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Family Myrtaceae
Duhat
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
BLACK PLUM

Hai nan pu tao

Scientific names  Common names 
Calyptranthes jambolana Willd. Duat (Pamp.)
Eugenia cumini (Linn.) Druce Dungboi (Ig.) 
Eugenia djouat Perr. Duwet (Indon.)
Eugenia jambolana Willd Lomboi (Ilk., Tag., C.Bis.) 
Myrtus cumini Linn. Longboi (Ilk.) 
Syzygium jambolana DC. Lumboi (Ibn., Ilk., P. Bis., Bik.) 
Syzygium cumini Skeels Lungboi (Ilk.) 
  Indian blackberry (Engl.)
  Jambolan (Engl.)
  Java plum (English) 
  Black plum (English) 
  Duhat plum (English) 
  Ciruelo de Java (Span.)
  Hai nan pu tao (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Thabyang hpyoo.
CHINESE: Hei mo shu, Wu kou shu, Wu mu.
FRENCH: Faux pistachier, Jambolon, Jambolanier, Jamelonguier, Jamélongue, Prune de Java.
GERMAN: Jambolanapflaume, Wachsjambuse.
HINDI: Jamun, Jamun beej.
ITALIAN: Aceituna dulce.
JAPANESE: Janboran, Murasaki futo momo.
KHMER: Pring bai, Pring das krebey.
LAOTIAN: Va.
MALAY: Jambhool, Jamblang (Indonesia), Jambul, Jambulan, Jambulana,Jumbul, Jiwat, Juwet (Bali), Doowet (Indonesia), Djoowet (Indonesia).
NEPALESE: Jaambu, Jaamun, Kaalo jaamun, Phaniir.
PORTUGUESE : Azeitona da terra (Brazil), Jambol, Jambolao (Brazil), Jambuláo, Jamelão (Brazil), Jaláo, Murta (Brazil).
RUSSIAN: Sitsigium kminovyj.
SPANISH: Ciruelo de Java, Jambolán (Costa Rica), Jambolana, Guayabo pesgua, Guayabo pésjua (Venezuela), Pésjua extranjera (Venezuela), Yambolana.
THAI: Hakhiphae, Look hwa, Ma ha, Hwa.

Botany
Duhat s a smooth tree about 8 to 15 meters high with white branchlets and reddish young shoots. Leaves are opposite, shiny and leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 to 12 centimeters long, the tip being broad and shortly pointed. Panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often being axillary or terminal, about 4 to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are small, numerous, scented, pink or nearly white, in clusters, without stalks, borne in crowded fascicles on the ends of the branchlets. Calyx is funnel-shaped, about 4 millimeters long, and 4-toothed. Petals cohere and fall all together as a small disk. Stamens are numerous and about as long as the calyx. Fruit is oval to elliptic, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark purple or nearly black, luscious, fleshy and edible with a sweet astringent taste; containing a single large seed.

Distribution
- Found throughout the Philippines, planted, and in many regions spontaneous.
- Probably of prehistoric introduction from Malaya.
- Also occurs in the Indo-Malayan region generally.

Constituents
- Early study of seeds yielded neither alkaloid nor enzyme, but an abundance of starch and tannin. Proximate analysis showed: Moisture 8.0, starch (diatase) 41.4, crude fiber 2.3, pentosans 2.1, protein 6.3, ash 2.9, dextrin 2.1, and tannin 6.0.
- Seeds yield glycosides, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, fat, resin, albumin, chlorophyll2, an alkaloid- jambosine3, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related tannin,3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose and its isomer 4,6- hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose, 1-galloylglucose, 3-galloylglucose, quercetin and elements such as zinc, chromium, vanadium, potassium and sodium. Unsaponifiable matter of seed fat contains β-sitosterol.
- Phytochemical screening of the seeds yielded alkaloids, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids.

Properties
- Considered astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal.

Parts used
Fruit and bark.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the most popular fruits in the Philippines.
- Ripe fruit is eaten outright.
- Juice can be made into wine; used in the manufacture of red wine, "tinto dulce."
- Fruit is a good source of calcium and a fair source of iron.
- In Malaya, vinegar is made from the juice of the unripe fruit.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction of bark given internally for dysentery.
- Bark decoction also used as an enema.
- Diarrhea: Liberal amounts of the fleshy portion of the fruit.
- Decoction of the bark used as a gargle or mouthwash for gingivitis and mouth ulcerations.
- Fresh juice of the bark given with goat's milk for diarrhea in children.
- Bark decoction as an astringent wash for wounds.
- Ripe fruit is astringent and considered an efficient remedy for diabetes. Decoction of leaves and bark also used for the same purpose, but the ripe fruit is considered the best.
- Pulverized dried seeds also used for diabetes.
- Powdered seeds and root-bark used for diarrhea.
- In India, seeds used for diabetes. Bark used for diarrhea, dysentery, and spongy gums. Poultice of leaves used for skin complaints. Powdered seeds also used for metrorrhagia.
- In Unani medicine, seeds used as liver tonic, to enrich the blood, strengthen the teeth and gums, and as lotion to remove ringworm of the head.
- Fruit is used as astringent in bilious diarrhea; used as a gargle for sore throat and as lotion in tinea capitis.
- Vinegar prepared from juice of the ripe fruit used as stomachic, carminative, and diuretic.
- Juice of leaves, alone or with other astringents, used for dysentery.
- Bark used for sore throats, indigestion, appetite loss, leucorrhea, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers and dysentery.
- In Brazil, leaves and fruits used to treat infectious diseases, diabetes and stomachaches.
Others
· Wine and fruit drink from the ripe fruits. Seeds used for fodder.

Studies
Anti-Diabetes: Animal study of aqueous extract from SC bark showed stimulation of development of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct epithelial cells.
(2)
Anti-Diabetic / a-glucosidase: Study of SC seed kernel extracts in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats
showed inhibition of a-glucosidase as a possible mechanism for its anti-diabetic effect. (3)
Phytochemicals: Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India: Phytochemical screening of extracts of Syzygium cumini seed revealed alkaloids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenoids. These phytochemicals probably explain the plants medicinal properties. (4)
Anti-inflammatory / Seeds: The study on SC extracts established the anti-inflammatory activity of the SC seed.
(5)
Anti-inflammatory / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed the SC leaf had remarkable acute and chronic anti-inflammatory actions in the tested rodent models.
Radioprotective: Study evaluated the
influence of a seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of .GAMMA.-radiation : SCE treatment protected mice against radiation sickness and mortality against all doses and showed an increase survival. (6)
Gastroprotective: The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats: The study suggests the tannins extracted from SC have gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects.(7)
Antioxidant / Tannins / Fruits: Study isolated tannins from the fruit of SC and suggests the use of the fruit as a significant source of natural antioxidants.

Antioxidant / Fruit Study showed a significant correlation between extract concentration and percentage of free radical inhibition or lipid peroxidation. Authors suggest the antioxidant property of the fruit skin may come in part from the antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, tannins and anthocyanins present in the fruit. (12)
Red Wine Source: Study prepared a red wine from the anthocyanin-rich fruit of SC through fermentation using wine yeast.
(9)
Central Nervous System Activity: Animal study of seed extract of SC showed dose-dependent depressant effect of locomotion attributed to the presence of saponins.
(
10)
a-Amylase Inhibition / Anti-Hyperglycemic: Study of 11 medicinal plants showed Syzygium cumini seeds with strong inhibition of a-amylase activity. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts reduced glycemia of diabetic rats. The bark showed anti-hyperglycemic
activity on oral glucose tolerance testing. Seed extract yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The compound showed high a-amylase inhibitor activity, but the inhibitory activity of the individuals compounds needs further testing and verification. (11)
Anti-Cervical Cancer: Study of Z cumini extract showed inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (13)
Anti-Allergic: Study of on the aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini showed the main components to be hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids. Results showed inhibition of paw edema, edema induced by histamine, prevention of mast cell degranulation and consequent histamine release in Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. The findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect; the anti-edematogenic effect is attributed to inhibition of mast cell degranulation.
(20)
Prophylactic Anti-Septic Effect: Study concluded that treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect not due to a direct microbicidal effect but rather, associated with a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished antiinflammatory response.
(18)
Antibacterial / Glucoamylase Inhibitor / Anti-Diabetic: Study of ethanol extract of seeds showed moderate to good antibacterial activity against E. coli, B subtilis, P aeruginosa and S aureus. It also showed to be a potent inhibitor of glucoamylase and suggests a hypoglycemic function in type-2 diabetes that may be independent of functioning B-cells.
(19)
Cardioprotective: Study of a methanolic extract of SC seeds on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats confirmed a cardioprotective effect.
(20)
Radioprotective: Study demonstrated jamun extract protected mice against radiation-induced DNA-damage and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation may be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection.
(21)
Diabetic Trial / Randomized, Double-blind, Double-Dummy, Controlled Trial / No Antihyperglycemic Effect: Results showed significant reduction in patients treated with glyburide, with no changes in those treated with Syzgium cumini tea. The tea and extracts prepared from leaves of S. cumini were shown to be pharmacologically inert, showing no antihyperglycemic effect.
(22)
Anti-Vibrio Cholera Activity: Study investigated the ethanol extract of leaf of Syzgium cumini against Vibrio cholerae serogroups Ogawa and Inaba. The EEL effectively inhibited the growth of both serogroups, with fragmentation of genomic DNA. Results showed potential growth inhibitory activity against multi drug resistant Vibrios, and suggests a potential for effective candidates to combat cholera. (23)
Fruit-Pulp Activity Against Fluoride-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the ameliorative effect of SC fruit extract in male albino mice against fluoride exposure. Results showed revitalization of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, with ameliorative potentials in male sex related toxicology, with reclamation of spermatogonia and interstitial tissue after jambul extract treatment. (24)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seasonal fruiting.

Last Update November 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (10), pp. 2301–2309, 18 May 2009
(2)
Syzygium cumini and the regeneration of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct / Deila Rosely C Schossler et al / Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 2004) 41:236-239 / doi: 10.1590/S1413-95962004000400003
(3)
∂-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats / doi:10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.003
(4)
Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India / A Kumar, R Ilavarasan et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (1): 83-85, 2009
(5)
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed / A Kumar et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (8), pp. 941-943, 17 April, 2008
(6)
Influence of Seed Extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on Mice Exposed to Different Doses of g-radiation / Journal of Radiation Research, Vol. 46 (2005) , No. 1 59-65
(7)
The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats
(8)
Syzygium - Cumini, (Linn) Skeels
(9)
Fermentation of Jamun (Syzgium cumini L.) Fruits to Form Red Wine / ASEAN Food Journal 14 (1): 15-23 (2007)
(10)
Central Nervous System Activity of Syzygium cumini Seed / A Kumar et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (6): 698-700, 2007
(11)
Identification of a-amylase inhhibitors from Syzgium cumini Linn seeds / K Karthic et al / Indian J Exp Biol, September 2008
(12)
In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit
/ Archana Banerjee et al / Food Chemistry,
Volume 90, Issue 4, May 2005, Pages 727-733 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.033
(13)
Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervicalcancer cell lines: A primary study / D Barb and G Viswanathan / Volume: 2 Article Number: 83 / DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2008.83
(14)
Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels / F A Brito et al /
Braz J Med Biol Res, January 2007, Volume 40(1) 105-115
(15)
Syzygium jambolanum treatment improves survival in lethal sepsis induced in mice / Marcia CG Maciel, Jardel C Farias et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8:57doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-57
(16)
Sorting Syzygium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(17)
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE SEED OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI LINN / D C Modi, J K Patel, B N Shah, and B S Nayak / Pharma Science Monitor, Vol-1, Issue-1, 2010
(18)
Antibacterial Study and Effect of Ethanolic Extracts of Syzygium cumini Seeds Powder on Glucoamylase invitro / Gangadhar A. Meshram, Sunil S. Yadav et al / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.3(2), 2011,1060-1063
(19)
Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini leaf against experimentally induced acute and chronic inflammations in rodents / Anirban Roy, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Jitendra N. Pandey, Moulisha Biswas / DOAJ, Vol 1, No 1 (2011) / DOI: 10.4081/ams.2011.e6
(20)
CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI SEEDS ON ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS / SK Mastan, G Chaitanya, T Bhavya Latha, A Srikanth, G Sumalatha, K Eswar Kumar / Scholars Research Library
(21)
Inhibition of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the Cultured Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of γ-Radiation / Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Prakash Chandra Shetty, Mamidipudi Srinivasa Vidyasagar / Integrative Cancer Therapies

(22)
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Results of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled trial / Claudio Coimbra Teixeira, MD, Letícia Schwerz Weinert, Daniel Cardoso Barbosa, Cristina Ricken, Jorge Freitas Esteves, MD and Flávio Danni Fuchs, MD, PHD / Diabetes Care / American Diabetes Association
(23)
Leaf Extract of Syzygium cumini Shows Anti-Vibrio Activity Involving DNA Damage / Nazmul Ahsan, Nilanjana Paul, Nazrul Islam and Anwarul A. Akhand / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 11(1): 25-28, 2012 (June)
(24)
PROTECTIVE ROLE OF JAMBUL (SYZYGIUM CUMINI) FRUIT-PULP EXTRACT AGAINST FLUORIDE-INDUCED TOXICITY IN MICE TESTIS: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY
/ Khawaja R Ahmad,* Tooba Nauroze, Kausar Raees, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad A Kanwal, Shazia Noor, Shamsa Jabeena / Research report Fluoride 45(3 Pt 2)281–289 July-September 2012


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