidemiologic studies on stomach and colorectal cancer prevention, the garlic use was 3.5 grams to 30 grams of fresh or cooked garlic per week. • Studies provide ample evidence for a role of garlic in cancer prevention. The tumor inhibition may be through compounds like organosulfur in garlic.
Effect on Salivary Gland Tumorigenesis: Study showed garlic may have an adjuvant effect on various defense mechanisms against -induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary salivary glands of rat through increased availability or utilization of beta-carotene.
Hepatoprotective / Hematologic Effects: Study results on female Wistar rats suggest garlic and vitamin C have some hepatoprotective and hematological effects. (3)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the effect of increasing doses of A. sativum aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed promising hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Glibenclamide was used as standard.
(29) Study results of ethanolic extracts of AS in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suggest that A. sativum can be considered an excellent candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.
Sperm Immobilization Activity : Study of crude extract of A. sativum bulb showed spermicidal activity in vitro.
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Treatment: A trial showed garlic may improve oxygenation and symptoms in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
Anti-Thrombotic Activity : Study of extracts of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina showed both extracts offered protection against thrombosis produced by an intravenous injection of ADP and adrenalin, with A sativum showing the stronger activity.
Diallyl Sulfide / Anti-Cancer: Study showed diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, when given by gavage to mice, inhibited by 74% the incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine.
Cardiovascular Benefits: Garlic is an ideal herb with its several cardiovascular benefits: blood pressure lowering, antihyperlipidemic effects, platelet inhibition and fibrinolytic effects, antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic effects.
Antibacterial / Anti-Staph aureus: Study of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
Antitumorigenesis: Study showed garlic oil may have an adjuvant effect on host defense mechanisms against DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in sub-maxillary glands of rat through increased availability and utilization of beta-carotene.
Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from juices of Allium species merit consideration. (17)
Antioxidant: In a study using DPPH scavenging method, raw garlic extract showed a color change from deep violet to yellow, indicating antioxidant activity.
Essential Oil / Antibacterial / Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Essential oil extract from Allium sativum bulbs showed inhibitory activity on growth of over 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains tested.
Antibacterial / Garlic and Ginger Comparative Study: In a study comparing the antimicrobial potency of various extracts of garlic and ginger, results showed all the bacterial strains to be most susceptible to garlic aqueous extract while showing poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract.
Chemoprevention: Experimental studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of tumor growth.
Anti-Ulcer: Study showed the protective role of raw Nigelia sativa, garlic, and onion against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, garlic or onion significantly inhibited histamine stimulated acid secretion. Raw Nigella sativa and garlic showed a decrease in ulcer index. Boiling reduced the potency of garlic and onion. (23)
Allyl Alcohol and Garlic in Oxidative Stress Effects on C. Albicans: Study evaluated on the effects of purified constituents, in particular, allyl alcohol, a metabolic product that accumulates after titration of garlic cloves on anticandidal activities. Typical changes of oxidative stress were observed—NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species.
Antimicrobial Effects with Combined Extracts: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (A. sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) against S. aureus, Bacillus spp., E. coli and Salmonella spp. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger did not inhibit any of the test organisms. The highest inhibition zone was seen with combination of extracts on Staphylococcus aureus. (25)
Antibacterial Against Multiple-Drug Resistant Pathogens / Cloves: Ethanol extracts of cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger showed effective antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens. The highest inhibition zone observed with garlic was against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (26)
Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Pressure in Essential Hypertension: Study evaluated the effect of garlic on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Study showed a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressure in a dose- and duration-dependent manner, when compared to atenolol and placebo. (27)
Improved Diabetic Control with Garlic Supplementation: Study evaluated the potential effect of garlic in T2DM with the addition of garlic tablets to standard antidiabetic therapy. Results showed the combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic remedy improved glycemic control in addition to an antihyperlipidemic activity. (28)
Anthelmintic: An alcoholic extract of bulb of A. sativum has shown moderate in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. (20) Study evaluated methanol extracts of various plant materials of ethnoveterinary importance in Pakistan, including A. sativum, for in vitro anthelmintic activity. All the studied plants showed anthelmintic activity. (
Analgesic / Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-nociceptive effects of Allium sativum powder in animal models. Results showed the ASP to be effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting possible peripheral and central mechanisms as well as peripheral pathways through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. (
Immune System Enhancement / Black Garlic: Study evaluated black garlic—created from ordinary fresh garlic—for antitumor activity. Heat extracts of black garlic were rich in S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and enforced anti-tumor activity with a 50% cure rate of BALB/c mouse fibrosarcoma. The black garlic enhanced cellular immunity by raising the activity of NK (natural killer cell) cells which may play a critical role in eradication of tumor cells inn vivo. There was also generation of cytokines of NO, IFN-y, IL-2, and TNF-a from the extract-treated mouse spleen cells. (
Antihypertensive : Study evaluated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous extracts of garlic on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one clip model. Aqueous garlic extracts caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely peripheral hypotensive mechanism. (
Effect on the Pharmacokinetic of Metformin / Herb-Drug Interaction: Study evaluated the pharmacokinetic interactions of Metformin with Allium sativum. Allium sativum altered the pharmacokinetics of Metformin in rats, increasing bioavailability by significantly increasing its Cmax and AUC0-12hr and a slight increase in t1/2. (
34) Study evaluated the effect of garlic on metformin in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Effect on Liver Glycogen Deposition and Gonadal Protein Metabolism: Study evaluated the effect of garlic extract on glycogen deposition in the liver and protein metabolism in gonads of female albino rats. Results showed a significant increase in glycogen and protein level on low and medium dose of garlic extract, with a significant decrease in glycogen level with high dose of extract. The quantity of protein depends on rate of protein synthesis or on rate of degradation. (
Pharmacodynamic Interaction with Cilostazol in Diabetic Patients: Garlic is known to have antiplatelet properties. Garlic showed significant inhibition of platelet aggregation. Cilostazol showed significant inhibition at all three time points tested. In the randomized, open label, placebo-controlled, crossover study of type II diabetes patients, coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not produce any significant change in the antiplatelet activity of the individual drugs. (
Virucidal: Garlic has been shown to have antiviral activity. Study identified garlic associated compounds: diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thiosulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, ajoene, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide. Activity was determined against selected viruses including, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human rhinovirus type 2. Virucidal activity was: ajoene > allicin > allyl methyl thiosulfinate > methyl allyl thiosulfinate. Results indicate virucidal activity and cytotoxicity may depend upon the viral envelope and cell membrane, respectively. (
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage: Study showed administration of A. sativum extracts protected against paracetamol liver damage in rats. (
• Nephroprotective / Cisplatin Toxicity: Study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant and nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of garlic against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar male rats. Cisplatin induction decreased renal antioxidants with associated increase in kidney weight, lipid peroxidation and serum kidney markers. Treatment exhibited a protective effect as evidenced by boosting of antioxidant levels and markers reverting back to near normalcy. (41)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Pseudomonas / Anti-Staph: Study evaluated the effect of crude preparation of garlic on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed the targeting of bacterial cell wall and bacteriolytic action of the extract. The extract appeared to interfere with DNA and RNA synthesis. (42)
• Effect on Systolic Blood Pressure / Pilot Study: Pilot study showed individuals with blood pressures on the lower side are more likely to consume more garlic in their diets. Findings were statistically significant for systolic blood pressure only. The average garlic use was 134 grams per month; 67 % of use was cooked in foods while the rest consumed it in raw form or in pickles. (43)
• Processed Black Garlic / Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Potency / Antibacterial: Black garlic processed from ordinary white garlic clove in temperature- and humidity-controlled conditions showed enhanced anti-tumor potency. The aged black garlic yielded an increased amount of amino acids and organo-sulfur substance, S-allyl-L.cysteine (SAC), which might have contributed to the anti-tumor potency. Tumor cure rate was 50% against Meth A fibrosarcoma of BALB/c mouse. (44)
• Antifibrinolytic: The fibrinolytic system dissolves fibrin clots in circulation. Study showed the garlic extract exhibited fibrinolytic effect. Minimum concentration and maximum time showed the best results. (45)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihypercholesterolemic /Combination with Ginger: Study evaluated the single and combined effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed the combined use of garlic and ginger is more effective in controlling hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia compared to either one alone. (46)
• Hypocholesterolemia: Study evaluated the effect of garlic supplementation on reducing cholesterol levels on 50 healthy patients given 3 g of raw garlic daily for a period of 90 days. Results showed a significant decrease in cholesterol levels: 13% (p<0.001) from 269.30 to 233.93 mg/dL in male patients and 10% (p<0.001) from 260.30 to 233.90 mg/dL in female patients. (47)
• H. pylori Inhibition: Study investigated the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic against Helicobacter pylori. The concentration of AGE (aqueous garlic extract) required to inhibit bacterial growth was between 2-5 mg/ml. Boiling and heat treatment reduced the efficacy of the AGE. An antibacterial synergistic effect was seen in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole) in rate of 250:1. (48)
• Effect on Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Heat-Stressed Mice: Study evaluated the effects of garlic extract on reproductive hormones in female mice under heat stress. Results showed significant increase in estrogen and progesterone levels and suggests potential to neutralize negative effects of stress affecting the pituitary-gonadal axis and ovarian hormonal secretion. (49)
• Benefit in Type 2 DM Patients / Powder and Aqueous Extract of Bulbs: Study showed both dry powdered plant and aqueous extract of bulbs of Allium sativum decrease blood and urine glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in the group taking oral hypoglycemics with inadequate blood glucose control. (50)
• Effect of Supplementation on Biomarkers and Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis / Clinical Trial: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of garlic supplementation on serum levels of some inflammatory biomarkers, clinical symptoms, and fatigue in women with active rheumatoid arthritis. After intervention, serum levels of CRP and TNF-a were significantly decreased. Pain intensity, tender joint count, disease activity score and fatigue were significantly decreased. Swollen joint count was decreased. No significant changes were observed for ESR. The improvement in inflammatory mediators and clinical symptoms suggest potential use of garlic as adjunct therapy in patients with RA. (51)
Antifungal / Aspergillus sp in Otomycosis: Otomycosis is due to saprophytic fungi in a small percentage of otitis externa. Study evaluated the efficacy of garlic extracts against fungi of the genus Asergillus. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and concentrated garlic oil (CGO) were used in the in vitro study. AGE and especially CGO showed antifungal activity with similar or better inhibitory effects than pharmaceutical preparations. (52)
Ajoene / Antimicrobial, Antithrombotic, Cytotoxic: Ajoene, an organosulfur garlic compound, was extracted and evaluated for antithrombotic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects. Ajoene showed the ability to dose-dependently inhibit microbial growth. Antithrombotic activity was visually confirmed by reduction in the size of the blood clot. Cytotoxicity testing showed non toxicity to VERO cells. (53)
Co-Administration of Garlic and Black Seed (Nigella sativa) in Dyslipidemia / Clinical Trial: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the therapeutic effect of combination of blackseed with garlic for treatment of dyslipidemia. Results showed the combination was effective in correction of dyslipidemia and suggests large scale clinical trials to compare different doses. (56)
Effect on Male Fertility: Systematic review studies the effects of garlic on male fertility in accordance with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. A total of 18 experimental studies were included; 13 evaluated garlic and 5 compared garlic effect with various chemicals. All studies were conducted in invivo condition. Results indicated the potential effect of garlic on enhancing fertility and spermatogenesis, increasing the level of testosterone and improving testicular structure. Garlic can increase fertility probably due to its antioxidant properties. (57)
Effect of Combined Herbal Formulation on Female Rat Fertility: Study evaluated the efficacy of Allium sativum, Curcuma mangga, and Acorus calamus extract combination on female rat fertility. All treatment compositions affected reproductive hormone and uterine histology profile. The composition of 36% A. sativum, 36% C. mangga, 28% A. calamus produced the highest estrogen and progesterone levels. Results suggest the combination therapy could be used to increase fertility in female rat. (58)
Effect on Biofim Formation / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms using disc diffusion method. Results showed the extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, the MICs of 0.078-25 mg/ml confirmed the high ability of the extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. The extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures in a concentration directly related to the inhibitory effect. Results suggest the extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms. (
Suppression of Cytokine Production in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study evaluated the possible therapeutic effects of garlic in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Via inhibition of Th1 while upregulating IL-10 production, garlic extract treatment may help resolve inflammation associated with IBD. An invivo animal model determine the significance of these findings. (60)
Toxicity and Repellency / Tribolium castaneum: Study evaluated the repellent activity and fumigant toxicity of garlic extract against larvae and adults of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The extract exhibited mortality that increased with increasing concentration and time. Results showed lethal and repellent effects of the extracts on T. castaneum. (61)
Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitory: Study evaluated the inhibition efficiency of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn by mass loss method. The formulation of 2 ml garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn offered 70% inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. FTIR spectra showed the protective film consists of Fe2+-allicin complex and Zn(OH)2. (62)
Antibacterial Against Human Dental Plaque Microbiota: In-vitro study the antibacterial effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 100%) of garlic extract against human dental plaque microbiota viz. Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus spp. Results showed all bacterial strains were inhibited by all test materials. Since all concentrations had similar effects further studies were suggested for the 5% extract. (63)
Alleviation of Tebuconazole-Induced Liver Oxidative Stress: Study -evaluated the protective effect of Allium sativum oil against tebuconazole (TEB)-induced oxidative stress in the liver of adult rats. Results showed significant changes in some hematological parameters, along with changes in total cholesterol level and activities of hepatic enzymes ALS, , LDH, ALP) and 7-glutamyl transpeptidase. The co-administration of of ASO improved the status of all studied parameters, The protective effects against TEB-iduced liver injury was attributed to phenolic compounds. ( 64)
Protective in Lead-Induced Hepatic and Testicular Damage / Combined A. sativum and Zingiber officinale: Study -evalu
ated the protective effects of combined aqueous extracts pf Allium sativum and Z. officinale against lead acetate-induced hepatic and testicular damage. Results showed a synergistic effect of A. sativum and Z. officinale in ameliorating the lead acetate induced hepatic and testicular damage as well as reduction in blood lead level in the rats. The synergisms may add to the reservoir of pharmaceutical and chemical templates for the exploration of new drugs. (65)
Potent Anti-Bacillus anthracis Activity: Anthrax, a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, remains an important but relatively neglected endemic disease of animals and humans in remote areas of the Indian subcontinent. Study evalu
ated commonly available edible plants used in traditional medicine for anti-Bacillus anthracis activity in a form amenable to use in endemic areas. Garlic (Allium sativum) was identified as the most promising candidate with bactericidal activity against Bacillus anthracis, consistently inhibiting its growth in agar-well diffusion assay and decreased viable colony forming units. GC-MS analysis of bioactive fractions showed the presence of phthalic acid derivatives, acid esters, phenyl group containing compounds, steroids, etc. The AGE displayed acceptable thermostability (>80%) anti-B. anthracis activity without antagonizing the activity of FDA-approved antibiotics used for anthrax control. Authors suggested further exploration of possible applications/use of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in preventing anthrax incidences in endemic areas. (67)
Antimicrobial Against Periodontal Pathogens: Study evaluated the efficacy of Psidium guajava and Allium sativum on periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Results showed both plants displayed significant antibacterial effect
. The aqueous garlic extract (AGE) showed greater bacteriosatatic activity against P. gingivalis with MIC of 16.6 µK/mL. (68)
Inhibitory Activity Against S. pyogenes and P. aeruginosa: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of Allium sativum against Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed antibacterial activity with the extract showing greater effect on P. aeruginosa. (69)
Natural Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome: The major features of Metabolic Syndrome includes central obesity, hypertriglyceredemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Study investigated the effect of garlic extract on the risk factors in metabolic syndrome patients along with conventional treatment. Results showed significantly improved glycemic control and HbA1c in the study group, along with improved lipid profile. Garlic can be used as adjunct therapy with diet and medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. (70)
Effect of Pre- and Post-Harvest Conditions on Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds: Garlic is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables throughout the world, either raw for culinary purposes or as ingredient in traditional and modern medicine. It has been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds among usually consumed vegetables. The review examines all aspects related to chemical composition and quality. The quality of garlic, expressed by chemical composition and bioactive compounds content, is highly dependent of both pre- and post-harvest conditions. Chemical compounds studied include (E)-ajoene, (Z)-ajoene, allicin, alliin, allixin, y-glutamyl-S-2-kpropenyl cysteine, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, methyl allyl disulfide, S=allyl cysteine, and 1,2-vinyldiithin. Maximum quality is affected by cultivation practices, genotype selection, growing conditions, the processing chain. and genetic variability among different garlic population and germplasm content of bioactive compounds. (71)
Inhibitory Activity on Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus mutans: Study evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg/ml. Study data suggest that mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries. (72)

Anticoagulant Use: Reports have suggested that garlic may decrease platelet aggregation and have antifibrinolytic activity; therefore, should be used with caution in patients on anticoagulant therapy.
Induction of Cytochrome P450-34A: Concern for patients on cyclosporine and protease inhibitors. May increase the effects of hypoglycemic drugs.
Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions: While "garlic breath" and body odor are the most common and documented complains associated with garlic intake, case reports highlights various adverse reactions viz. allergic reactions like contract dermatitis, generalized urticaria, angioedema, pemphigus, anaphylaxis and photoallergy; alteration of platelet function and coagulation with risk of bleeding; burns with freshly applied garlic on the skin, especially with occlusive dressings. Garlic consumption by nursing mothers may cause some changes in the infant's behavior. Garlic may enhance the effects of anticoagulants like warfarin, fluindione and reduce the efficacy of anti-AIDS drugs like saquinavir. (also see: 34, 38 above) (55)

Ubiquitous market produce.
Commercial: Tablets, extracts, capsules, powder and tea.

Updated November 2020 / July 2017 / October 2015

                                                   PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg / William Woodville: "Medical botany", London, James Phillips, 1793, Vol. 3 Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Herbal Therapeutics: R.W. Watkins, MD, Emergency Medicine, April 2002
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) / MayoClinic.com
Hepatoprotective and some haematological effects of Allium sativum and vitamin C in lead-exposed Wistar rats / International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 1 (3), pp.064-067, March 2009
Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov;13(9-10):624-9.
Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. / Ahmad MS, Ahmed N / J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):796S-799S
The Effect of Fresh Crushed Garlic Bulbs (Allium sativum) on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Rats / Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3: 15-19, 2008
Hypocholesteremic and Antioxidant Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (2): 161-166, 2009 / ISSN 1680-5194
Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts / Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 131-135
Treatment of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome With Allium Sativum L. (Garlic): A Pilot Trial / Abrams Gary MD and Michael Fallon MD /
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: October 1998 - Volume 27 - Issue 3 - pp 232-235 Clinical Research
THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCEDSALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu et al / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994
Effects of Allium sativum and Vernonia amygdalina on thrombosis in mice / S O Awe et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 12 Issue 1, Pages 57 - 58 • Published Online: 18 Dec 1998 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(19980201)12:1<57::AID-PTR176>3.0.CO;2-M
Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethyihydrazine-induced colon cancer / Michael J Wargovich / Carcinogenesis (1987) 8 (3): 487-489. / doi: 10.1093/carcin/8.3.487
Studies on the Anticandidal Mode of Action of Allium sativum (Garlic) / Mahmoud Ghannoum / Journal of General Microbiology 134 (1988), 2917-2924 ; DOI 10.1099/00221287-134-11-2917
Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic): An Evidence-Based Review / Fataneh-Sadat Bathaei, MD, Shahin Akhondzadeh, PhD / J Teh Univ Heart Ctr 1 (2008) 5-10
Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on Staphyloccus aureus: An in vitro study / Deresse Daka / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (4), pp. 666-669, 24 January, 2011
THE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL (Allium Sativum) ON DMBA INDUCED SALIVARY GLAND TUMORIGENESIS IN RAT / M M Ziu, A S M Giasuddin, A R Mohammad / Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 7:3, 189-192, 1994
Antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa and Allium sativum./ Dankert J, Tromp TF, de Vries H, Klasen HJ. / Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1979 Oct;245(1-2):229-39.
Antioxidant properties of raw garlic (Allium sativum) extract / Rahman, M. M., Fazlic, V. and Saad, N. W. / International Food Research Journal 19(2): 589-591 (2012)
/ Sihem Khadri, Nafissa Boutefnouchet*, Mazzouz Dekhil / St. Cerc. St. CICBIA 2010 11 (4)
ROLE OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) IN VARIOUS DISEASES: AN OVERVIEW / Londhe V.P.*, Gavasane A.T., Nipate S.S., Bandawane D.D., Chaudhari P.D. / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research And Opinion 1: 4 (2011) 129 – 134.
Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria / Iram Gull*, Mariam Saeed, Halima Shaukat, Shahbaz M Aslam, Zahoor Q Samra and Amin M Athar / Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2012, 11:8 / doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-8
Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) in Cancer Chemoprevention / S Ejaz, L C Woong, A. Ejaz / http://www.ann-clinmicrob.com/content/11/1/8
Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer / Amir N, Al Dhaheri A, Al Jaberi N, Al Marzouqi F, Bastaki SMA/
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRMC.S23032
Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans / Katey M. Lemar, Ourania Passa, Miguel A. Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Carsten T. Müller, Sue Plummer, Brian O'Rourke and David Lloyd / doi: 10.1099/mic.0.28095-0 / Microbiology October 2005 vol. 151 no. 10
Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn) / Onyeagba R.A.*, Ugbogu O.C., Okeke C.U. and Iroakasi .O. / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 3 (10), pp. 552-554, October 2004
Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens. / Karuppiah P, Rajaram S. / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Aug;2(8):597-601. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60104-X.
Effects of Allium sativum (garlic) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. / Ashraf R, Khan RA, Ashraf I, Qureshi AA. / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 Sep;26(5):859-63.
Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation with standard antidiabetic agent provides better diabetic control in type 2 diabetes patients. / Ashraf R, Khan RA, Ashraf I. / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011 Oct;24(4):565-70.
Experimental animal studies on analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of Allium sativum (Garlic) powder / Jayanthi MK, Jyoti MB / IJRRMS, VOL-2, No.1, JAN - MAR, 2012
In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Curcurbita mexicana and Ficus religiosa
Black Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Enhance the Immune System / Danan Wang, Yonghui Feng, Jun Liu, Jianzhong Yan, Meiru Wang, Jin-ichi Sasaki *, Changlong Lu / Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology ©2010
Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats / C. R. Nwokocha, R.I Ozolua, D. U. Owu, Nwokocha M.I and A. C. Ugwu / Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 26(December 2011) 213 –218
Effect of Allium Sativum on the pharmacokinetic of Metformin in rat plasma: A herb-drug interaction study / Shikha Chourey, Tamanna Narsinghani and Love Kumar Soni* / Der Pharma Chemica, 2011, 3(2): 287-291
Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats / Sashank Srivastava*, P. H. Pathak / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2012; 4(2): 126-129
EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN GUINEA PIGS / Prema Ram Choudhary, Jaidev Singh Shekhawat*, Megh Shyam Sharma**, Jyotsna Dashora*** / Pak J Physiol 2013;9(2)
Allium sativum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Pharmacodynamic interaction study of Allium sativum (garlic) with cilostazol in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. / Mateen AA, Rani PU, Naidu MU, Chandrashekar E. / Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 May;43(3):270-4. / doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.81514.
In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds.
/ Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, Murray BK, Lawson LD, Hughes BG. / Planta Med. 1992 Oct;58(5):417-23.
Investigation of the Antihepatotoxic Effects of Allium sativum Extracts Against Acetaminophen Intoxicated Rattus novergicus / Jevas Chibuike Ozougwu, Joseph Effiong Eyo, Obimba, Kelechukwu Clarence, Soniran, Olajojutemidayo and Duru Majesty Kelechukwu / World Journal of Medical Sciences 11 (3): 397-404, 2014 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjms.2014.11.3.85164
NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS / N. Anusuya, P. Durgadevi, A. Dhinek, S. Mythily / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 6 Suppl 4 (July-Sep) 2013 Page: 97-100
In-vitro assessments of the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus / Alli JA , Boboye BE , Okonko IO , Kolade AF , Nwanze JC / Advances in Applied Science Research, 2011, 2 (4):25-36
Effect of Dietary Garlic (Allium Sativum) on the Blood Pressure in Humans - A Pilot Study / Waris Qidwai, Riaz Qureshi, Syed lqbal Azam / Jounrla of Pakistan Medical Association
Processed Black Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Enhance Anti-Tumor Potency against Mouse Tumors / Jin-ichi Sasaki, Chao Lu, Einosuke Machiya, Mami Tanahashi, Katsunori Hamada / Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology, 1(2), 276-281, Aug 2007
Study of garlic effect on fibrinolytic activity of the blood clot in vitro / Ansari. F MSc, Soltan mohammadi N BSc, Naderi G PhD, Sadegh Sabet M PhD, Karimi A5 MSc / Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, Vol 1, No 2.
Comparative study of antihyperglycemic and antihypercholesteromic effect of aquous extract of Allium sativum (Garlic) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in alloxan induced rats / Hossain M M, Islam M, Islam M S / International Journal of Animal Resources, Vol 1, No 1, January-2016
Cholesterol lowering property of garlic (Allium sativum) on patients with hypercholesterolemia
/ Preety Lachhiramka, Sujay Patil / International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 2016, Vol 5, No 11
Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by garlic extract ( Allium sativum)
/ Luigina Cellini *, Emanuela Di Campli, Michele Masulli, Soraya Di Bartolomeo, Nerino Allocati / FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 13 (1996) 273-277 / FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 13 (1996) 273-277
The effect of Allium sativum extract on pituitary-gonad axis in heat- stressed female mice / Mehrdad Modaresi and Mehdi Heidari / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(6):7-9
Antidiabetic Actions of Powdered Plant and Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Bulbs in Type-II Diabetic Patients / Akbar Waheed, Usman Nawaz, G.A. Miana / Medical Monthly Forum
The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers, fatigue, and clinical symptoms in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial / Seyedeh Parisa Moosavian, Zamzam Paknahad, Zahra Habibagahi, Mohhamadreza Maracy /Phytother Res,m 2020, 34(11): pp 29951-2962 / DOI: 10.1002/PTR.6723.
Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involed in otomycosis. / S t Pai, M W Platt / Letters in Applied Microbiology, 1995; 20(1) / https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765x.1995.tb00397.x
A study on extraction of Ajoene from Allium sativum and its applictions / Hepzibha Priya Dharshini, Anchana Devi C / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2017; 6(5): pp 111-116
Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Garlic (Allium sativum) / Muhammad Ali and Idris S Ibrahim / ISSN: 2637-4609 / DOI: 10.32474/AOICS.2019.04.000180
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions in Humans / Francesda Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, Angelo A Izzo / Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2007; 51(11) / heeps://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700072
Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum Coadministration with Simvastatin in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Doubler-Blind Trial / Amina Hamed, Ahmad Alobaidi / Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Alllergy Agents, 2014; 13(1) // DOI: 10.2174/18715230113129990013
Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on male fertility: a systematic review / Hadis Musavi, Malihe Tabnak, Farzaneh Alaei Sheini, Maryam Hasanzadeh Bezvan, Fardin Amidi, Mojtaba Abbasi / Journal of
Herbmed Pharmacology, 2018; 7(4): pp 306-312 / DOI: 10.15171/jhp.2018.46
Efficacy of Allium sativum, Curcuma mangga, and Acorus calamus Extract Combination on Rat Fertility / Bayyinatul Muchtaromah, Roihatul Muti'ah, Desi Rahma Yusmalasari, Putri Mardyana and Tanjina Sharmin / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2020; 12(1): pp 197-203 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2020.12.30
The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria / Zeinab Mohsenipour, Mehdi Hassanshahian / Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 2015; 8(8): e48733 / DOI: 10.5812/jjm.18971v2.
Allium sativum (garlic) suppresses leukocyte inflammatory cytokine production in vitro: Potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease / Greg Hodge, Sandy Hodge, Ping Han / Cytometry: Journal of Quantitative Cell Science, Aug2002; 48(4): pp 209-215 / https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.10133
Toxicity and repellency of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract grown in Iran against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae and adults / Marzieh Mobki, Seyed Ali Safavi, Mohammad Hasan Safaralizadeh and Omid Panahi / Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 2014; 47(1) / https://doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2013.802896
Allium sativum (Garlic) Extract as Nontoxic Corrosion Inhibition / K Rajam, S Rajendran, and R Saranya / Journal of Chemmistry, Vol 2013, Article ID 743807 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/743807
Antibacterial effect of different concentrations of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on dental plaque bacteria / Behzad Houshmand, Faranak Mahjour, Omid Dianat / Indian Journal of Dental Research, 2013; 24(1): pp 71-75
Efficacy of Allium sativum oil to alleviate tebuconazol-induced oxidative stress in the liver of adult rats / Sal,a Berrouaugue, Meriem Rouag, Taha Khaldi, Amel Boumendjel, Mahieddine Boumendjel, Faiza Taibi, Mahfoud Messarah / Cellular and Molecular Biology . eISSN: 1165-158X
Protective effect of combined aqueous extracts of Allium sativum and Zingibert officinale against lead- acetate-induced hepatotoxicity and testicular damage in rattus norvegicus / Yibala I Oboma, Beredugo Sylvanus, Prudence N Okara, Favour A Tamuno Omie, Okama Eko Ibiang / MOJ Anatomy and Physiology, 2018; 5(5): pp 306-313 / ISSN: 2471-139X / DOI: 1015406/mojap.2018.05.00215
The Significance of Garlic (Allium sativum) on the Livelihood of the Local Community / Worku Aw, Mehari AB / Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology, 2018 / DOI: 10/4172/2572-4134.1000123
Common Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has Potent Anti-Bacillus anthracic Activity / Rajinder Kaur, Atul Tiwari, Manish Manish, Indersh K Maurya, Rakesh Bhatnagar, Samer Singh / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113230
Efficacy of Psidium guajava and Allium sativum extracts as antimicrobial agains periodontal pathogens / Sunaina Shetty, Radhavendra M Shetty, Betul Rahman, Venkataramana Vannala, Vijay Desai, Shishir Shetty / Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 2020; 12(5): pp 589-594 / DOI: 10.4103/JPBS_206_20
Inhibitory Activity of Allium sativum . Extract against Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Natasha Hana Savitri, Danti Nur Indiastuti, Manik RetnoWahyunitasari / Journal of Vocational Health Studies, 2019; 3(2): p 72-77 / http://dx.doi/10.20473/jvhs.V3I2.2019.72-77
Garlic (Allium sativum)L A Natural Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome / Yadav Kavita, Meena Kishori Lal, Choudhury Urmila, Sharma Meghshyam / Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences (SAJB). Mar 2016; 4(3A): pp 199-202 / eISSN: 2321-6883
Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review / Natalia Martins, Spyridon Petropoulos, Isabel Ferreira /
Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug resistant Streptococcus mutans / M M Fani, J Kohanteb, M Dayaghi / Journal of Indian Society of Pedontics and Preventive Dentistry, 2007; 25(4): pp 164-168 / DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.37011

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