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Family Sapotaceae

Kaimito
Chrysophyllum cainito Linn.
STAR APPLE

Niu nai guo

Scientific names Common names
Cainito pomiferum Tussac Kaimito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum bicolor Poir. Kayimit (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum caeruleum Jacq. Kaymito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum cainito Linn. Kayumito (Tag.)
Chrysophyllum jamaicense Jacq. Caimito (Tag., Span.)
Chrysophyllum maliforme L.. Caymito (Bis.) 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenum Spreng. Breast milk fruit (Engl.)
Cynodendron bicolor (Poir.) Baehni Golden leaf tree (Engl.)
  Milk fruit (Engl.)
  Star apple (Engl.)
  Star plum (Engl.)
Chrysophyllum cainito L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Hnin-thagya.
CAMBODIAN: Plae teuk dos ko.
CHINESE: Niu nai guo.
CZECH: Zlatolis obecny.
DANISH: Stjerneæble.
DUTCH: Apra, Goudblad boom (Surinam), Sterappel.
FRENCH: CaimitIer, Pomme surette, Kaymit, Macoucou, Pomme de lait, Pomme étoilée.
GERMAN: Sternapfel, Sternapfelbaum.
INDONESIA: Sawo ijo, Sawo hejo, Sawo kadu.
JAPANESE: Hoshi ringo, Kaimito, Kainitto, Miruku furuutsu, Suishougaki, Sutaa appuru.
LAOTIAN: Nam nom.
MALAYALAM: Swarnapathry.
MALAYSIAN: Sawu duren, Pepulut.
NIGERIAN: Agbalumo, Udara.
PORTUGUESE: Ajara, Cainito.
RUSSIAN: Zevezdnoe iabloko, Chrizofillum.
SIERRA LEONE: Bobi wata.
xSINGAPORIAN: Chicle durian.
SPANISH: Ablaca, Aguay, Caimitero, Caimito, Guyabillo, Olivoa, Pipa, Sapotillo.
THAI: Sataa appoen.
VIETNAMESE: C[aa]y v[us] s[uwx]a, Vu sura.

Botany
Caimito is a tree with a spreading crown, growing to a height of 15 meters. Branches are numerous and slender, the young tips are copper-colored and covered with appressed hairs. Leaves are leathery, ovate or oblong, 7.5 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, blunt or rounded at the base and covered underneath with silky, golden-brown, soft hairs. Flowers are purplish-white, small and clustered in the axils of leaves, with 5 sepals, and a tubular corolla with 5 lobes. Fruit is large and rounded, 6 to 10 centimeters in diameter, shiny and smooth, purplish or light-green skin, with a translucent whitish or purplish, soft pulp surrounding flattened seeds about 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. The flesh, contains a small amount of milky juice, somewhat fibrous, sweet, mild and pleasant tasting.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its edible fruit and as an ornamental tree.
- Recently introduced from tropical America.

Constituents
- Seed contains saponin, 0.19%; pouterin, 0.0037%; a bitter principle (lucumin), 1.2%; a fixed oil, 6.6%; and dextrose, 2.4%.
- Leaves contain an amorphous bitter principle, some alkaloids, and no saponin.
- Bark is rich in tannin.
- Analysis for volatile constituents yielded 104 compounds in the aroma concentrate. Major constituents were: (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, limonene, linalool, α-copaene and hexadecanoic acid. (8)
- Various extracts of fresh fruits yielded nine known polyphenolic antioxidants viz. (+)-catechin (1), (−)-epicatechin (2), (+)-gallocatechin (3), (−)-epigallocatechin (4), quercetin (5), quercitrin (6), isoquercitrin (7), myricitrin (8), and gallic acid. (see studies below)
(2)
-Study of pulp and seed yielded
varying concentrations of saponin, flavonoids, tannin,steroid and cardiac glycoside. Study also yielded vitamins (vitamin A, 0.027to 0.089 mg; vitamin C 10.00 to 43.54 mg) and minerals (calcium 37.0, magnesium 5.0, phosphorus 8.0, potassium 38.0 and sodium 21.0 mg). Proximate analysis yielded protein 1.96 to 4.63 g, moisture 56.04 to 75.90g, fat 0.88 to 15.81 g, fiber 2.31 go 4.19 g, ash 0.56 to 0.84 g, and carbohydrate 18.39 to 79.90 g. (see study below) (16)
- Phytochemical fractions of leaves yielded (% content): fats and waxes 0.934 ± 0.045, terpenoids and phenolics 4.004 ± 0.122, alkaloids 0.166 ± 0.068, quaternary alkaloids and n-oxides 10.678 ± 0.035, and fibers 71.122 ± 0.136. (18)
- Nutrient analysis per 100 gm of edible portion yielded 2.33 gm, carbohydrates 14.65 gm, water 73.23 gm, fiber 3.30 gm, calories 67.2; vitamins: riboflavin 0.4 mg, thiamine 0.08 mg, niacin 1.340 mg, ascorbic acid 15.2 mg, vitamin B6 0.200 mg; minerals: iron 2.33 mg, calcium 14.65 mg, phosphorus 73.23 mg, magnesium 3.30, potassium 67.2 mg. (21)

Properties
- Seed is tonic, diuretic and febrifuge.
- Pectoral, tonic, stimulant.
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant properties.


Parts used
Seeds, leaves, bark, fruit
Uses
Edibility
• Fruit eaten ripe, with a sweet and flavorful pulp.
• Used as ice cream and sherbet ingredient
• In Jamaica, made into preserves.
Folkloric
Ati Negrito use decoction of leaves as wash or hot compress for postpartum needs. Decoction of leaves drunk for abdominal pain. (26)
• The
Aytas burn dried leaves for insect repellency. (17)
• Used by Ifugao migrants of the Sierra Madre for diarrhea. (30)
• In Mexico, decoction of the bark given for dysentery.
• In Costa Rica, infusion of bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Tonic: Infusion of the bark is tonic and refreshing.
• Latex is used for abscesses.
• Dried latex used as anthelmintic.
• In some countries, the fruit is used for diabetes.
• Bitter seed sometimes used as tonic, for diarrhea and fevers.
• Fruit eaten for inflammation in laryngitis and pneumonia.
• Used for diabetes.
• Decoction used for angina.
• In the Ivory Coast, decoction of leaves used for hypertension. Leaf decoction also used for diabetes.
• In Venezuela, unripe fruit used for intestinal problems.
• In Puerto Rico, fruit used in treatment of diabetes.
• Decoction of bark used as tonic and stimulant; used for diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages and treatment of gonorrhea.
Cubans in Miami reported to use the leaf decoction for cancer treatment.
• In Brazil, bark latex used resolutive on abscesses; and as a potent vermifuge when dried and powdered.

Poultice of grated leaves applied to wounds. Leaf decoction used for hypoglycemia. Fruit used for treating fever and hemorrhage. (13)
Others
Timber: Yields a brown and hard, but no durable wood. Used for indoor construction: planking, light framing, interior trim, shelving, paneling, etc. (13)
Dye: Bark yields tannin and dyestuff. (13)
• Paper:
Good quality paper can be obtained from the wood. (13)

Studies
Polyphenolic Antioxidants / Fruits:
Study on various fruit extracts yielded nine known phenolic antioxidants. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, and of the compounds, compound 5 (quercetin) showed the highest antioxidant activity. (see constituents above)
(2)

Anthocyanin Antioxidant: Study of extracts of 12 edible fruits showed nine to exhibit high antioxidant activity; C cainito yielded cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside, an anthocyanin antioxidant. (3)
Vasorelaxant:
A preliminary study on the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions of the bark of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in isolated rat thoracic aorta: Methanolic bark extract study on rats showed vasorelaxant activity on the smooth muscle. (5)
Lectin Activity:
Plant samples of 178 species and 62 families were studied for lectin activity. Potent lectins possessing more than 100,000 unites per gram were found in the fruits extracts of C arabica and Chrysophyllum cainito. (4)
Antidiabetic Activity / Leaves:
Study of the aqueous decoction of C cainito leaves showed hypoglycemic activity at doses of ≥ 20 g/l. From 30 g/l, the plant would exert a toxic effect. The hypoglycemic effect was mainly attributed to alkaloids, sterols, or triterpenes. (6)
Hypotensive Effect:
Phytochemical study attributes the hypotensive effect flavonoids with vasodilation effect and inhibition of adrenergic receptors. (7)
Glue Effect:
Study explored the potential of star apple extract as glue. Results showed the glue from the star apple extract can be used as a substitute for commercial glue. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Hypersensitivity Effects / Leaves:
Study of crude methanolic extract of leaves demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-hypersensitivity effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema and hypersensitivity. Reduction of hypersensitivity attributed to isolated compound Lup-20(29)-en-3β-O-hexanoate > than 3β-Lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate. (14)
Antimicrobial / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study showed C. cainito has great potential as antimicrobial agent against selected pathogens and use in the treatment of enteric bacterial infections. (see constituents above) (16)
Antihypertensive / Pulp and Seed Extracts: Study evaluated pulp extracts and fractions for in vitro (inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme/ACE assay), ex vivo (isolated aorta relaxation assay), and in vivo (salt induced hypertensive rat assay). An ALE-EAF reduced the elevated arterial pressure of salt induced hypertensive rat significantly to the level of normotensive animal group. (19)
Silver Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of environmentally friendly silver nanoparticles using C. cainito leaves. (
20)
• Palladium Nanoparticles / Catalytic Activity / Leaves: Study reports on a simple and green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using a leaf extract of C. cainito. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions. The PdNPs can retain catalytic activity for several months.  (25)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Effects / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of C. cainito fruits against experimentally induced diabetes using alloxan and STZ. Acute toxicity study using the hydroalcoholic extract showed safety at dose of 2000 mg kbw. Results showed a dose dependent significant decrease in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL levels with an increase in HDL. Results were comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. (22)
• Effect on Intestinal Motility / Leaves:Study evaluated a leaf extract of C. cainito on intestinal motility of white mice. Results showed the test drugs were not statistically different from the positive control in terms of antimotility effect but the effective antimotility dose were seen in medium and high doses (p=0.0029 and p=0.0099) respectively. (23)
• Immunosuppressive on Macrophage Functions / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of methanol extract of C. cainito leaves on macrophage functions. Results showed significant dose dependent inhibition of phagocytosis and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α as well as NO and H2O2 release by the macrophages. Study showed an immunosuppressive effect on murine macrophages, without effects on cell viability. GC-MS analysis showed lupeol acetate and alpha-amyrin acetate as principal components. (24)
• Cosmetic Application / Anti-Protein Glycation / Anti-Aging: Patent applied for an invention in the fields of cosmetic, relating to products for controlling skin aging and a cosmetic composition that includes an aqueous fruit extract of C. cainito. The application demonstrated that an extract of CC inhibits the glycation of proteins which protects the functionality of the skin cells. (27)
• Induction of Cell Death In Osteosarcoma Cells / Polyphenolic Fraction: Study evaluated a polyphenolic fraction from C. cainito fruits for its effect on U-2 osteosarcoma (ATCC HTB-96) cell line of human osteosarcoma. The highest effect as increased caspase specific activity was observed at extract concentration of 300 µg GAE/mL. The effect of extract concentration on production of ROS can be related with apoptosis. Study suggested that apoptosis by ROS is the mechanism used by the compounds in the extract. Results suggest C. cainito has great potential and can be source of lead novel molecule for allopathic medicines for the treatment of osteosarcoma. (28)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated C. cainito leaves for wound healing potential in male albino Wistar rats using an excision wound model. Topical application of standardized ethanolic extract on excision wounds showed significant faster reduction in wound area and significant increase in tissue biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, hexosamine and protein compared to untreated control. (29)
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer / Fruit: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of peels, seeds, and pulp of Chrysophyllum cainito fruit and fruit flour for gastroprotective potential in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer. All the extracts increased mucin production. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. Supplementation with C. cainito fruit flour displayed gastroprotective potential. Results suggest an antiulcer effect by favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms, together with complementary protective effects of the flour from C. cainito fruit. (31)
• Haemostatic Effect: Study evaluated the haemostatic effect of an aqueous extract of C. cainito on blood of albino rats. The administration of AECc caused a reduction in the time of bleeding. The presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in AECs make the substance antihemorrhagic. (32)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated for its edible fruit.
- Seasonal market produce.
 
- Tinctures of bark, leaves and fruits in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated February 2018 / March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS / Public Domain / File:Chrysophyllum cainito seeds.jpg / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 7 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Star Apple / Chrysophyllum cainito L. / Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavon
(2)
Polyphenolic Antioxidants from the Fruits of Chrysophyllum cainito
/ Xiao-Dong Luo, Margaret J. Basile and Edward J. Kennelly / DOI: 10.1021/jf011178n / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (6), pp 1379–1382

(3)
Anthocyanin antioxidants from edible fruits / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00162-6 / Linda S Einbond et al / Food Chemistry Vol 84, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 23-28
(4)
Studies on Lectins from Thai Plants / J. Sci.Soc.Thailang, 24,. (1995)27-36

(5)
A preliminary study on the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions of the bark of Chrysophyllum cainito L. in isolated rat thoracic aorta / Quentela, Albert et al / Acta Manilana • 2001,vol./issue 49
(6)
Effect of aqueous extract of Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on the glycaemia of diabetic rabbits / N'giessan Koffi et al / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(10) pp. 501-506, October 2009
(7)
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Arterial Hypertension, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou Populations of Agboville (Côte-d’Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffii / European Journal of Scientific ResearchISSN 1450-216X Vol.35 No.1 (2009), pp 85-98
(8)
Volatile constituents of star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.) from Cuba / Jorge Pino, Rolando Marbot, Aristides Rosado / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 17, Issue 5, pages 401–403, September/October 2002 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1116
(9)
Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used to Treat Diabetes, in Traditional Medicine, by Abbey and Krobou People of Agboville (Côte-d'Ivoire) / N'guessan Koffi / American Journal of Scientific Research, No 4 (2009), pp45-58
(10)
Chrysophyllum cainito L. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(11)
Sorting Chrysophyllum names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(12)
Production of white glue out of star apple (Chrysophyllum Cainito) extract
/ Mecua, John Michael O. / 2011 DOST Region 9, SCHOOL Don Pablo Lorenzo Memorial High School / DOST SciNET-PHIL
(13)
Chrysophyllum cainito / WorldAgroForestry

(14)
Anti-inflammatory and anti-hypersensitive effects of the crude extract, fractions and triterpenes obtained from Chrysophyllum cainito leaves in mice. / Meira NA, Klein LC Jr, Rocha LW, Quintal ZM, Monache FD, Cechinel Filho V, Quintão NL / J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Feb 3;151(2):975-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.014. Epub 2013 Dec 14.
(15)
Chrysophyllum cainito / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
Antimicrobial activities and chemical compositions of Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple) fruit / S. U. Oranusi, W. Braide* and R. U. Umeze / Microbiology Research International, Vol. 3(3), pp. 41-50, August 2015
(17)
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014
(18)
Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Chrysophyllum cainito Linn. Leaves
/ Sunita Shailajan*, Deepti Gurjar / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 26(1), May – Jun 2014; Article No. 17, Pages: 106-111
(19)
In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo anti-hypertensive activity of Chrysophyllum cainito L. extract / Li-Mei Mao, Xue-Wen Qi, Ji-Heng Hao, Hai-Feng Liu, Qing-Hua Xu, Pei-Li Bu / Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8(10):17912-17921 www.ijcem.com /ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0013433
(20)
GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING Chrysophyllum canito LEAF EXTRACT / Antony Prabhu Y. and Shamina S.* / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 4, Issue 9, 1751-1760.
(21)
Nutrient analysis / Fruits Info
(22)
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF  CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO FRUITS / Karunakar Hegde*, AP Arathi and Anupama Mathew / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH
(23)
An evaluation of the effect of chrysophyllum cainito on intestinal motility through charcoal tracing method.
/ Catherine H Tuazon, Nellie Magsakay, Elizabeth Reyes / Philippine Scientific Journal, Vol 33, Issue 2; July-December 2000: pp 21-35
(24)
IMMUNOSUPPRESIVE EFFECTS OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO LEAVES ON MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS / Victor Ermilo Arana-Argaez, Ivan Chan-Zapata, Jacqueline Canul-Canche et al / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017; 14(1): 179–186.  / doi:  10.21010/ajtcam.v14i1.20
(25)
Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito (Star apple) and their applications as efficient catalyst for C–C coupling and reduction reactions / Rakhi Majumdar• Supawan Tantayanon • Braja Gopal Bag / Int Nano Lett (2017) 7:267–274 / https://doi.org/10.1007/s40089-017-0220-4
(26)
Ati Negrito Medicinal Plants / Hindawi
(27)
Cosmetic composition comprising an aqueous extract of chrysophyllum cainito 
/ Inventor: Olivier Courtin / US20110151037A1: US Application
(28)
Poly-phenolic fraction of Chrysophyllum cainito extract induces cell death in osteosarcoma cells / Liu-Bing Li, Subin Lin, Jun Yan, Qian-Liang Wang, Zhi-Ying Fan, Qi-Rong Dong, Jian-Zhong Qin and Zong-Gang Xie / Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2015; 10: 972-979 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v10i4.24576
(29)
Wound healing activity of Chrysophyllum cainito L. leaves: Evaluation in rats using excision wound model / Shailajan Sunita, Gurjar Deepti / Journal of Young Pharmacists, Apr-Jun 2016; Vol. 8 Issue 2: p 96-103. / DOI: 10.5530/jyp.2016.2.7
(30)
The use of medicinal plants by Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range. / Jasper Wester
(31)
Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models
/ Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade / Inflammopharmacology 
(32)
Haemostatic Properties of Chrysophyllum Caïnito L. (Sapotaceae) in Wistar Rats / Arsene Mea, Rodrigue Treya Yao, Jean-Claude Abo Kouakou / Asian Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (2016) Vol 26, No 2: pp 140-153

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