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Family Myrtaceae

Bottlebrush
Callistemon viminalis Soland.
RINGWORM BUSH

Common names
Bottlebrush (Engl.)
Red bottlebrush (Engl.)
Weeping bottlebrush (Engl.)

Botany
A shrub to a small tree, growing to a height of 5 meters, with numerous, long, slender and drooping branches. Leaves arelight green, narrow lanceolate, up to 5 cm long. Spikes are 7-8 cm long. Flowers are bright red in dense cylindrical spikes.

Constituents and properties
• A study in India showed the leaves of Callistemon viminalis yielded an oil: 1,8-Cineole (61.7%), -pinene (24.2%) and menthyl acetate (5.3%) were the major components.
• Antibacterial, anthelminthic


Distribution
Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
Grows well in the Baguio area.

Parts utilized
Leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
Not known for medicinal applications in the Philippines.

Studies
• Anti-quorum sensing: (1) Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing (QS) is believed to control the pathogenesis of many bacterial organisms. C. viminalis is one of several plants studied that showed to possess anti-QS activity, a potential new direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. (2) Extracts of plants, including C viminalis, caused the inhibition of QS genes and QS-controlled factors with marginal effects on bacterial growth, suggesting the quorum-quenching mechanisms are unrelated to static or cidal effects.
• Anthelminthic activity:
In veterinary studies: The anthelmintic activity of the essential oils of Callistemon viminalis against earthworms and tapeworms has revealed it to exhibit in vitro efficacy better than piperazine phosphate. The activity of these oils against hookworms was comparable to that of hexyle resorcinol (Garg & Kasera, 1982).
Insecticidal:
Study yielded two novel epimeric compounds, viminadione A and viminadione B, Viminadione A exhibited moderate insecticidal activity.
Anti-infective:
One of three plants screened for inhibition of opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that showed reduction in toxin production and mortality and suggests a potential for anti-infective development.
Chemical Composition / Antibacterial: Study on chemical composition and antibacterial activity yielded 12 compnonets from the leaves of CV. Themajor components were 1,8-cineole and a-pinene. The oils exhibited inhibitionn against S faecalis, S aureus, B cereus, S marcesens.

Availability
Cultivated.



Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon viminalis from South Africa / Opeoluwa O Oyedeji et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 1990-1998; doi:10.3390/molecules14061990
(2)

Essential oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves from India
S. K. Srivastava, Ateeque Ahmad, K. V. Syamsunder, K. K. Aggarwal, S. P. S. Khanuja
(3)
Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by South Florida plant extracts / Allision Adonizio et al / Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 2
(4)

Possible Role of Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Use of Botanical Anthelmintics / JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & SOCIAL SCIENCES . 1813–2235/2005/01–2–187–195
(5)
New Insecticidal Tetradecahydroxanthenediones from Callistemon viminalis
/ Bhupinder P S Khambay et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1999, 62 (12), pp 1666–1667 / DOI: 10.1021/np990056a
(6)
Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by medicinal plants in a Caenorhabditis elegans model system / Allison Adonizio et al / J Med Microbiol 57 (2008), 809-813; DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47802-0
(7)
Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida / Allison L. Adonizio, Kelsey Downum, Bradley C. Bennett and Kalai Mathe / Journal of Ethnopharmacology . Vol 105, Issue 3, 24 May 2006, Pages 427-435 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.02 /


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