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Family Amaranthaceae
Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr.

Jiang guo xian

Scientific names Common names
Achyranthes amaranthoides Lam. Aribugbug (Ilk.)
Celosia baccata Retz. Aribukbuk (Ilk.)
Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr. Ditiran (Tag.)
Deeringia baccata Moq. Hagorilis (Tag.)
Deeringia celosioides R. Br. [Illegitimate] Kanlilimokan (Bis.)
Deeringia indica Retz. Sili-silihan (Tag.)
Deeringia virgata Zipp. ex Span. Suni-suni (Ilk.)
  Shrubby deeringia (Engl.)
Deeringia amaranthoides (Lam.) Merr. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Rangoli-lota.
BENGALI: Golamohani.
CHINESE: Ye xian cai teng, Di ling xian, Jiang guo xian.
HINDI: Kalalori, Latman, Wali.
INDIA: Methok thoka, Chhorachurisag.
INDONESIA: Bayam besar, Pancaluhur, Bayem luur.
HINDI: Kalalobesar, Bajam pohon.
THAILAND: Khurea yaang, Phaahom pia a.
VIETNAM: D[eef]n leo.

Ditiran is a slightly hairy or nearly smooth vine, reaching a length of 5 to 6 meters, with drooping branches. Leaves are entire, ovate to oblong-ovate, 7 to 14 centimeters long, with pointed tips and subtruncate bases. Racemes are slender, elongated, drooping, 20 to 40 centimeters long, and borne in the upper axils. Flowers are numerous, shortly pedicelled, greenish-white, with reflexed segments, and about 1.5 millimeter long. Stamens are white and erect. Fruit is ovoid, fleshy, red, about 4 millimeters long.

- Common in thickets at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte to Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.
- Also occurs in India to China and southward to Australia.

- Plant thought to be poisonous to a certain degree; the root can cause violent sneezing.

- As vegetable, cooking significantly decreases sodium content of leaves. (4)
- Roots are sternutatory.

- Fruits yielded a new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1----3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1----2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-3 beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate, with two known saponins, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1----3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-3 beta- hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1----3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-3 beta- hydroxyolean-12-en-oate. (1)
- Micro-mineral analysis of raw and cooked green leafy vegetables (mg/100g of edible portion) yielded: Fe 16.78 ±2.79 (raw) 16.14 ±1.78 (cooked), Zn 0.63 ±0.13 (r) 0.62 ±0.09 (c), Cu 0.37 ±0.05 (r) 0.43 ±0.05 (c), Mn 0.57 ±0.09 (r) 0.58 ±0.10 (c), Cr 0.075 ±0.011 (r) 0.076 ±0.013 (c). (4)
- Macro-mineral analysis (mg/100 gram edible portion) yielded: Na 16.5 ±1.4 (r) 12.3 ±1.8 (c), K 317.8 ±27.2 (r) 243.7 ±21.7 (c), Ca 251.7 ±24.3 (r) 243.7 ±21.7 (c), Mg 143.3 ±11.3 (r) 112.7 ±10.4 (c), P 52.7 ±4.2 (r) 37.2 ± 3.1 (c). (4)

Parts used
Leaves and roots.


- In northeast India, leaf eaten as vegetable.
- In the Philippines decoction of leaves used for dysentery.
- In Java, mucous obstruction of the nose is treated by draining the nostrils with an infusion of the root with vinegar and alum.
- Some consider the root "poisonous" to a certain degree, or an irritant, as it can cause violent sneezing.
- Leaves are applied to sores.
- In the northwest Himalayas, roots used as sternutatory; least as antiseptic, applied on boils and sores.

- In India, fruit used as anti-cancer; roots used to treat jaundice.
- In the Dakshin Dinajpur district of India, young mature stem along with stem of "Chotchota" Triumfetta rhomboidea is worn as a garland to cure jaundice. (6)
- In the northwest Himalaya, leaf used as antiseptic, applied on boils and sores. (7)

New Saponins:
Study of fruits yielded a new triterpenoid saponin together with two known saponins. (See constituents above) (1)


Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update September 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / File:Deeringia amaranthoides.jpg / Tatiana Gerus from Brisbane, Australia / Uploaded by berichard / Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. / click on image to see source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / File:Deeringia amaranthoides Blanco2.236-original.png / / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
A new saponin from Deeringia amaranthoides / Sati O P, Bahuguna S et al / J-Nat-Prod. 1990 Mar-Apr; 53(2): 466-9
Deeringia amaranthoides (Lam.) Merr. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China

Medicinal Plants of Sewa River Catchment Area in the Northwest Himalaya and its Implication for Conservation / Mahroof Khan, Satish Kumar and Irshad Ahmed Hamal / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1113- 39, 2009.
Mineral content of some wild green leafy vegetables of North-East India / Pankaj Saikia* and Dibakar Chandra Deka / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(3):117-121
Natural sources as potential anti-cancer agents: A review / Abhishek Bhanot, Rohini Sharma, Malleshappa N. Noolvi* / International Journal of Phytomedicine 3 (2011) 09-26
Local folk use of plants in Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India / Chowdhury Tanmay, De Sarker Dilip and Roy Chandra Subhas / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 3(5), 67-79, May (2014)
Medicinal Plants of Sewa River Catchment Area in the Northwest Himalaya and its Implication for Conservation / Mahroof Khan, Satish Kumar and Irshad Ahmed Hamal / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1113- 39, 2009.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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