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Family Sterculiaceae
Bayog
Pterospermum acerifolium Willd.
BAYUR

Chi zi shu

Scientific names Common names
Pterospermum diversifolium Blume Bagud (Tag.)
Pterospermum hastatum Blanco Bayong (Tag.)
Pterospermum acerifolium Willd.
Baloi (Ilk.)
Pterospermum acerifolium Blume Balaibayan (Sb.)
  Baroi (Neg., Ilk.)
  Bayog (Tag., Bik., P. Bis.)
  Barog-bayog (Chab.)
  Bayok (Tag.)
  Bayug (Tag., Sul)
  Bayuk (Tag.)
  Dibual (Yak.)
  Kabislak (Sul.)
  Malibago (Tag.)
  Rayok (Tagb.)
  Taliñgauan (Sbl.)
  Bayur (Engl.)
Pterospermum diversifolium Blume is an unresolved name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Mushkanda.
CHINESE: Chi zi shu.
HINDI: Muchkund, Kanak champa.
MARATHI: Kamikar.
TAMIL: Vennangu.
TELUGU: Matsakanda.

Botany
Bayog is a tree that grows to a height of 4 to 10 meters. Leaves are oblong to oblong-obovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, abruptly pointed at the apex, broad or heart-shaped at the base. Upper surface of the blade is smooth, the lower surface pale and densely hairy. Flowers are white, 12 to 14 centimeters long, borne singly or in pairs in the axils of the leaves. Fruit is woody, oblong, five-angled capsule, about 15 centimeters in length.

Distribution
- Common in forests at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras, Negros, Mindanao and Basilan.
- Also occurs in Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and the Moluccas.

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis revealed saponins, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenes, and alkaloids.

Properties
- Flowers considered laxative, anthelmintic, stomachic.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic and anthelmintic properties.

Parts used
Bark, flowers.

Uses

Folkloric
- Bark and flowers, charred and mixed with the glands of Mallotus philippensis, used in smallpox to induce suppuration.
- Flowers used in inflammation, ulcers, and leprosy.
- In India, plants used for treatment of diabetes, and as hemostatic and anti-inflammatory.
- In Ayurveda, flowers mixed with sugars applied locally as anticancer treatment.
- Flowers made into paste with rice water used as application for hemicranias.
Others
Dye: Bark used for dyeing fish-nets and cloth.
Livestock:
If cattle no eating fodder because of stomach inflation, leaves are cut into pieces and given as fodder.
Bast:
Yields a bast, which is pinkish cinnamon, but with very little tensile strength.


Studies
Antibacterial:
Water extract of leaves of Pterospermum diversifolium showed inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. (2)
Antiulcer / Bark: Study investigated the role of an ethanolic fraction of bark extract on different experimental ulcer models in rats. Results showed significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin, and ethanol-induced ulcerations, with significant inhibition of gastric secretary volume, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. (4)
α-Amylase Inhibition / Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study investigated the in silico, in vitro α-amylase potential and anti-diabetic activity of P. acerifolium bark. An ethanol extract of bark showed marked α--amylase inhibition compared to other fractions. Diabetic rats treated with the extract showed reduced fasting glucose, HbA1c, liver enzymes, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Results confirmed antihyperglycemic activity with antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. (6)
Antioxidant / Bark: Study subjected a methanolic extract of Pterospermum acerifolium to various in vitro antioxidant tests. Results showed a significant decrease in DPPH radical, H2O2 and superoxide anion comparable to standards ascoribic acid and BHA. Antioxidant activity was attributed to flavonoid, kaempferol, and luteolin. (7)
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the toxicity profile of a methanolic extract of P. acerifolium in acute and sub-chronic oral administration in male and female Wistar albino rats. Overall, the extract was non-toxic at low dose, with low toxicity potential in acute and chronic oral administrations. However, at high doses, repeated administration showed significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potential. (8)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: A petroleum ether extract of leaves showed significant and dose-dependent decreased nociception. ß-sitosterol significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. (9)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Results showed highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus-ML152. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis was comparable to the drug fluconazole. (10)
Chromium Adsorption / Fruit Capsule Activated Carbon Vs Commercial Activated Charcoal: Study compared fruit capsule activated carbon of P. acerifolium and commercial grade activated charcoal for adsorption of chromium from aqueous solution. Results showed the adsorption capacity of indigenously prepared fruit capsule activated carbon (FCAC) was much better. (11)
Antibacterial / Bark: Bark extracts and fractions showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species. Maximum activity was observed in the butanol extract, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, and triterpenoids. Results justify its use in treating microbial infections in man and livestock. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of a leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity showed hepatoprotection as well as dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity. (13)
Antioxidant / DNA Protective: Study of ethyl acetate fractions of leaves, flowers, and bark showed effective antioxidant and DNA protection activity. (14)
Wound Healing Potential: Study assessed an ethanolic extract of flowers for wound healing activity and effect on tumor necrosis factor-a in a wound excision model of wound repair in Wistar albino rats. Results showed increase rate of epithelization and increase wound contraction with up-regulation of TNF-α. Early wound healing may be due to elevation TNF-α production. (15)
Osteogenic / Phytoceramides / Seed Coat: Study of seed coats of P. acerifolium yielded two phytoceramides and two acylated phytosterol glucosides together with five known compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 markedly stimulated osteoblast differentiation. (16)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update October 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Digitally modified / PD / Pterospermum diversifolium Blanco1.182-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Studies on plants used in traditional medicine by Bhilla tribe of Maharashtra / S Y Kamble et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge / Vol 9 (3), July 2010, pp 591-598.
(2)
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PTEROSPERMUM
DIVERSIFOLIUM BLUME
/ Syed idayathulla, Keshava Chandra K, K R Chandrashekar / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011
(3)
Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(4)
The antiulcer activity of Pterospermum acerifolium bark extract in experimental animal
/ A.K. Manna**, AK Behera, J Jena, S Manna, S Karmakar*, Dr.S Kar**, B.R.Panda**, S. Maity** / A.K. Manna et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(5),785-788
(5)
Pterospermum acerifolium Linn. : A comprehensive review with significant pharmacological activities /
Paoulomi Chatterjee, Bodhisattwa Chakraborty, Subhangkar Nandy*, Abhishek Dwivedi and Rana Datta / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES
(6)
Evaluation of in silico, in vitro α-amylase inhibition potential and antidiabetic activity of Pterospermum acerifolium bark. / Rathinavelusamy P, Mazumder PM, Sasmal D, Jayaprakash V. / Pharm Biol. 2013 Sep 30.
(7)
Comparative Study of in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanolic Extracts of Salvia splendens and Pterospermum acerifolium / Papiya Mitra Mazumder, D. Sasmal, S. Arulmozhi, Ankita and P. Mahesh Kumar Pharmacologia, 3: 444-449 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2012.444.449
(8)
Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of methanolic leaves extract of Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd in rodents / Nandy, Subhangkar; Datta, Rana / International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences; March 2012, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p1519
(9)
ANTI- INFLAMMATORY AND ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF Pterospermum acerifolium LEAVES / RASIKA D. BHALKE* AND SUBODH C. PAL / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2012
(10)
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF PTEROSPERMUM ACRIFOLIUM (L) Willd. / S. NANDY*, R. DATTA, K. HOSSAIN AND AMALESH SAMANTA** / Life sciences Leaflets 6: 4-12,2012.
(11)
STUDY OF CHROMIUM (VI) ADSORPTION USING PTEROSPERMUM- ACERIFOLIUM FRUIT CAPSULE ACTIVATED CARBON (FCAC) AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL (CAC) AS A SELECTIVE ADSORBENTS / NAVIN CHANDRA KOTHIYAL, SUMIT SHARMA / The Holistic Approach to Environment 3(2013)2, 63-82
(12)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY FROM BARK EXTRACTS OF PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM (L.) WILLD /
Panda, SK; Dutta, SK / 2011, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Volume
2, Issue 3 (Mar 2011).
(13)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PTEROSPERMUM ACERIFOLIUM / Upendranath Nanda, Suman Kumar Bhunia, Sitangsu Maity, Ashis Kumar Manna / Inventi Impact: Ethnopharmacology , Vol. 2010
(14)
Evaluation of antioxidant and DNA nicking potential along with HPTLC fingerprint analysis of different parts of Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd / Rathinavelusamy Paramaguru, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Dinakar Sasmal, Dhananjay Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay / Free Radicals and Antioxidants / doi:10.1016/j.fra.2013.05.002
(15)
Wound healing potential of pterospermum acerifolium wild. with induction of tumor necrosis factor - α /
Aswini Kumar Senapati*, Ranjan Kumar Giri, Dibya Sundar Panda and Sremantula Satyanarayan / Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, Vol 2 Issue 4 November 2011
(16)
Phytoceramides and acylated phytosterol glucosides from Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. seed coat and their osteogenic activity / Preety Dixit Kailash Chand Mohd Parvez Khan Jawed Akhtar Siddiqui Deepshikha Tewari Florence Tsofack Ngueguim Naibedya Chattopadhyay Rakesh Maurya / Phytochemistry, 2012, 81, Complete, 117-125




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