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Family Urticaceae
Pipturus arborescens (Link) C. B. Rob.

Luo wei mu

Scientific names Common names
Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B.Rob. Agandaong (Ilk.)
Pipturus asper Wedd. Agdalamai (Tag.)
Pipturus fauriei Yamam. Alañgisi (Bis.)
Urtica arborescens Link Alalatang (Ap.)
  Aludig (Ilk.)
  Añgañgeu (Bon.)
  Aramai (Iv.)
  Arandong (Ilk.)
  Dalonot (Tag.)
  Dalonotan (Bis.)
  Dalunot (Tag.)
  Damaian (Ig.)
  Dañget (Bon.)
  Duai (Ig.)
  Gimas-gimas (P. Bis.)
  Gunoi (Mag.)
  Gutgutu (If.)
  Handalamai (C. Bis.)
  Himaramai (Bis.)
  Hindalumai (Bis.)
  Hindaramai (C. Bis.)
  Kandamai (Tagb.)
  Lai (Bon.)
  Lamai (Mbo., Sub.)
  Moliungol (Ig.)
  Ñgaliugutgutu (If.)
  Ñgungoi (Ig.)
  Samai (Sul.)
  Takop-takop (Ilk.)
  Taktakop (Ilk.)
  Luo wei mu (Chin.)
Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B. Rob. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Luo wei ma.

Dalunot is a dioecious shrub or small tree attaining a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaves are ovate, 7 to 8 centimeters long, 3 to 10 centimeters wide, with the tip tapering to a point and the base rounded or somewhat heart-shaped, the margins toothed, the upper surface green, slightly hairy and a little rough, the lower surface pale and rather densely covered with soft hairs. Male flowers are borne in dense, axillary fascicles, with greenish-white and exerted styles. Female flowers are small and greenish, in dense, axillary, hemispheric heads, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, with long-exerted styles. Fruit is white, very soft and fleshy, depressed, nearly spherical, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and consists of many small achenes immersed in the fleshy perianths.

- Very common and wide distributed species.
- In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- In Baguette, it ascends to an altitude of 2,000 meters.

- Also occurs in Borneo, the Rickeys, and Taiwan.

- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded an thrones, flavonoids, glycosidic flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, triter penes, anthraquinones and Cameroons.
- Hexane extract of leaves yielded triter penes such as glut in one, Fridley, glutinous, and a mixture of sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol).
- Dichlormethane extracts yielded ursolic acid (1), oleanolic acid (2), friedelin (3), ß-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) from the twigs. Leaves yielded 4,5, squalene (6), chlorophyll a (7), and polyphenol (8).

Parts used
Bark, leaves.


- Fruits reportedly edible.
- In the Philippines bark scraping used externally as a cataplasm for boils.
- Leaves used for treating herpes simplex and skin diseases.
- Mansaka people of Mindanao apply scraped and pounded bark or pulp on wounds to enhance healing. (7)

Radical Scavenging Activity / Cytotoxicity:
In a study of four Philippine medicinal plants, P arborescens gave the second lowest LC50 and EC50 values for BSLA and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Extracts of the plant also showed to be active against HeLa cells. Extract also showed 100% mortality in the Brine Shrimp lethality assay. (1)
Cytotoxic Alkene and Terpene / Leaves: Study isolated a long-chain alkene (1-hexacosene) and a terpene from a methanol extract of air dried leaves. The isolated compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp Artemia salina. (5)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic crude extract of leaves of Pipturus arborescens. An isolated triterpene was found active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 50 µg/ml. (6)


Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Pipturus arborescens Blanco2.371-original.png / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Pipturus arborescens (Link) C. Robinson / Lanyu (Orchid Island), Tatung County, Taiwan / Bettaman / Creative Commons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic / Click on image to go to source page / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical screening of four Philippine medicinal plants / Nonita Peteros and Mylene Uy / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(5), pp. 407-414, 4 March, 2010
Pipturus arborescens (Link) C. B. Rob. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B. Rob. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Chemical constituents of Pipturus arborescens (Link) C.B. Rob / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Virgilio D. Ebajo Jr., Mariquit M. De Los Reyes, Emelina H. Mandia, and Chien-Chang Shen / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2014, 6 (6):35-42
Cytotoxic Long-chain Alkene and Terpene Isolated from the Methanol Extract of the Air-dried Leaves of Pipturus arborescens C.B. Rob / Charlie A. Lavilla, Jr., Mylene M. Uy, Shinji Ohta / J Multidisciplinary Studies Vol. 3, No. 1, Aug 2014 / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7828/jmds.v3i1.624
Antimicrobial constituents of Pipturus arborescens. / Ontengco, Delia; Paano, Anamy Ma; Gabona, Marissa / Chemistry Department, De La Salle University, DLSU, Department of Medical Affairs, United Laboratories, UNILAB
Ethnomedical documentation of and community health education for selected Philippine ethnolinguistic groups: The Mansaka people of Pantukan and Maragusan Valley, Compostela Valley Province, Mindanao, Philippines / A collaborative project of Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care;
University of the Philippines Manila, Ermita, Manila; University of the Philippines Mindanao

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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