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Family Loranthaceae
Scurrula ferruginea (Roxb. ex Jack) Danser
Yuan jiang guo ji sheng

Scientific names Common names
Cichlanthus ferrugineus (Roxb. ex Jack) Tiegh. Dapong-kahoi (Tag.)
Cichlanthus schultesii (Blume) Tiegh. Dapong-kahoy (Tag.)
Dendrophthoe chrysanthoides (Korth.) Miq.  
Dendrophthoe ferruginea (Roxb. ex Jack) G.Don  
Dendrophthoe schultesii (Blume ex DC) G.Don  
Etubila ferruginea (Roxb. ex Jack) Raf.  
Loranthus chrysanthoides Korth.  
Loranthus ferugineus Roxb. ex Jack.  
Loranthus schultesii Blume. ex DC.  
Loranthus sootepensis Craib  
Scurrula chrysanthoides (Korth.) Danser  
Scurrula feruginea (Roxb. ex Jack.) Danser  
Scurrula sootepensis (Craib) Danser  
Scurrula feruginea (Roxb. ex Jack) Danser is an accepted name, Plants of the Woorld Online

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Benalu teh.
CHINESE: Xiu mao li guo ji sheng, Dian nan ji sheng, Yuan jiang li guo ji sheng.
INDONESIAN: Kemladen, Benalu, Pasidan, Ambai-ambai, Tahi-burung.
MALAYSIA: Dedalu, Dalu-dalu, Dedalu-api.

Gen info
- Loranthus is a genus of parasitic plants that can grow on the branches of woody trees. It belongs to the Loranthaceae family, the showy mistletoe family.
- In the continuing taxon uncertainty, the number of species recognized in the genus Loranthus has varied widely. At one time it included almost all mistletoes. ,later splitting into many genera.

Dapong-kahoi is a bushy hemi-parasitic shrub. Branchlets and leaves beneath are densely covered with a tomentum of long- and short-branched hairs. Leaves are opposite, and shortly petioled, usually roundish-elliptical, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, and smooth above when old. Inflorescence is usually 2- to 5-flowered. Flowers are 1.2 to 2.5 centimeters long, in axillary, stalkless or short-peduncled fascicles. Calyx tube is obovate or pear-shaped, 2.5 to 3.5 millimeters long, with the limb entire. Corolla is slender, 7 to 17 millimeters long, with the tube split, and with 4 lobes. Fruit is clavate, 8 to 10 millimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters thick, and hairy.

- A parasitic on miscellaneous trees in many islands, in open forests only a low altitudes in Palawan.
- Also occurs in the China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam.

- Phytochemical studies have shown indicated presence of flavonoids and high concentrations of
condensed tannins. Three natural flavonol compounds were isolated from an ethyl acetate fraction i.e., quercetin and quercetrin, and an unusual flavonol glycoside 4'-O-acetylquercetrin. (11)

- Studies have suggested vascular relaxant, antihypertensive, cholinomimetic, antiviral, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, apoptotic properties.

Parts used


- Plant decoction used for malaria.
- Plant decoction used for treatment of hypertension and gastrointestinal complaints. (11)
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds and snake bites.
- Decoction of leaves used as protective medicine after childbirth.
- In Malaysia, used as postpartum protective remedy; also to treat malaria, wounds and snakebites.
- Plant decoction used as home remedy for health maintenance , enhancement of memory and well-being in the elderly. Leaves, fruits, and flowers are commonly used for hypertension, while roots are used for ulcer and cancer treatment. (11)
- Used for treatment of inflammation, rheumatism, and stroke.

Vascular Relaxation / Anti-Hypertensive:
Study of n-butanol fraction of methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus showed it induced vascular relaxation by stimulating muscarinic receptors, activating the endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway, promoting prostacyclin release. Results support its traditional use as anti-hypertensive agent. (1)
Cholinomimetic Effect: Study of a methanol extract of L. ferrugineus in isolated guinea pig ileum showed a spasmogenic effect probably mediated through a direct action on intestinal muscarinic receptors. (2)
Antihypertensive / Vasoconstriction Modulation: Study investigated the mode by which LF methanol extract antagonizes or modulates norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in rat aortic rings. Results showed LF ME exerted its vascular effect by reversible noncompetitive antagonism of norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction, providing a mechanism for its antihypertensive effect. (3)
Antiviral / Cytotoxic: Extracts of Scurrula ferruginea have been found to have antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus and poliovirus. Extracts were also cytotoxic against murine Lewis lung carcinoma, mouse lymphocytic leukemia (LI210), human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K562), human glioblastoma (U251), human prostatic carcinoma (DU145) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells. (5)
Flavonols / Cytotoxicity: Ethyl acetate fraction of Scurrula ferruginea yielded an unusual flavonol glycoside 4"-O-acetyl- quercitrin, together with quercetin and quercitrin. On cytotoxic evaluation on four human cancer lines, quercetin was the most active with an IC50 of 35 µm on U251 (human glioblastoma cells). (6)
Vasorelaxant / Blood Pressure Lowering Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of aerial parts for blood pressure lowering activity in in vitro and in vivo animal models. Results showed the methanol extract to be most active in blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized normotensive Sprague Dawley rats. The hypotensive effect was dose dependent which could be due to vasodilation mechanism and attributable to the high polyphenolic content of the plant. (7)
Cardiovascular Effects: Study evaluated active fractions of L. ferrugineus and mechanisms of cardiovascular effects. Results suggest L. ferrugineus induced cardiovascular effects by stimulating muscarinic receptors, activating endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway, promoting prostacyclin release and/or possibly through lengthening of NO half life. (8)
Cardiovascular Effect / Vascular Relaxant and Hypotensive Effect: Study showed an n-butanol fraction of a methanol extract of L. ferrugineus was the most potent fraction in producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose dependent blood pressure lowering effect in vivo. The effects are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content. (10)
Hypotensive / Spasmogenic: Study evaluated a methanol extract for blood pressure lowering effect in in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats and spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea pig ileum. The LFME dose dependently decreased mean arterial pressure. The LFME also produced dose-dependent contractile effect in guinea pig ileum. Results suggest a marked hypotensive effect that can be attributed to to stimulation of muscarinic receptors and/or stimulation of of nitric oxide (NO) release. The considerable spasmogenic effect was attributed to its cholinergic properties. (12)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Leaves, Stems and Flowers: Study evaluated extracts of flowers, leaves, and stems of S. ferruginea for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed the stem extract with the highest total phenolic content (309.069). All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner using DOH radical scavenging assay. The stem extract also found to chelate Fe2+ better than others. By disc diffusion assay, all extracts exhibited moderate inhibition against selected bacteria, with the stem extract showing the most significant MIC and MBC values. (15)
Anti-Inflammatory / Parasitizing on Tecoma stans: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of freeze-dried stems\ aqueous extract of S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans. Activity was assessed via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in lipopolysacharide (LPS) and interferon-y (IFN-y) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed anti-inflammatory capability attributed to inhibition of iNOS and IL-1ß mRNA expression, NO creation, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α protein production. Study suggests a plant-derived candidate for treatment of inflammation. (16)
Effect of Drying Methods on Antioxidant Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the the effect of different drying methods and extraction solvents on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of leaves. Oven drying (60°C) using 80% acetone gave the optimum extract yield, phenolic content (TPC an TFC) and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP. There was a significant positive correlation among TPC/TFC (p<0.05), DPPH (p<0.01), FRAP (p<0.01) and extract yield (p<0.01) under the influence of drying methods and extraction solvents. (17)
Apoptotic / Breast Cancer / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of S. ferruginea extracts. Extracts showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents. A methanol extract showed highest phenolic content (273 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid content (163 catechin/g extract_ and strong DPPH radical scavenging (IC50-27.81 µg/mL) and metal chelating activity (IC50= 80.20 µg/mL). A stem methanol and aqueous extracts showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50s of 19.27 and 50.35 µg/mL, respectively. The extracts inhibited migration and colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Morphological observations suggested apoptosis in the treated cells. The methanol extract induced increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting potential apoptotic activity. Results suggest a potential anticancer agent. (18)


Updated April 2022 / October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTOGRAPH / Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. / © Pharmacopuncture / Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench / click on image to go to source page / Journal.Ac
IMAGE SOURCE: ILLUSTRATION: 60207 Loranthus ferrugineus Jack / Loranthaceae / W.J. Hooker, Botanical miscellany, vol. 1, t. 59 (1830) W.J. Hooker/ Public Domain / Click to go to source image / www.plantgenera.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the vascular activities of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. in rat thoracic aorta / Mohammad Jamshed A. Siddiqui, Mun F. Yam, Raghava N. Sriramaneni et al /

Journ of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 127, Issue 1, 8 Jan 2010, Pages 19-25 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.057
In Vitro Cholinomimetic Effect of Loranthus Ferrugineus in Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum / Omar Ziad Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad Siddiqui et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 2, Issue 4 , Pages 288-293, December 2009
In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Profile of Loranthus ferrugineus: Evidence for Noncompetitive Antagonism of Norepinephrine-induced Vascular Contraction / Omar Z Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 3, Issue 4 , Pages 272-282, December 2010
Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Medicinal Plants of China and Its Neighborhood: Bioresources for Tomorrow's / Christophe Wiart / Google Books
Flavonols from Scurrula ferruginea Danser (Loranthaceae) / Francoise Loheziic-Le Devejat, Sophie Tomasi, Didier Fontanel and Joe ̈l Boustie / Z. Naturforsch. 57c, 1092Ð1095 (2002)
Vasorelaxant Properties of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. Methanolic Extract / Ameer, O. Z.; Salman, I. M.; Yam, M. F.; Abd Allah, H. H.; Abdulla, M. H.; Shah, A. M.; Sadikun, A.; Asmawi, M. Z. /International Journal of Pharmacology;2009, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p44
Review article: Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench / Ameer Omar Z.*, Salman Ibrahim M., Quek Ko Jin, Asmawi Mohd. Z. / Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. / O.Z. Ameer, I.M. Salman, M.J.A. Siddiqui, M.F. Yam, R.N. Sriramaneni, A. Sadikun, Z. Ismail, A.M. Shah and M.Z. Asmawi / Braz J Med Biol Res, February 2010, Volume 43(2) 186-194
Loranthus ferugineys: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench / Ameer Omar Z, Salman Ibrahim M, Quek Ko Jin, Asmawi Mohd Z / J Pharmacopuncture, Mar 2015; 18(1): pp 7-18 / DOIL 10.3831/KPI.2015.18.001 /
PMID: 25830054
Characterization of the Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Hypotensive and Spasmogenic Effects of Loranthus ferrugineus Methanol Extract / Omar Z Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman, Mohammad Z Asmawi et al / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2009; 37(5): pp 991-1008 / DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X09007405
Loranthus / Wikipedia
Scurrula feruginea / Plants of the World Online
Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Scurrula ferruginea Extracts
/ Mohsen Marvibaigi, Neda Amini, Eko Supriyanto, Shahpour Khangholi et al / Science and Technology, 70(5) / / DOI: 10.11113/jt.v70.3517
Anti-inflammatory evaluation of Scurrula feruginea (Jaxk) Danser parasitizing on Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.K. in LPS/IFN-y-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages / Xis Hong, Intan Safinar Ismail et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021; Vol 268: 113647 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep/2020.113647
Effect of Drying Methods and Extraction Solvents on Phenolic Antioxidants and Antioxidant Activity of Scurrula feruginea /
/Vanielie Terrence Justine / Sains Malaysiana. 2019; 48(7): pp 1383-1393 /
DOI: 10.17576/jsm-2019-4807-07
Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack( Danser Methanol Extract in Hyman Breast Cancer Cell MD-MB-231
/ Mohsen Marvibaigi, Neda Amini, Ekp supriyanto, Rozila Nasiri et al / PLOS ONE

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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