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Family Meliaceae
Toona ciliata M. Roem.
Hong chun

Scientific names Common names
Cedrela microcarpa C.DC.. Danupra (Tag.)
Cedrela serrulata Miq. Australian cedar (Engl.)
Cedrela toona Roxb. ex Rottler Australian red cedar (Engl.)
Surenus australis Kuntze Burmese cedar (Engl.)
Surenus microcarpa (C.DC.) Kuntze Burma cedar (Engl.)
Surenus toona (Roxb. ex Rottler) Kuntze Burma toon (Engl.)
Swietenia toona (Roxb. ex Rottler) Stokes Harms red cedar (Engl.)
Toona ciliata M.Roem. Indian mahogany (Engl.)
Toona kingii (C.DC.) Harms Mountain cedar (Engl.)
Toona microcarpa (C.DC.) Harms Red cedar (Engl.)
Toona mollis (Hand.-Mazz.) A. Chev. Toon (Engl.)
Toona sureni var. cochinchinensis (Pierre) Bahadur  
Toona ciliata M. Roem is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Tuun, Tun, Tuni.
BURMESE: <ai yom horm, Taung tama, Taw thamgo, Thit kador.
FRENCH: Cadre rouge, Cadre rouge d'Australie.
GERMAN: Australisches mahagoni, Australiches zeder.
HINDI: Lud, Mahanim, Tuun, Tuni.
KANNADA: Kallukkalingi, Suli.
LAOTIAN: Mai-yom-horm.
MALAY: Suren kapar, Suren mal (Java), Surian limpaga, Ranggoh (Sabah).
MALAYALAM: Devabaram, Mallarveppu.
PORTUGUESE: Cedro-australiano (Brazil).
SANSKRIT: Nandi, Nadika, Tunnah.
TAMIL: Agil, Cevvgil, Karansuli, Mala-vembu, Santhana-vembu, Thevatharem, Tunn, Tunumaram.
THAI: Yom hom.

Toona ciliata is a fast growing medium-sized to large deciduous tree with a rounded, spreading, occasionally dense crown, growing to a height of 20 to 35 meters, occasionally as high as 50 to 60 meters. The trunk can be clean for 9 to 22 meters with a diameter of 180 to 300 centimeters. Bark is brown to grey. Leaves are 15 to 35 centimeters long, usually paripinnate, sometimes with a terminal leaflet, asymmetric base, entire margins, glabrous, with acuminate apex. Petals are white, 5 to 6 millimeters long. Seed is encapsulated in an ellipsoid capsule, 10 to 20 millimeters lone, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter, winged at both ends.

- Found in Philippines, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia.
- Common to abundant in shade or open habitats, forests mountainsides, near rivers and streams.

- Phytochemical screening of various solvent extracts of leaves and flowers yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phytosterols, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (6)
- Study of 95% ethanol extract of leaves and stems of T. ciliata var. pubescens yielded 23 compounds identified as siderin (1), 4, 6, 7-trimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (2), isoscopoletin (3), scopoletin (4), 6, 7-dimethoxycoumarin (5), 7-hydroxy-6, 8-dime-thoxycoumarin (6), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (7), (−)-lariciresinol (8), thero-2, 3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxypheyl)-3-methoxy-propanol (9), cycloeucalenol (10), 8(14), 15-isopimaradiene-2, 3, 19-triol (11), 3S, 5R-dihydroxy-6R, 7-megstigmadien-9-one (12), (−)-loliolide (13), (+)-catechin (14), dimethyl malate (15), diisobutyl phthalate (16), dibutyl phthalate (17), 1, 3, 5-trimethoxybenzene (18), syringic acid (19), syringaldehyde (20), vanillic acid (21), vanillin (22), and 3, 3′, 5, 5′-tetra-tert-butyl-2, 2′-dihydroxybiphenyl (23). (8)
- Leaves yield aromatic compounds like coumarin glycoside, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and sterols. (8)
- Study of leaves and twigs yielded three new norlimonoids (1-3), two new tirucallane-type triterpenoids (4 and 5), and a new pimaradiene-type diterpenoid (6), along with two known limonoids and eight known tirucallane-type triterpenoids. (see study below) (10)
- Study of stem barks of Toona ciliata var. henryi yielded toonaciliatavarins A-H )1-8), including three new protolimonoids (1-3), two new tirucallane-type triterpenoids (4 and 5) and three new tetranortriterpenoids (6-8), and 10 known compounds. (see study below) (11)
- Study of T. ciliata for chemical constituents yielded seven compounds from petrol and chloroform extracts identified as as 3-Acetoxy-17-furan-3-yl-1-hydroxy-1, 4, 4, 10, 13-pentamethyl-12-oxo-tetradecahydro-16, 20-dioxa-cyclopropa [14, 15] cyclopenta [alpha] phenanthrene-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), n-C35H72 (4), palmitinic acid (5), n-C20H42 (6), 3-(3-Propyl-[1,1',3',1"]tercyclohexan-3"-yl)-propan-1-ol (7). (12)
- Study of stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens yielded six new tirucallane protolimonoids, toonapubescins A-F (1-6), one new rearranged tirucallane protolimonoid, toonapubescin G (7), and two two 21,22,12-trinorapotirucallane limonoids, toonapubesic acids A and B (8 and 9), along with five known tirucallane protolimonoids (10-14) and one known apotirucallane limonoid (15). (see study below) (18)
- GC-<S analysis of essential oil yielded main components of estragole (6.16%), ß-elemene (24.91%), ß-cubebene (1421%), and y-elemene (8.05%). (see study below) (20)

Studies have suggest antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, anthelmintic. antiulcer, properties.

Parts used
Bark, flowers, roots, seeds.


- Leaves are cooked.
- Bark is considered astringent, febrifuge, tonic, and antiperiodic. Used to treat dysentery and wounds. Resinous gum from bark used to treat boils. (4).
- Flowers used as emenagogue. (4)
- In Tanzania, roots used for treatment of wounds. (17)
- In traditional Chinese medicine, seeds used for treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, and ringworm. (8)
- Dye: Flowers yield a red coloring matter and a sulphur-colored dye Cotton and woolen fabrics can be dyed yellow by mere immersion in boiling extract of flowers.

- Tannin: Bark yield tannin.
- Fruit yields an aromatic oil.
- Wood used for shitake mushroom culture.
- Wood: Wood is hard and durable; used for cabinetry. It is used extensively for furniture, wood paneling and construction; for making cigar-boxes, decorative plywood, mouldings, etc. Wood of this species highly regarded in the manufacture of light-weight racing boats and dinghies. (4)

Antioxidant / Antiglycation / Hypoglycemic / Cytotoxicity:
Extracts of T. ciliata and Schkuhria pinnata were evaluated for potential antiglycation and hypoglycemic effect. Cytotoxicity profiles of extracts were determined using MTT assay on C2C12 cells. T. ciliate methanol extract showed highest percentage yield (20.83%) and high total phenols and flavanoids compared to S pinnata extracts. An acetone extract of T. ciliata showed good activity to DPPH scavenging and FRAP assays with EC50 values of 1.90 mg/ml and 5.26 mg/ml, respectively. The hexane extract of T. ciliata was less toxic to C2C12 cells with CC50 value of 402.16µg/ml. Overall, the hexane extract of S. pinnata showed highest antiglycation potential. Hexane extract of S. pinnata showed most potent glucose uptake ability. (3)
• Antibacterial / Root, Leaf and Stem: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of various extracts of T. ciliata stem, leaf, and root powder against ten different randomly selected bacteria by disc diffusion. A methanol extract showed strong activity against all test bacteria with MIC values ranging from 10 mg/ml to 35 mg/ml. (5)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaf and Flowers: Study evaluated various solvent extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of T. ciliata leaf and flower for phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed moderate activity against test phytopathogenic bacteria compared to tetracycline. Moderate activity was seen against Proteus mirabilis and least against K. pneumonia, S. typhi, and S. aureus. Methanol extract exhibited significant antifungal activity was seen against Microsporum canis with MIC of 1.25 mg/ml compared to miconazole. All extracts showed significant DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity in comparison with BHT. (see constituents above) (6)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Leaves have been shown to have beneficial effect on decreasing blood glucose levels and hyperlipidemia. Hypoglycemic activity have been attributed to flavonoids. (8)
• Anti-Ulcer / Heartwood: Study showed the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of heartwood in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. There was significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, and ulcer score. Activity may be due to terpenoids and steroids. (8)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities and polyphenols of leaves of T. ciliata grown in Bangladesh. At dose of 400 mg/kg extract showed anti-inflammatory activity )p<0.01) in a rat model of carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema. In ABTS scavenging assay, IC50 was significant (5.50 µg/ml) compared to ascorbic acid (12.01 µg/ml). Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content were 357.1 mg/g ascorbic acid, 239.2 mg/g gallic acid, and 98.36 ,mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. (9)
• Toonaciliatin M / Antifungal Terpenoid / / Leaves and Twigs: Study of leaves and twigs yielded three new norlimonoids (1-3), two new tirucallane-type triterpenoids (4 and 5), and a new pimaradiene-type diterpenoid (6), along with two known limonoids and eight known tirucallane-type triterpenoids. Compound 6, Toonaciliatin M, showed moderate antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum with an MIC of 12.5 µg/ml. (10)
• Cytotoxic / Anti-Inflammatory / Stem Bark: Study of stem barks of Toona ciliata var. henryi yielded toonaciliatavarins A-H )1-8), including three new protolimonoids (1-3), two new tirucallane-type triterpenoids (4 and 5) and three new tetranortriterpenoids (6-8), and 10 known compounds. The new isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity using six human cancer cell lines and for inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate cytotoxicities, and the protolimonoids 1-3 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on LPS-stimulated NO production. (11)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of leaves of T. ciliata in laboratory animals. Ethanol extract of leaves was evaluated for acute effect on analgesia by hot-plate test in mice and for inflammation using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in rats. Results showed significant inhibition (p<0.0g) of paw volume by 43.33% at dose of 500 mg/kbw and dose-dependent increase in reaction time in hot plate test. (13)
• Antitumor / Cytotoxicity / Siderin / Stem Bark: Study evaluated Toona ciliata stem bark for cytotoxicity and antitumor activity. Crude extracts and a major isolate, siderin, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay, and mild to moderate antitumor activity in potato disc bioassay. Results were compared to vincristine sulphate. (14)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study investigated the antihyperglycemic activity of leaves of T. ciliata hydroalcoholic extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. At extract doses of 0.2 and 0.4 g/kbw, results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, while total protein and HDL-C were increased compared to control. (15)
• Antimicrobial Gel Formulation / Toona ciliata and Ficus bengalensis / Synergism / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antimicrobial property of a gel formulation of T. ciliata leaves and F. bengalensis stem bark. Antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and antifungal activity against C. albicans. Of various formulations, ratio 3.7 showed synergistic effect. (16)
• Protolimoids and Norlimonoids / Protection against CDC25B and H2)2 Cell Damage / Stem Bark: Study of stem bark of T. ciliata yielded protolimonoids and norlimonoids. Toonapubescin G (7) showed promising activity against CDC25B with IC50 of 21 µM, while compound 8a showed significant cell protecting activity against H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage with 11.5% increased in cell viability. (see constituents above) (18)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Toona ciliata against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity (p<0.001) although less potent than standard drug Albendazole. (19)
• Antidepressant / Essential Oil: Study investigated the antidepressant effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata. Antidepressive effect were evaluated by immobility time in forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Results showed the essential oil significantly reduced FST and TST without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed by OFT. The EO also increased dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and BDNF(braiin-derived neurotrophic factor) in the hippocampus of CMS rats. Results suggest potential for the essential oil for curing depressive disorders. (20)
• Anti-Dengue: Review reports on the anti-dengue activity of selected plant species from Meliaceae family: Toona ciliata and Melia azadirachia, which have shown antiviral and antiparasitic activity due secondary metabolites such as limonoids, polyphenols, and tannins. (21)


September 2019

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Toona ciliata Roem. / Forest & Kim Starr / CC: by Creative Commons / click on image to go to source page / BioLib
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Toona ciliata: seedlings. / Poyt448: Peter Woodard / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sorting Toona names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Toona ciliata / Synonyms / The Plant List
Potential Antiglycation and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Toona ciliata M. Roem. and Schkuhria pinnata Lam. Thell. Crude Extracts in Differentiated C2C12 Cells / Brian K Beseni, Thabe M Matsebatlela et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2019, Article ID 5406862 /
Toona ciliata / Useful Tropical Plants
Antibacterial Studies on Toona Ciliata. Roemer. / Christopher Patrick Kiladi / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, July-August 2012; Volume 2, Issue 2: pp 32-35
Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Toona ciliata Roemer / Kumara Shanthamma Kavitha and Sreedharamurthy Satish / Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 2013; 4(23)
Chemical Constituents of Toona ciliata var. pubescens / Yu-Bo Liu, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Jiang-Jiang Qin et al / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, March 2011; 9(2): pp 115-119 / https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1009.2011.00115
Phytopharmacology of Toona ciliata: A Review / Divakar, Parminder Ratan / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2017; 8(5): pp 30-35 / DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.08568
In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory and in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Toona Ciliata Leaves Native to Bangladesh / Hemayet Hossain, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman & Ismet Ara Jahan / Global Journal of Medical Research: Pharma Drug Discovery, Toxicology and Medicine, 2014; 14(7)
Terpenoids from Toona ciliata / Hua Dong Chen, Sheng Ping Yang, Yan Wu, Lei Dong and Jian-Min Yue / Journal Nat Prod., 2009; 72(4): pp 685-689 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np800811b
Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Triterpenoids from Toona ciliata / Feng Zhang, Jun-Song Wang, YuCheng Gu, Ling-Yi Kong / J. Nat. Prod., 2012; 75(4): pp 538-546 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np200579b
Study on chemical constituents of tress of Toona ciliata / Li J Z, Mo H N, Ning X M / Zhong Yao Cai, Oct 2009; 32(10): pp 1539-1542
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Toona Ciliata in laboratory animals / Dr. Sam Pavan Kumar Gandamalla, Dr. Anil C, Dr. Pushpalatha Chinnam, D.Sathish Kumar / IJRPP, Oct-Dec 2017; 61(4): pp 389-395
Bioactivity from Toona ciliata Stem Bark/ Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury, Choudhury M. Hasan and Mohammad A. Rashid / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2003; 41(4): pp 281-283
Role of Toona ciliate extract in diabetes against streptozotocin – nicotinamide induced diabetic rats / Monika Rana, Sunil Kumar, Meenakshi Rana, Vinay Dhatwalia / Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 2016; 2(1): pp 6-10
ANTIPROLIFERATION EFFECTS OF SELECTED TANZANIA PLANTS / Chun Whan Choi, Seok Bean Song, Joa Sub Oh and Young Ho Kim / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., 2015;12(2): pp 96-102 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v12i2.15
Protolimonoids and norlimonoids from the stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens
/ Jian-Rong Wang et al / Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2011; 9: pp 7685-7696 / DOI: 10.1039/C10BO6150J
In Vitro Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Toona ciliata M. Roem on Indian Earthworm / Saumya Kanti Sinha et al / Indian Journal of Advanced Research / DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/9352
Antidepressant-like effect of essetnail oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis / Dongmei Duan, Liping Chen, Xiuyan Yang, Ya Tu, Shuang Jiao / Journal of Natural Medicines, April 2015; 69(2): pp 191-197
A Review of anti-dengue activity of selected plant species from Meliaceae family / M Mubeen et al / Drug Invention Today. 2018; 10(4)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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