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Family Apocynaceae
Parameria laevigata (A. Juss.) Moldenke
Jie jia teng

Scientific names Common names
Aegiphila laevigata Juss. Bulau-bulau (P. Bis.) 
Chonemorpha densiflora (Blume) G.Don Dugtong-ahas (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera barbata (Blume) Miq. Gamot-sambali (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera densiflora (Blume) Miq. Ikdig-ñga-purau (Ilk.)
Ecdysanthera glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) A.DC. Inggiu-na-puti (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera griffithii Wight Itiban (Tag.)
Echites barbatus (Blume) D.Dietr. Karkarsang (Ig.)
Echites densiflorus Blume Kuni-na-puti (Tag.)
Echites glanduliferus Wall. ex G.Don Lumpiit (Ilk.)
Parameria angustior (Miq.) Boerl. Lupiit (Ilk.)
Parameria barbata (Blume) K.Schum. Ogoi (Ig.)
Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) Benth ex Kurz. Parugtong-ahas (Tag.)
Parameria glandulifera var. philippinensis (Radlk.) Stapf. Pataan (Ilk.)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke Patian (Ilk.)
Parameria philippinensis Radlk. Pulang-pulang (Ilk.)
Parameria vulneraria Radlk. Sada (Ig.)
Parsonsia barbata Blume Sadak (Ilk.)
  Sagid (Bis.)
  Sagit (Tag.)
  Tagolauai (Tag.)
  Taguk-taguk (Bis.)
  Tagulauai (P. Bis.)
  Yakdig (Ilk.)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Var ang kot.
CHINESE: Jie jia teng.
INDONESIA: Gembor, Ragen, Akar gerip putih, Pegat sih, Kayu rapet.
MALAYSIA: Akar serapat puteh, Akar garip puteh, Akar serau, Kayu rapat.
THAILAND: Khruea khao muak, Khruea suut, Som lom.
VIETNAM: D[oox] tr[oj]ng nam.

Dugtong-ahas is a woody vine. Leaves are oblong or obovate-lanceolate, 7 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, white and clustered. Fruit is very long and slender, 15 to 20 centimeters in length, smooth, very narrowed between seeds. Seeds are about a centimeter long, sharply pointed at one end and crowned on the other end with numerous white hairs about 2.5 centimeters long.

- Common in thickets and open forests at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, La Union, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Pampanga, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Busuanga, Palawan, Panay, and Cebu.
- Also occurs in China, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, and Borneo to the Moluccas.

- The bark contains a caoutchouc, 8.5%, which may be mixed with a resin.
- Study reports the rubber contains 6% of resin.

- Cicatrizant.

Parts utilized
Bark, twigs, leaves.

- In the Philippines, the tagulauai oil has been long valued as a cicatrizant. To prepare, the bark is macerated in coconut oil and used as vulnerary.
- Pounded twigs and leaves are applied to cuts and lacerations.
- Infusion of leaves taken internally as an emmenagogue, to facilitate menses.
- The bark, macerated in oil is an efficient, also used internally for tuberculosis.
- Decoction of the bark drunk in the Sunds Islands and in Java after childbirth to help shrink the uterus.
- Decoction of the bark also used for dysentery and externally for wounds.
- Referred to as "Aceite de Moros," "Balsamo de Cebu" and "Balsamo de Tagulaway" - prepared by cooking the root-bark and branches of Parameria barbata in coconut oil. The yellowish-white oily liquid is used for skin diseases and wounds.
- In Indonesia, it is an ingredient of a folk medicine called "Jamu" or" Kayu rapet," traditionally used as an anti-ulcer or anti-diarrheal medicine and for treating wounds.

- "Tagulauai" oil is valued as a cicatrizant; to prepare, macerate the bark in coconut oil.
- "Balsamo de Tagulaway" or Balsamo de Cebu is prepared by cooking the root-bark and branches of Parameria barbata in coconut oil to form a yellowish-white oily liquid which is used for skin disease and wounds. (A. Pharm., Nov., 1885.)

- Fiber: Bark fiber used for making rope.

Phytochemicals / Bark Constituents:
Studies on the constituents of bark of Parameria laevigata moldenke: One new trimeric proanthocyanadin and two new tetrameric proanthocyanidains – parameritannin A-1 and parameritannin A-2 were isolated from the bark of Parameria laevigata Moldenke. (1)
Jamu / Anti-thrombotic / Anti-arteriosclerotic:
P laevigata, one of many components in a study, was shown to have an anti-thrombus effect. (3)
Antiteratogenic Potential: Extracts from the leaf of P. laevigata and yacon tubers (Smallanthus sonchifolius) were studied for antiteratogenic potential using duck embryos. Extracts administered with retinoic acid had antiteratogenic properties. (4)
Parameritannins / Selective Human Cancer Cytotoxins / Anticancer: Study isolated parameritannins A-2 and A-3, new A-type tetrameric proanthocyanidins from the bark of P. laevigata which showed to inhibit eukaryotic topis I, II or both. Parameritannin A-3 induced apoptosis, while parameritannins acted as topo inhibitors. Results suggest a potential for an anti-cancer compound that poisons topos. (7)


Last Update September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo /Apocynaceae : Parameria laevigata / Flowering vine / Copyright © 2013 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL62255] / Non-Commercial Use / click on photo to see source image / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William H Brown / Figure 32/ Parameria barbata (Dugtung ahas) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Studies on the constituents of bark of Parameria laevigata moldenke / Kamiya K et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 49(5) 551—557 (2001)
Balsa of Cebur or Tagulaway.

Research and Development of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Agents for Age-Related Diseases in Aging Society Search for the Substances to Prevent Thrombosis and Arteriosclerosis from Natural Resources / Journal Code:N20051692 / VOL.;NO.;PAGE.110-112(2003)
Evaluation of the antiteratogenic potential of Parameria laevigata crude leaf and Smallanthus sonchifolius tuber extracts on the duck embryo / ANNABELLE A. HERRERA, SHIELA MAE A. SAN DIEGO / Asia Life Sciences, Vol 18, No 2 (2009)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke / Catalogue of Life, China / 2010
Parameria laevigata (A L Juss.) / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Novel Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors, Parameritannins A-2 and A-3, are Selective Human Cancer Cytotoxins / Chikako Murakami-Nakai, Kohei Kamiya , Toshiko Satake and Isoko Kuriyama / International Journal of Pharmacology, 1: 138-151. / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2005.138.151
Parameria laevigata / Synonyms / The Plant List

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