Bottle brush is a shrub to a small tree, growing to a height of 5 meters, with numerous,
long, slender and drooping branches. Leaves are light green, narrow lanceolate,
up to 5 centimeters long. Spikes are 7- 8 centimeters long. Flowers are bright red in dense
- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.
- Grows well in Baguio City.
- Native to Australia.
- A study in India showed the leaves of
Callistemon viminalis yielded an oil: 1,8-Cineole (61.7%), -pinene (24.2%)
and menthyl acetate (5.3%) were the major components.
- Study leaves for essential oil yielded 14 compounds, representing 98.94% of the total oil; the major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). (see study below) (11)
• Considered antibacterial, anthelminthic, hemostatic, diuretic.
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used as diuretic and for relieving problems of the urinary tract. Used by women as douche to cleanse the genitourinary tract from excessive menstruation or mucosal discharge as leukorrhea. Used for urinary incontinence and bed-wetting in children. (10)
- In Jamaica, decoction used as "hot tea" treatment of gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and skin infections
intercellular communication or quorum sensing (QS) is believed to control
the pathogenesis of many bacterial organisms. C. viminalis is one of
several plants studied that showed to possess anti-QS activity, a potential
new direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. (3)Extracts of plants, including C viminalis, caused the inhibition of QS genes and QS-controlled factors with marginal effects on bacterial growth, suggesting the quorum-quenching mechanisms are unrelated to static or cidal effects. (7)
activity: In veterinary studies: The anthelmintic
activity of the essential oils of Callistemon viminalis against earthworms
and tapeworms has revealed it to exhibit in vitro efficacy better than
piperazine phosphate. The activity of these oils against hookworms was
comparable to that of hexyle resorcinol (Garg & Kasera, 1982).
Study yielded two novel epimeric compounds,
viminadione A and viminadione B, Viminadione A exhibited moderate insecticidal
One of three plants screened for inhibition of opportunistic
human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that showed reduction in toxin
production and mortality and suggests a potential for anti-infective
Composition / Antibacterial:
Study on chemical composition and antibacterial activity yielded
12 components from the leaves of CV. The major components were 1,8-cineole
and a-pinene. The oils exhibited inhibition against S faecalis, S aureus,
B cereus, S marcesens.
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study investigated the antioxidant potential and oil composition of leaves. A n-hexane extract yielded 40 compounds, with appreciable levels of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. A methanolic extract exhibited higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power on DPPH assay. (9)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated water and alcoholic extracts of leaves of C. viminalis in vitro against ten pathogenic bacteria. Results showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytaci, Proteus vulgaricus, Escherichia coli). (10)
• Essential Oil from Leaves / Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study evaluated leaves for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Essential oil of leaves yielded 14 compounds. Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparable to gallic acid as standard. Essential oil also showed the highest zone of bacterial inhibition compared to standard tetracycline. Crude methanol extract and EA fraction showed significant antibacterial activity. (see constituents above) (11)
• Antimicrobial: Various extracts were tested against eight common bacteria and one fungus. All plant extracts sowed antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms; the methanol extract was most effective. The aqueous extract was effective as bactericidal agent against intestinal pathogens. (12)
• Molluscicidal: Methanol extracts of C. viminalis bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. C. viminalis fruit extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. The site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland. (13)
• Betulinic Acid / Anti-Platelet Aggregation: Betulinic acid isolated from Callistemon viminalis in combination with oleanolic acid from Syzygium aromaticum showed significant platelet inhibitory activity on epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. (14)