Dama de noche is an erect and climbing
ornamental smooth shrub, about 2 to 3 meters in height, with
long often-drooping branches. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate,
8 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tips. Flowers are numerous, slender,
yellowish-green, about 2 to 2.3 centimeters long, borne in lax, axillary
and terminal inflorescences, 7 to 10 centimeters long.
- Widely cultivated
in the Philippines for its sweet-scented flowers that bloom at night.
- Introduced from Tropical America.
- Toxic to livestock
with poisoning symptoms of tachycardia, fever, oliguria, and slowing
of respiratory rate; in extreme cases, convulsions and coma.
- Cuttings reported to be produce poisoning when eaten by animals.
- Experiments have shown the plant does not always poison stock and that toxicity is more likely with dry plants.
Extract of the plant used
as antispasmodic and treatment of epilepsy.
• Flavonol glycosides / Steroidal
saponins/ Cytotoxicity: The study isolated two new
flavonoid glycosides and seven steroidal saponins. The study reports
cytotoxic activities of the compounds against human oral squamous cell
carcinoma and normal human gingival fibroblasts.
• Atrial Contractility Effect: Effects of Cestrum nocturnum n-butyl
alcohol extract on contractile characteristics of right atrium:
The extract study showed a two-fold regulation on contraction of right
atrium in isolated guinea pig.
• Antiepileptic / Analgesic:
Decoctions from the dried leaves of the plant were tested in different
neuropharmacological models. Although not effective against pharmacologically
induced convulsions, repeated administration reduced the amplitude of
epileptic spikes in both primary and secondary foci. Results suggest
CN possesses analgesic activity through a peripheral mechanism.
The aqueous and methanol extracts of Cestrum nocturnum showed bacteridal
activity against S aureus, B subtilis, E coli and P aeruginosa.
• Antitumor: The n-butanol and polysaccharides extracts of Cestrum nocturnum are able to inhibit tumor growth and prolong the lifetime of tumor-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner.
• Phytochemicals / Steroidal Glycoside: Phytochemical testing yielded eight new steroidal glycosides: spirostanol saponin, furostanol saponin, a pseudo-furostanol saponin, two pregnane glycosides, two cholestane glycosides and a pregnane-carboxylic acid g-lactone glycoside and two known spinostanol glycosides.
• Mosquito Larvicidal Activity: (1) Study on the extracts of Cestrum nocturnum and Plumbago zeylanica for larvicidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts yielded bioactive phytochemicals with the predominance of saponins in C. nocturnum and plumbagin in P zeylanica. Experiments on the partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against forth instar larval form. It presents another public health potential of plant extracts for vector control. (2) Aedes aegypti is a vector parasite of Dengue. In a study, a methanol extract showed significant larvicidal activity, achieving 100% mortality in concentrations tested.
•Fumigant / Repellent Effects: Study investigated the repellent, fumigation, and contact toxicity of extracts of C. nocturnum. Results showed C. nocturnum had better fumigation and repellent effects on drosophila, but the contact action was weak.
• Antioxidant: Study concludes that the essential oil and various organic extracts from the flower of C. nocturnum possess antioxidant activities with a potential as natural resource for use in food and other allied industries.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Antipyretic: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed strong dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug. It also showed mild anti-pyretic activity at higher tested dose.
• Toxicity to livestock (above).
• Plant has anticholinergic properties.
• Anticholinergic syndrome results from the inhibition of muscarinic
cholinergic neurotransmission. Signs and symptoms are: flushing, dry
skin, altered mental state, fever, tachycardia, urinary retention, hypertension,
tremulousness, confusion, hallucinations. In severe cases, coma, respiratory
failure and cardiovascular collapse.