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Family Moraceae
Delta fig
Ficus deltoidea Jack

Scientific names Common names
Ficus deltoidea Jack Delta fig (Engl.)
Ficus deltoidea subsp. deltoidea Fig shrub (Engl.)
Ficus deltoidea subsp. motleyana (Miq.) Mistletoe fig (Engl.)
  Rusty-leaved bush fig (Engl.)
Ficus deltoidea Jack is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AFRICA: Kangkalibang.
INDONESIAN: Tabat barito.
MALAYSIAN: Mas cotek, Telinga beruk, Serapat angin, Sempit-sempit.
SWEDISH: Pillerfikus.

Gen info
- In the UK, the plant has been a recipient of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. (2)
- Etymology: The genus name 'Ficus' derives from Latin for fig or fig tree. The specific epithet 'deltoidea' refers to the leaf shape often resembling the Greek letter 'delta'. The common name 'Golden mistletoe fig' is a reference to the plant's epiphytic growth habit on trees which is similar to mistletoe plants and the golden color of the leaves in golden form

Ficus deltoidea is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to 2 m tall. Leaves are alternate along the stem, thick, deltoid in shape, rounded at the apex and tapering at the base; upper surface dark, shining green, the lower surface golden yellow with black spots.  Male and female plants are distinctive, the leaves of female plants big and round while the leaves of male plants are small, round and long. Synconia (figs) are round to oblong, 4-15 mm wide, ripen from yellow to orange or red to dark purple.

- Listed by some as native to the Philippines.
- Found in Palawan and Mindanao.
- Native to Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Maluku, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand.

- F. deltoidea contains large amounts of chemical constituents, including terpenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, saponins, and derivatives. Leaves, main part used for various purposes, contain mainly polyphenols, triterpenoids, saponins, and tannins, with less amounts of alkaloids. Stems yield mostly flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids, while fruits predominantly contain triterpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (7)
- Ethanol extract of leaves qualitatively yielded alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, coumarin, and steroids. (see study below) (21)
- Study of essential oil showed mainly sesquiterpenoids 60.9%, with ß-caryophyllene was the most abundant (36.3%). Other dominant compounds were germacrene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%). (see study below) (31)

- Studies have suggested wound healing, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-osteoporosis, antitumor, antiglycation, antimelanogenic , uterotonic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, fruits, roots.


- Used as an ingredient in herbal drinks, coffee drinks, supplements,
- Used in the traditional medicine of eastern Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Used for menstrual cycle regulation, treatment of postpartum depression, lung diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and skin problems.
- Malays used the powdered roots and leaves for treatment of sores, wounds, and rheumatism. Decoction of boiled leaves used as antidiabetic treatment, as after-birth tonic to contract the uterus and vaginal muscles, to treat leucorrhea. (4)
- Fruit chewed to relieve toothache, colds, and headache. Whole plant used as aphrodisiac tonic and as health tonic by women in Indonesia. (4)
- Herb used to assist labor, firm the uterus post-delivery, and prevent post-partum bleeding.

Enhancement of Wound Healing / Whole Plant:
Study evaluated an aqueous extract of whole plant for effect on wound healing closure using topical applications of extract on male Sprague Dawley rats. Healed wounds treated with 5% and 10% F. deltoidea extracts or Intrasite gel showed significantly accelerated rate of wound healing, with significantly lesser scar width at wound closure and more fibroblast proliferation, collagen fibers accompanied with angiogenesis in the granulation tissue. Results strongly suggest beneficial and significant effects in acceleration of rate of wound healing enclosure in experimentally induced wounds in rats. (5)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10, 20, and 50 mg/ml using disc diffusion method against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strain Candida albicans. All extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus and bacterial test strains except for chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The methanol extract showed good activity against all test organisms. (6)
Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaves for possible antinociceptive activity in three models of nociception, namely: acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin, and hot plate test.  Intraperitoneal administration of the extract at dose of 1, 50, and 100 mg/kg, 30 min prior to pain induction produced significant dose-dependent antinociception effect in all models used, indicating both central and peripherally mediated activities. Reversal of antinociceptive effect in the formalin and hot plate test by non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone suggests the endogenous opioid system involvement in the analgesic mechanism. (8)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the mechanisms underlying the antihyperglycemic action of Ficus deltoidea. A hot aqueous extract stimulated insulin secretion significantly up to 7.31-fold (p<0.001). The insulin secretory effect involved K+ATP channel-dependent and K+ATP-channel independent pathways. Extract also induced usage of intracellular Ca2_ to trigger insulin release. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts enhanced basal and insulin-mimetic or insulin-sensitizing property. The extracts also augmented basal and insulin-stimulated adiponectin secretion from adipocyte cells. Results suggest potential for an oral antidiabetic agent. (9)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts from three varieties of F. deltoidea using three in vitro assays i.e., lipoxygenase, hyaluronidase, and TPA-induced edema. The extracts exhibited different anti-inflammatory activities (p<0.05), comparable to apigenin, nordihydroguiaiaretic acid, and indomethacin. which were used as control. (10) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves using acute and chronic inflammatory models using carrageenan-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, and formalin test. Results showed the leaf extract exerted significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, with dose-response effects seen in paw edema and formalin tests. The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory effect against acute and chronic inflammatory responses and against pain-associated inflammatory response. (15)
Antiangiogenic / Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extracts of F. deltoidea using RP-HPLC for determination of ursolic acid content and antiangiogenic activity. In rat aortic rings, the extracts inhibited the outgrowth of microvessels with ICs of 48.2 and 62.7 µg/ml, respectively. Extracts also inhibited vascularization of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane with inhibition values of 62 and 43.3, respectively. Both extracts showed potent cytotoxicity against breast and colon cancer cells and no cytotoxicity against normal endothelial cells. Activity was attributed to the relatively high ursolic acid content and antioxidant phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts. (11)
Genotoxicity and Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute and subchronic toxicity of Ficus deltoidea extracts of leaves in Sprague Dawley rats. Cute toxicity study showed an LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic toxicity testing, there was not significant adverse effect on food consumption, body and organ weights, mortality, chemical and hematological parameters, and gross pathology and histopathology. There was no gene mutations in S. typhimurium. High contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. HPLC revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin. No-observed adverse effect level in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg. (12)
Cytotoxicity on Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea on human ovarian carcinoma cells using MTT assay.  The extracts showed IC50s of 224.39 and 143.03 µg/ml respectively. The A2780 cancer cells showed different cell growth profile with different concentrations of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Although both extracts could cause apoptosis at 1000 µg/ml, the aqueous extract promoted cell detachment, and the ethanolic extract inhibited cell proliferation through DNA fragmentation. (13)
Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of two F. deltoidea varieties (var. angustifolia/SF and var. kunstleri/BF) in in vitro methods. Crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed highest α-glucosidase inhibition. All extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with the SF crude extract showing highest antioxidant activiy and phenolic content (121.62 mg/g extract). There was no correlation between flavonoid and phenolic content with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of crude extracts but not the fractions. (14)
Antioxidant Activity and Flavonoid Content on Different Ages: Greenhouse study evaluated the phytochemical and total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity on different plant organs and ages. The older the age of the plant, the more types of phytochemical compounds found. At 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP), the highest flavonoid content was in senescent leaves extract followed by ripened fruit, fresh leaves, unripe fruit and stem. Antioxidant activity in all organs increased with increasing age of the plant. Highest antioxidant activity was seen on senescent leaves, followed by fresh leaves, ripened fruit, unripe fruit, and lowest on stem. Results showed senescent leaves extract has highest total flavonoid and antioxidant activity at 12 MAP compared to fresh leaves, unripe fruits, ripened fruits, and stem. (16)
Antitumor Activity on Oral Cancer / Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic: Study evaluated the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities of Ficus deltoidea in an Sprague Dawley rats induced with oral cancer using 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Results showed beneficial regression effect of FD on tumor progression. The extract significantly reduced incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma from 100% to 14.3% in the high dose groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased expression of ß-catenin and e-cadherin antibodies that are associated with enhanced cellular adhesion. FD significantly downregulated COX-2 and EGFR genes associated with cancer angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. (17)
Vitexin and Isovitexin / α-Glucosidase Inhibition / Leaves: Study evaluated the bioactive constituents with in vivo α-glucosidase inhibition. Bioactive guided fractionation isolated both vitexin (1) and isovitexin (2). Oral administration at 1 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) reduced post-prandial blood glucose level sucrose loaded normoglycemic mice at 30 min. Both vitexin and isovitexin did not show signs of toxicity at highest dose of 2 g/kg given orally to normoglycemic mice and induced diabetic rats. Both C-glycosyl bioflavonoids exhibited in vivo α-glucosidase inhibition. (18)
Anti-Prostate Cancer / Pro-Apoptotic / Anti-Migratory: Study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of Ficus deltoidea extracts and fractions on prostate cancer cells. Results showed the extracts induced cell death (p<0.05) via apoptosis as evidenced by nuclear DNA fragmentation.  Both FD1c and FD2c were not cytotoxic against normal human fibroblast cells. There was inhibition of both migration and invasion of PC3 cells (p<0.05). Results showed FD1c and FD2c overcame three main hallmarks of cancer in PC3 cells: (1) apoptosis by activation of intrinsic pathway, (2) inhibition of both migration and invasionn by modulating the CSCL12-CXCR4 axis, and (3) inhibiton of angiogenesis by modulating VEGF-A expression. (19)
Antiglycation and Antioxidant: Study evaluated the potential of standardized methanolic extracts from seven Ficus deltoidea varities in inhibiting the formation of AGEs, protein oxidation, and their antioxidant effects. Results showed all varieties of Ficus deltoidea extracts significantly restrained formation of flurescence AGEs, reduced fructosamine levels, increased thiol group levels, and inhibited formation of protein carbonyl. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed an IC50 of 66.81-288.04 µg/ml and reducing power activity at 0.02-0.24 µg/ml. Results showed the seven varieties of FD have potential to inhibit AGEs formation and possess antioxidant activity that may be attributable to the presence of phenolic compounds. (20)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the level of safety and toxicity of Ficus deltoidea leaves through acute and subchronic toxicity tests in mice (Mus musculus). Results showed no symptoms of toxicity and mortality at 2000 mg/kbw, indicating the 50% lethal dose (LD50) was above 2000 mg/kbw. In subchronic tests, with doses of 125, 250, 500m and 1000 mg/kbw, there were no behavioral changes, significant weight changes, and hematological and biochemical parameters. At LD50>2000 mg/kg, the ethanol extract was considered practically non-toxic. (21)
Effect on Uterine Contraction / Leaves: The herb has been used to assist labor, firm the uterus post-delivery, and prevent post-partum bleeding. In view of its uterotonic action, study evaluated the underlying mechanisms of effects on uterine contraction. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 17-oestradiol (E2) to synchronize the estrous cycle, and the uteri removed for in vitro contractions studies. F. deltoidea aqueous (FDA) extract induced in-vitro contraction of isolated rat's uteri in a dose-dependent manner. The FDA-induced contraction is mediated via multiple uretonin receptors (muscarinic, oxytocin, and prostaglandin F2α) and was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. (22)
Antiproliferative Effects in Breast and Colon Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of three varieties of FD and their anti-proliferative effects on breast and colon cancer cells. A methanol extract was best solvent for extraction of antioxidants and had the highest polyphenolic content (70-100 mg GAE/g), FRAP (6.0-9.) mmol Fe2+/g), ABTS (2.0-3.0 mmol TE/g) and DPPH (EC50 200-410 µg/mL) activities. The FDA-EA sjpwed anti-proliferative activities in MCF-7, MDA-MB 231, and HCT 116. Extracts also increased caspase 3/7 activities in HCT 116 and HCC 1937 cells. HCT 116 treated cells showed evidence of apoptosis induction. Results suggest FDA , especially FDA-EA showed to be a promising source of antioxidants and antiproliferative agents, especially against colon cancer.   (23)
Insulinotropic Activity: Study evaluated the insulin secretion activity of F. deltoidea standardized methanolic extracts from seven varieties and mechanisms involved. Insulin secretion assay was carried out by treating clonal BRIN BD11 cell line with standardized methanolic F. deltoidea extracts or glibenclammide. The clonal BRIN BD11 cell was treated with insulin agonist and antagonist to elucidate the insulin secretion mechanism. Results showed the methanolic extracts can inflict insulin  production from pancreatic beta cells. The insulin secretory activity was through the KATP dependent pathway. The insulinotropic effect suggests potential for a new agent in the management of diabetes mellitus to escalate insulin secretion from insulin producing cells. (24)
Antihypertensive / Fruits: Study showed extract of F. deltoidea fruits demonstrated inhibitory effects towards Angiotensin-1 Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity, suggesting it may possess anti-hypertensive properties. In search of a mechanism, study evaluated the effects of extract consumption on serum protein profile. Results revealed at least 30 protein spots were sigificantly different in expression profile between serum treated rats and control. The differentially expressed proteins may play roles in the physiological effects of the extracts, and an understanding of their expression dynamics may lead to an elucidation of mechanisms involved. (25)
Protective Against UVB-Induced Photoageing in Skin Cells: A previous study showed  F. deltoidea exhibited stong anti-melanogenic effects towards cultured B16F1 melanoma cells. Study evaluated the protective effect of FD extract against UVB-induced photoageing in skin cells. Treatment with F. deltoidea extract dramatically inhibited UV-induced TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, and COX-2 expression. Decreased collagen synthesis of fibroblasts as a result of UVB exposure was restored to normal level after treatment with FD extract. The enhanced MMP-1 expression from UVB irradiation was downregulated by FD extract in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest FD extract may exert a protective effect against UVB-induced skin damage and has potential for anti-photoageiing cosmetic products. (26)
Anti-Melanogenic Activity / Inhibiton of Tyrosinase Activity: Study evaluated the ant9i-melanogenic efficacy of F. deltoidea using cultured B16F1 melanoma cells. Results showed the extract has strong anti-melanogenic acitivity exerted by direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways. Study suggests potential for a novel depigmenting agent for cosmetics. (27)
Protective Effect against BPA Effects on Female Reproductive System: Exposure to environmental toxicants is a serious health concern.  EDC (endocrine disrupting chemicals) have increased in humans and wildlife with concern on detrimental effects on developmend and function of the reproductive system. One such EDC is BPA (bisphenol A), widely used in industries as plasticizer for production of polycarbamate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA may predispose to early onset of diseases of reproductive orgabns, reduced fertility and disruptive effects in the brain mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Study investigated the potential protective roles of F. deltoidea against BPA toxicity on female reproductive system. Results demonstrated significant protective effects of FD against toxicity caused by BPA on the reproductive system as evidenced by increase in percentage of rats with normal estrous cycle, increase in level of gonadotropins hormones (FSH) and sexual steroid hormone (progesterone) as well as reduction in formation of atretic follicles. (28)
Anti-Osteoporotic  and Antiosteoarthritic Activity: Study evaluated the preventive potential of F. deltoidea extract against osteoporosis (OP)- and osteoarthritis (OA)-related bone alterations in postmenopausal OA rat model. Results showed  the extract significantly (p<0.05) mitigated bone microstructural and biomarker changes by dose-dependently down-regulating pro-inflammatory NF-kß, TNF-α,  and IL-6 mRNA expressions. The extract showed good anti-osteoporotic properties in the preclinical model by stimulating bone formation and suppress9ing bone resorption via anti-inflammatory pathways. (29)
Antimutagenic / Cytoprotective / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of FD aqueous extract on both Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains using Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test). The extract showed no mutagenic effect. It decreased revertant colony count induced by 2-aminoanthracene in both strains. Pretreatment demonstrated remarkable protection against menadione-induced oxidative stress.  All extract concentrations exhibited antioxidant power, suggesting the cytoprotective effect could be partially attributed to its antioxidant properties. Results highlight the chemoprotective effect on mutagenic and oxidative stress inducers. (30)
Antibacterial Against Oral Pathogens / Synergism / Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oils of  Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) and Ficus deltoidea (FD) for antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcoitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MICs and MBCs ranging from 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. The combinatiion of both oils with amoxicillin demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The EOs may have caused disturbances of membrane structure or cell wall of the bacteria. (see constituents above) (31)
Mechanism of Uterine Contraction: Study evaluated the mechanism of F. deltoidea  crude extracts from two variants i.e. F. deltoidea var. Deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA) on uterine contraction. Maximum contraction was induced by FDD at 320 µg/ml abd FDA at 960 µg/ml. Both increased intensity of uterine strip contractiions and with increased PGF2α expression as well. The uterine contractions involved MAPK pathway through phosphorylation of p42/44 protein. (32)
Cartilate Protection in Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis / Leaves: Study evaluated the role of Ficus deltoidea leaves  extract on osteoporosis through IL-1ß-induced bovine cartilage explant and postmenopausal OA rat model induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) with comparison to diclofenac as a common OA pharmacologic drug. In vivo study showed both FD leaves and diclofenac supplemented groups significantly inhibited proteoglycan loss and increased chondrocytes proliferation. OA treated rats showed significantly less cartilage erosion.  The extract and diclofenac significantly reduced elevated serum levels of IL-1ß, PGE2, PIINP, and CTX-II in OA rats. Results showed FD leaves extract has a protective role on OA joint destruction through inhibition of inflammation and articular cartilage degradtion comparable to diclofenac. (33)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaf, Stem. Figs, Roots: Study reports on the green synthesis of AgNPs using leaf, stem, fig, and root of F. deltoidea var. kunstleri. The AgNP-Root exhibited more significant antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus compared to other organs. Visible damage was found on the bacterial wall of S. aureus treated with AgNP-Stem. Results suggest phytochemicals found in the organs significantly influenced the characteristics of AgNP, which impacted the antibacterial activity. (34)
Stimulation of Insulin Secretion / Effect on Hepatic Glucose Production / Leaves: Study investigated the effects of extracts of F. deltoidea leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. HPLC analysis showed the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones, particularly vitexin and isovitexin. The methanol extract showed significant (p<0.01) antidiabetic activity in elevated FBS in the test diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-related weight loss in rats was noticeably reversed. RT-PCR analysis suggests that the extract exerted its effect via down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phophatase genes expression and up-regulation of hepatic GK and PPARγ genes expression. Extract caused increased expression of GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscles that normalize the hyperglyceia. Extract also nullified the toxic effects of streptozotocin by blocking its entry into the islet ß-cells via reduction of expression of GLUT-2 gene. (35)
Enzyme Inhibitory Effects and Antioxidant Activities / Vitexin and Isovitexin / Leaves: Inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to control postprandial hyperglycemmia. Study evaluated the enzyme inhibitory effect and antioxidant properties of different fractions of methanolic extract from F. deltoidea leaves. The n-butanol extract showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50s 15.1 and 39.42 µg/ml, respectively) along with remarkable antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. HPLC profiling of n-butanol fraction revealed contents of isovitexin (24.63 mg/g) and vitexin (8.3 mg/g) were significantly higher than other fractions. Results suggest a potential source of a promising anti-diabetic drug. (36)
Anti-Adipogenic Effects on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: Study evaluated the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustilolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The methanol extracts of both varieties and water extracts of var. angustifolia significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Results suggest the inhibition of formation of mature adipocytes indicated the leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. (37)
Effect on Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Histology / Vitexin: Study evaluated the histological and oxidative stress changes in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats following FD extract and vitexin treatment. Treatment with F. deltoidea and vitexin increased pancreatic antioxidant enzymes and promoted islet regenneration. Significant increase in insulin secretion was observed only in rats treated with F. deltoidea. Results accentuate F. deltoidea and vitexin possess potential in attenuating pancreatic oxidative damage and as treatment for DM. (38)
Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Loaded with F. deltoidea / Anti-UVB: Study reports on the preparation of Ficus deltoidea extract loaded nanostructured lipid carrier  (FDNLC) using melt emulsification homogenization method. Virgin coconut oil was used as liquid lipid and glyceryl monostearate as solid lipid. The FDNLC showed high antioxidant value. Cell proliferation activity indicates the FDNLC is not toxic to cells, and could potentially treat damage by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. (39)
Anti-Osteoporosis / Promotion of Bone Formation / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of methanol leaves extract of Ficus deltoidea on bone histomorpho-metric parameters, oxidative stress, and  turnover markers in streptozotocin induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment could significantly increase bone mineral density (BMD) from 526.98 to 637, Higher levels of insulin, osteocalcin, and total bone n-3 PUFA in parallel with the presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy were also observed following treatment compared to diabetic control. Results suggest F. deltoidea could prevent diabetic osteoporosis by enhancing osteogenesis and inhibitng bone oxidative stress. (40)
Neuroprotective / -Osteoporosis / Leaves and Figs: Oxidative stress has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of many neuurodegenerative disorder of the brain including Alzheimer's disease. Study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of leaves and figs of aqueous extracts of four varieties for neuroprotective effect. Results showed the positive interaction between the inhibition of free radical with the neuroprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced in SH-SY5Y cells. (41)
Neuroprotective / Benefits on Spatial Learning and Memory: Study evaluated the effects of Ficus deltoidea and vitexin treatments on behavioral, gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed oral adminstration of F. deltoidea extract and vitexin to diabetic rats attenuated learning and memory impairment, along with several clusters of iimproved gyrification. Both treatments also caused significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) values, as well as significant reduction of TBARS. (42)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro wound healing activity of F. deltoidea leaf extract on skin cell. Cell proliferative and miigration assay were done on Human Skin Fibroblast cell (HSF1184), which were treated with different concentratiions of leaf extract. MTT assay showed that the leaf extract could induce cell proliferation at a dose dependent manner. The extract significantly accelerated wound closure process. Results suggest the leaf extract possesses wound healing potential and may be useful for development of a wound healing drug. (43)
Amelioration of Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Study evaluated the biochemical, hormonal, and histomorphometric changes in letrozole (LTZ)-induced PCOS in female rats following treatment with F. deltoidea. Results showed treatment with FD at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day reduced insulin resistance, obesity indices, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and  follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to near-normal levels in PCOS rats. Results suggest the potential utility of F. deltoidea as adjuvant agent in the treatment of PCOS.  (44)
Effect on Vascular Reactivity of Aortic Rings / Antihypertensive / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of  F. deltoidea leaves methanolic and water extracts on vascular reactivity compared with losartan, particularly on the contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and the angiotensin receptor type 1 in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Losartan treated and water extract treated groups significantly reduced vasoconstriction responses to PE (phenylephrine) in intact aortic rings. Results suggest both Ficus deltoidea water and methanolic extracts possess antihypertensive effects but withh different mechanisms. The water extract involves endothelium-derived NO but not prostacyclin pathway, while the methanolic extract involves NO/COX pathway. (45)
Encapsulated Nanostructured Lipid Carrier / Anti-Melanogeic Activity: Study evaluated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) as a system to transport Ficus deltoidea extracts through the skin. Results showed the delivery system exerted exceptionall transdermal transport properties. F. deltoidea-loaded NLC successfully and more effectiively reduced mellanin, when compared with non-entrapped
F. deltoidea extract.  (46)
Effect on Blood Clotting, Sperm Quality, and Testosterone Level / Leaves: Study evaluated the antithrombotic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of F. deltoidea leaves, and effects on sperm quality and testosterone level of diabetic rats. Injection of alloxan monohydrate significantly decreased testosterone level, sperm count and motility, and significantly increased blood glucose levels, blood clotting rate and sperm abnormalities. Rats given aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed significant improvement in testosterone level, sperm count and motility. Treatment also significantly reduced blood clotting rate, blood glucose levels, and sperm abnormalities. (47)
Protection against Ovariectomy-Induced Oxidative Stress / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract of leaves in protecting vital organs of female rats against ovariectomy -induced oxidative stress. Supplementatiowith F. deltoidea leaves extract not only reduced MDA levels and increased GSH levels and CAT activities in selected organs of the OVX+T rats but also decreased total cholesterol in the serum. Glutathione )GPx) activity was found increased only in the heart and kidney. Results suggest potential as an antioxidant supplement to protect vital organs against oxidative damage during the postmenopausal condition. (48)
Anti-Oral Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the effectiveness of Ficus deltoidea as an antioral-ulcer in male Sprague-Dawley rats model induced by applying 99.5% of glacial acetic acid moistened paper disc on rat buccal mucosa. Treatment with F. deltoidea and Triamcinolone acetonide resulted in significantly reduced size of oral ulcer. In vivo study showed the F. deltoidea extract was not toxic up to 1000 mg/kg. Results suggest the extract effectively accelerates oral ulcer healing. (49)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

- Capsules and tea bags in the cybermarket.

September 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ficus deltoidea -- leaves and fruits / Mokkie / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ficus deltoidea / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Ficus deltoidea / Wikipedia
Ficus deltoidea (Golden Form) / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance / Hamidun Bunawan, Noriha Mat Amin Siti Noraini Bunawan, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Normah Mohd Noor / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014; 2: 902734 /
DOI: 10.1155/2014/902734
Role of Ficus deltoidea extract in enhancement of wound healing in experimental rats
/ Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Khaled Abdul-Aziz Ahmed, Faisal Mohammad Abu-Luhoom, Mazim Muhanid / Biomedical Research, 2010; 21(3): pp 241-245
Antimicrobial activity of Ficus deltoidea Jack (mas cotek) / Othman Abd Samah, Nur Tarwiyah Ahmad Zaidi, Abu Bakar Sule / Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 25(3)
An Overview of Phytochemical and Biological Activities: Ficus deltoidea Jack and Other Ficus spp.
/ Kamran Ashraf, Mohd Rafiul Haque, Muhammad Fikriey Bin Shafie et al / J Phar Bioallied Sci., 2021; 13(1): pp 11-25 / DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_232_19 / PMID: 34084044
Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract
/ M R Sulaiman, D A Israf et al / Fitoterapia, Dec 2008; 79(7-8): pp 557-561 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.06.005
Ficus deltoidea: A Potential Alternative Medicine for Diabetes Mellitus
/ Zainah Adam, Shafii Khamis, Amin Ismail, and Muhajir Hamid / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,, Vol 2012: Article ID 632763 / DOI: 10.1155/2012/632763
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Standardised Extracts of Leaves of Three Varieties of Ficus deltoidea / Zunoliza Abdullah, Khalid Hussain, Zhari Ismail, Rasadah Mat Ali / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2009; 1(3): pp 100-105 / ISSN: 0975-1556
Antiangiogenic Effect of Ficus deltoidea Jack Standardized Leaf Extracts / A Shafaei, N S Muslim, Z Ismail et al / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 13(5) / DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v13i5.16
Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardised methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves / Elham Farsi, Armaghan Shafaei, Sook Yee Hor, Mohd Z Asmawi et al / Clinics, June 2013; 68(6) / DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(06)23
Cytotoxicity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Ficus deltoidea on Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Line / Nor Azurah Mat Akhir, Lee Suan Chua, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi / British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 2011; 1(4): pp 397-309
Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions
/ Hasni Misbah, Azlina Abdul Aziz, Norhaniza Aminudin / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013: Article No 118 /
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-118
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Ficus deltoidea
/ Z A Zakaria MSc PhD, M K Hussain MSC et al / Biological Research for Nursing, 14(1) / DOI: 10.1177/1099800410395378
Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) on different plant organs and ages / Hetty Manurung, Wawan Kustiawan, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Marjenah / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2017; 5(6): pp 120-125 / eISSN: 2320-3862 / pISSN: 2394-0530
Antitumor Activity of Ficus deltoidea Extract on Oral Cancer: An In Vivo Study / May Al-Koshab, Aied M Albsi, Marina Mohd Bakri, Rola ali-Saeed, Manimalar Selvi Naicker / Journal of Oncology, Volume 2020; Article ID 5490468 / DOI: 10.1155/2020/5490468
Vitexin and isovitexin from the leaves of Ficus deltoidea with in-vivo α-glucosidase inhibition
/ C Y Choo, T W Wong et al /Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012; 142(3): pp 776-781 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.062
In Vitro Pro-Apoptotic and Anti-Migratory Effects of Ficus deltoidea L. Plant Extracts on the Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines PC3 / Mohd M M Hanafi, Adlin Afzan, Jose M Prieto et al / Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2017 / DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00895
Antiglycation and Antioxidant Properties of Ficus deltoidea Varieties / Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Nurshieren Yahaya et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2020; Article ID 6374632 / DOI: 10.1155/2020/6374632
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Ethanol Extracts from Ficus deltoidea Leaves in Male Mice / Rudy Agung Nugroho, Retno Aryani, Hetty Manurung et al / Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2020; 8(A) / DOI: 10.3889/0amjms.2020.3989
In-vitro effect of Ficus deltoidea on the contraction of isolated rat's uteri is mediated via multiple receptors binding and is dependent on extracellus calcium
/ Naguib Salleh, Vivi Noryati Ahmad / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013; 13: Article No 359 / DOI:   10.1186/1472-6882-13-359
Ficus deltoidea: Effects of solvent polarity on antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities in breast and colon cancer cells / Mitra Abolmaesoomi, Johari Modh Ali et al / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019; Vol 28: pp 57-67 / DOI: 10.1016/j.eujim.2019.05.002
Insulinotropic Actiivity of Standardized Methanolic Extracts of Ficus deltoidea from Seven Varieties
/ Nurshieren Yahaya, Muhajir Hamid et al / Evidence-Based Complementary or Alternative Medicine, Vol 2018; Art ID 3769874 / DOI: 10.1155/2018/3769874
Effects of Ficus deltoidea Extract on the Serum Protein Profile of Simultaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR
) / N A H Abdullah, S A Karsani, N Aminudin / Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics - Open Access, July 2008, Vol S2, Abstract No 201 / DOI: 10.4172/j[b.s1000111

Protective effects of Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) extract against UVB-induced photoageing in skin cells / Rosnani Hasham, Chang-Seo Park et al / Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 2013; 18: pp 185-193 / DOI: 10.1007/s12257-012-0353-2
Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) extract exerted anti-melanogenic activity by preventing tyrosinase activity in vitro and by suppressing tyrosinase gene expression in B16F1 melanoma cells / Myoung-Jin Oh, Mariani Abdul Hammid, Chang Seo Park et al / Archives of Dermatological Research, 2011; 303: pp 161-170 /
DOI: 10.1007/s00403-010-1089-5
Protective role of Ficus deltoidea against BPA-induced impairments of follicular development, estrous cycle, gonadotropin and sex steroid hormone levels of prepubertal rats / Siti Sarah Mohamad Zaid, Shatrah Othman, Normadiah M Kassim . Journal of Ovarian Research, 2018; 11: Article No 99 /
DOI: 10.1186/s13048-018-0466-0
Ficus deltoidea Prevented Bone Loss in Preclinical Osteoporosis/Osteoarthritis Model by Suppressing Inflammation / Nur Adeelah Che Ahmad Tanbtowi, Seng Fong Lau, Suhaila Mohamed / Calcified Tissue International, 2018; 103: pp 388-399 / DOI: 10.1007/s00223-018-0433-1
Antimutagenic, Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Properties of Ficus deltoidea Aqueous Extract in Vitro
/ Theng Choon Ooi, Shakirah Ahmad, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Farah Wahida Ibrahim et al / Molecules, 26(11) /
DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113287
Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria / Nuramirah Azizan, Ibrahim Jantan et al / Molecules, 22(12) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122135
Mechanism Identifcation of Ficus deltoidea Aqueous Extract in Rat Uterine Contractions / Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Nor Fadilah Rajab et al / Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia Isu Khas, 2018: pp 75-81 /
DOI: 10.17576/JSKM-2018-11
Effect of Ficus deltoidea, a medicinal plant, on cartilage protection in cartilage explant and postmenopausal rat models of osteoarthritis / N Che Ahmad Tantowi, S Mohamed, P Hussin / Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 2016; 24(S1): pp 353-354 / DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.636
Antibacterial silver nanoparticles using different organs of Ficus deltoidea Jack var. kunstleri (King) Corner / Shahrulnizahana Mohammad Din, Muhammad Hariz Asraf et al / Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2022, Vol 44: 102473
Standardized extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulates insuling secretion and blocks hepatic glucose production by regulating the expression of glucose-metabolic genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Elham Farsi, Mohamed,
B Khadeer Ahamed et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicne, 2014; 14, Article No 220 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-220
Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities of standardized fractions of methanolic extract obtained from Ficus deltoidea leaves
/ Elham Farsi, Armaghan Shafaei, Sook Yee Hor et al / African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011; 10(67) / DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1365

Anti-adipogenic effect of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes / Shiau Mei Woon, Y W Seng, Anna Pick Kiong Ling,  S M Chye, R Y Koh /  Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2014; 15: pp 295-302 / DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1300123
Changes in pancreatic histology, insulin secretion and oxidative status in diabetic rats following treatment with Ficus deltoidea and vitexin / Samsulrizal Nurdiana, Yong Meng Goh, Mahdi Ebrahiimi et al / BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2017; 17: Article No 290 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1762-8
Characterization, Stability Assessment, Antioxidant Evaluation and Cell Proliferation Activty of Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Loaded with Ficus deltoidea Extract / Nor Arzini Nadiha Azmi, Rosnani Hasham, Farah Diana Ariffin et al / Cosmetics, 7(4) / DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics7040083
Ficus deltoidea promotes bone formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Nurdiana Samsulrizal, Yong-Meng Goh, Noor Syaffinaz Noor Mohamad Zin et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2021; 59(1) /
DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2020.1865411
Inhibition of Free Radical and Neuroprotective Effect of Four Varieties of Ficus deltoidea
/ Syazwani Dzolin, Rohaya Ahmad, Syed Aris et al / Advanced Materials Research, 2012 /
DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.554-556.1371
Improvement of spatial learning and memory, cortical gyrification patters and brain oxidative marekrs in diabetic rats treated wiith Ficus deltoidea leaf extract and vitexin / S Nurdiana, M Ebrahimi et al / Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Jan 2018; 8(1): pp 190-202 / 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcmw.2017.05.006
An in vitro study of wound healing activity of Ficus deltoidea leaf extract
/ Nurul Ain Aqilla Wan Mustaffa, Rosnani Hasham, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi / Jurnal Teknologi, 77(3) / DOI: 10.11113/jt.v77.6008
Ficus deltoidea ameliorates biochemical, hormonal, and histomorphometric changes in letrazole-induced polycystic ovrarian syndrome in rats / Muhammad Aliff Haslan, Nurdiana Samsulrizal, Nooraain Hashim, Noor Syaffinaz et al / BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2021; 21: Article number: 291 /
DOI: 10.1186/s12906-021-03452-6
Vascular reactivity on aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with methanolic and water extracts of Ficus deltoidea / Nadiah Razali, Aidiahmad Dewa, Zurina Hassan et al / Journal of Experimental & Integrative Medicine, 2013; 3(2): pp 93-102 /
Encapsulation of Ficus deltoidea Extract in Nanostructured Lipid Carrier for Anti-Malanogenic Activty / Siti Maria Abdul Ghani, Azila Abdul-Aziz et al / BioNanoScience,, 2021; 11: pp 8-20 /
DOI: 10.1007/s12668-020-00786-2
Effect of Ficus deltoidea leaves extracts on blood clotting, sperm quality and testosterone level in alloxan-induced male diabetic rats / Nurdiana S, Mohd Idzham, A Zanariah, Mohd Luqman Hakim M N / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 2012; 13(1): Article 19 /
ISSN: 0976-044X
Ficus deltoidea aqueous leaves extract abrogates enhanced-oxidative damage in ovariectomized rat models / Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Aida Farahin Abdullah, Nor Fadilah Rajab et al / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2021; 11(08): pp 147-153 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2021.110820 / ISSN: 2231-3354
Anti-Oral Ulcer Activity of Ficus deltoidea Leaves Extract on Animal Model / Vivi Noryati Ahmad, Indah Mohd Amin / Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 2017; 25(Suppl): pp 41-51

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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