Corona de espina is an erect and branched shrub
growing up to a meter high, with cylindric or obscurely angled branches
lined with stiff, slender, divergent spines. Leaves are few, alternate,
pale green, oblong-obovate, or short acuminate, up to 5 centimeters long. Inflorescences
arise from the upper leaf axils and is peduncled with 2-4 involucres
in each peduncle, each involucre with 2 spreading red kidney-shaped
- Widely cultivated in settled
areas in the Philippines.
- Native to Madagascar.
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts of E. milii red flowers for terpenoids, flavone and phenols yielded two triterpenoids, taraxerol (1), 28-hydroxyfriedelan-1,3-dione-29-oic acid (2), one flavone, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-a-L-arabinofuranoside (3), and two phenoilc compounds, 7 7'- dihydroxy, 8, 6'-
bicoumarin (4), 9-acetyl-3'4'-dimethoxy dehydroconiferyl-3-alcohol (5). (10)
- Crude extracts of aerial parts yielded terpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, molluscicidal, antinociceptive, muscle relaxant, and sedative properties.
• No reported folkloric
medicinal use in the Philippines.
• Popular use in
South Brazil as "dragon's
blood," the red latex from Christ's crown Euphorbia milii (Euphorbiaceae)
as a treatment for warts. (12)
• In Chinese
folk medicine, euphorbia compounds used in cancer treatment.
In a study of 41 plants tested against E coli, Shigella spp, and Vibrios spp among others, Euphorbia milii was one of 28 that showed antibacterial
Inhibition: Dry flower powder of Euphorbia milii
was found to have 100% total inhibition on aflatoxin-producing fungi
on agar-medium. The effect may be due to the interference of the simple
phenols and phenolic acids, quinones, flavones, flavonoids and flavanols,
possibly at the biosynthetic level. This may find application in the
elimination or control of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs, as
well as controlling aspergillosis, a large spectrum of disease caused
by members of genus Aspergillus. (1)
• Mollusicidal / Non-Teratogenic: Study of the embryofeto-toxicity of Crown-of-Thorns
(Euphorbia milii) latex, a natural molluscicide: The study
is a comprehensive safety evaluation of the embryotoxic potential of
E. milii. The crude latex of Euphorbia milii is a potent plant molluscicide
and a promising alternative to synthetic moluscicides used in schistosomiasis
control. The study concludes that the plant molluscicide poses no teratogenic
• Absence of Tumor Promoting Activity / Latex: Study showed the crude latex of E. milii does not act as a tumor promoting agent on the mouse back skin assay. (6)
• Antimicrobial / Flowers: Study evaluated various extracts of E. milii flowers for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, P. vulgaris) organisms. Hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts at concentration of 5 µg/ml showed considerable inhibition on S. aureus and B. subtilis compared to EA and water extracts, with amikacin sulfate used as standard. (7)
• Antinociceptive / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of Euphorbia milii for antinociceptive property. Results showed significant dose- and time-dependent attenuation of acetic acid induced writhing. (8)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Antinociceptive / Muscle Relaxant / Sedative / Aerial Parts: Study reports on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of E. milii. The gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant antinociceptive effect, significant muscle relaxant and significant sedative effect. (9)
• Antinociceptive / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated various doses of E. milii extract for NKp46 expression in mice infected with MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). NK cells have the dual role in the secretion of IL-22 which activate macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis and NKp46 expression which lyse macrophages infected with MTb. Results showed the ethanol extract of flowers of E. milii can increase the expression of NKp46 in lung tissue of mice infected with MTb. (11)
• Antioxidant / Antitumor / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antitumor properties of ethyl acetate extract of E. milii flower against MCF-7 cell line induced breast cancer and CACO-2 cell line induced colon cancer in mice. Results showed the EA extract of E. milii flower was effective as antioxidant and chemopreventive. There was significantly decreased levels of lipid peroxidation and elevated levels of GSH, GPx, and catalase. Cancer specific parameters (Ferritin and CEA) also significantly decreased in the extract treated groups. (13)
• Silver Nanoparticles from Latex: In a study that evaluated eight latex-producing plants, four —J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, P. tithymaloides, and Euphorbia milii—showed high potential to produce physiochemically distinct, small-sized and bactericidal AgNPs. (14)