Duhat is a smooth tree, about 8 to
15 meters high with white branchlets and reddish young shoots. Leaves
are opposite, shiny and leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 to 12 centimeters
long, the tip being broad and shortly pointed. Panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often being axillary or terminal, about 4 to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are small, numerous, scented, pink or nearly white, in clusters, without stalks, borne in crowded fascicles on the ends of the branchlets. Calyx is funnel-shaped, about 4 millimeters long, and 4-toothed. Petals cohere and fall all together as a small disk. Stamens are numerous and about as long as the calyx. Fruit is oval to elliptic, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark purple or nearly black, luscious, fleshy and edible with a sweet astringent taste; containing a single large seed.
- Found throughout the Philippines, planted, and in many regions spontaneous.
- Probably of prehistoric introduction from Malaya.
- Also occurs in the Indo-Malayan region generally.
- Early study of seeds yielded neither alkaloid nor enzyme, but an abundance of starch and tannin. Proximate analysis showed: Moisture 8.0, starch (diatase) 41.4, crude fiber 2.3, pentosans 2.1, protein 6.3, ash 2.9, dextrin 2.1, and tannin 6.0.
- Seeds yield glycosides, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, fat, resin, albumin, chlorophyll2, an alkaloid- jambosine3, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related tannin,3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose and its isomer 4,6- hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose, 1-galloylglucose, 3-galloylglucose, quercetin and elements such as zinc, chromium, vanadium, potassium and sodium. Unsaponifiable matter of seed fat contains β-sitosterol.
- Phytochemical screening of the seeds yielded alkaloids, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids.
- Mineral analysis showed calcium to be abundant in all fruit parts (pulp, kernel, and seed coat) and extracts. Fresh pulp was rich in carbohydrates, protein, and minerals. Total phenolics, anthocyanins, and flavonoid contents of pulp were 3.9 ±0.5, 1.34 ±o.2 and 0.07 ±0.04 g kg (-1), respectively. Kernel and seed coat contained 9.0 ± 0.7 and 8.1 ± 0.8 g kg (-1) total phenolics, respectively.
(see study below) (26)
- Proximate composition of fresh jamun seed yielded (g/100g of seed dry basis) moisture 47.0, carbohydrate 72.0, protein 6.8, fat 0.35, crude fiber 2.9, ash 2.0. (29)
- Proximate analysis of fruit pulp composition yielded moisture content of 82.19±2.46%, crude protein 2.15±0.06%, crude fat 0.83±0.02%, crude fiber 1.76±0.05%, ash 2.04±0.06%, and NFE (nitrogen free extract) 11.03±0.33. Jamun seed yielded moisture of 16.34±0.49, crude protein 1.97±0.59%, crude fat 0.65±0.01%, crude fiber 4.19±0.12%, ah 2.18±0.06 and NFE 74.67±2.24%. (38)
- Study of pet-ether and carbon tetrachloride soluble fractions of seeds isolated secondary metabolites viz. 7-hydroxycalamenene, methyl-ß-orsellinate, ß-sitosterol, and oleanolic acid. (42)
- In a study five extraction solvent of leaves for phytoconstituents, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained most of the phytochemical constituents viz., alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phenols, proteins, triterpenoids, steroids, fixed oils and fats. (51)
- In a study of various extracts for antioxidant activity, a methanol extract showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474 ± 2.2 mg GAE/ g dw and 668 ± 1.4 mg QUE/g dw, respectively. (see study below) (52)
- Considered astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal.
- Studies have shown anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, gastroprotective, antioxidant,
CNS depressant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, cardioprotective properties.
Fruit and bark.
Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the most popular fruits in the Philippines.
- Ripe fruit is eaten outright.
- Juice can be made into wine; used in the manufacture of red wine, "tinto dulce."
- Fruit is a good source of calcium and a fair source of iron.
- In Malaya, vinegar is made from the juice of the unripe fruit.
- In the Philippines, decoction of bark given internally for dysentery.
- Bark decoction also used as an enema.
- Diarrhea: Liberal amounts of the fleshy portion of the fruit.
- Decoction of the bark used as a gargle or
mouthwash for gingivitis and mouth ulcerations.
- Fresh juice of the bark given with goat's milk for diarrhea in children.
- Bark decoction as an astringent wash for wounds.
- Ripe fruit is astringent and considered an efficient remedy for diabetes. Decoction of leaves and bark also used for the same purpose, but the ripe fruit is considered the best.
- Pulverized dried seeds also used for diabetes.
- Powdered seeds and root-bark used for diarrhea.
- In India, seeds used for diabetes. Bark used for diarrhea, dysentery, and spongy gums. Poultice of leaves used for skin complaints. Powdered seeds also used for metrorrhagia.
- In Unani medicine, seeds used as liver tonic, to enrich the blood, strengthen the teeth and gums, and as lotion to remove ringworm of the head.
- Fruit is used as astringent in bilious diarrhea; used as a gargle for sore throat and as lotion in tinea capitis.
- Vinegar prepared from juice of the ripe fruit used as stomachic, carminative, and diuretic.
- Juice of leaves, alone or with other astringents, used for dysentery.
- Bark used for sore throats, indigestion, appetite loss, leucorrhea,
bronchitis, asthma, ulcers and dysentery.
- In Brazil, leaves and fruits used to treat infectious diseases, diabetes and stomachaches.
· Wine: Wine and fruit drink from the ripe fruits.
· Fodder: Seeds used for fodder.
Animal study of aqueous extract from SC bark showed stimulation of development
of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct epithelial cells. (2)
• Anti-Diabetic / α-Glucosidase:
Study of SC seed kernel extracts in
vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats showed inhibition of a-glucosidase as a possible
mechanism for its anti-diabetic effect. (3)
• Phytochemicals: Investigation on
a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India:
Phytochemical screening of extracts of Syzygium cumini seed revealed
alkaloids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, steroids, tannins and
triterpenoids. These phytochemicals probably explain the plants medicinal
• Anti-inflammatory / Seeds: The study on SC extracts established
the anti-inflammatory activity of the SC seed. (5)
• Radioprotective: Study evaluated the influence of a seed extract
of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of .GAMMA.-radiation
: SCE treatment protected mice against radiation sickness and mortality
against all doses and showed an increase survival. (6)
• Gastroprotective: The gastroprotective effect of
tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol
induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats:
The study suggests the tannins extracted from SC have gastroprotective
and anti-ulcerogenic effects.(7)
/ Tannins / Fruits: Study isolated tannins from
the fruit of SC and suggests the use of the fruit as a significant source
of natural antioxidants.
/ Fruit Study showed a significant correlation between extract concentration and percentage of free radical inhibition or lipid peroxidation. Authors suggest the antioxidant property of the fruit skin may come in part from the antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, tannins and anthocyanins present in the fruit. (12)
• Red Wine Source:
Study prepared a red wine from the anthocyanin-rich fruit of SC through
fermentation using wine yeast. (9)
• Depressant Central Nervous
System Activity: Animal study of seed
extract of SC showed dose-dependent depressant effect of locomotion
attributed to the presence of saponins. (10)
• α-Amylase Inhibition / Anti-Hyperglycemic: Study of 11 medicinal plants showed Syzygium cumini seeds with strong inhibition of a-amylase activity. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts reduced glycemia of diabetic rats. The bark showed anti-hyperglycemic activity on oral glucose tolerance testing. Seed extract yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The compound showed high a-amylase inhibitor activity, but the inhibitory activity of the individuals compounds needs further testing and verification. (11)
• Anti-Cervical Cancer: Study of Z cumini extract showed inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (13)
• Anti-Allergic: Study of on the aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini showed the main components to be hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids. Results showed inhibition of paw edema, edema induced by histamine, prevention of mast cell degranulation and consequent histamine release in Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. The findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect; the anti-edematogenic effect is attributed to inhibition of mast cell degranulation. (14)
• Prophylactic Anti-Septic Effect: Study concluded that treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect not due to a direct microbicidal effect but rather, associated with a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished anti-inflammatory response. (18)
• Antibacterial / Glucoamylase Inhibitor / Anti-Diabetic: Study of ethanol extract of seeds showed moderate to good antibacterial activity against E. coli, B subtilis, P aeruginosa and S aureus. It also showed to be a potent inhibitor of glucoamylase and suggests a hypoglycemic function in type-2 diabetes that may be independent of functioning B-cells. (19)
• Cardioprotective: Study of a methanolic extract of SC seeds on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats confirmed a cardioprotective effect. (20)
• Radioprotective: Study demonstrated jamun extract protected mice against radiation-induced DNA-damage and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation may be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection. (21)
• Randomized, Double-blind, Double-Dummy, Controlled Diabetic Trial / No Antihyperglycemic Effect: Results showed significant reduction in patients treated with glyburide, with no changes in those treated with Syzgium cumini tea. The tea and extracts prepared from leaves of S. cumini were shown to be pharmacologically inert, showing no antihyperglycemic effect. (22)
• Anti-Vibrio Cholera Activity: Study investigated the ethanol extract of leaf of Syzgium cumini against Vibrio cholerae serogroups Ogawa and Inaba. The EEL effectively inhibited the growth of both serogroups, with fragmentation of genomic DNA. Results showed potential growth inhibitory activity against multi drug resistant Vibrios, and suggests a potential for effective candidates to combat cholera. (23)
• Fruit-Pulp Activity Against Fluoride-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the ameliorative effect of SC fruit extract in male albino mice against fluoride exposure. Results showed revitalization of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, with ameliorative potentials in male sex related toxicology, with reclamation of spermatogonia and interstitial tissue after jambul extract treatment. (24)
• Antioxidant Study / Fruit Pulp, Kernel, Seed Coat: Jamun pulp ethanol extract (PEE), kernel ethanol extract (KEE), and seed coat ethanol extract (SCEE) showed high degree of phenolic enrichment. An alcoholic extract was evaluated for antioxidant potential against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, peroxide radicals, and lipid peroxidation. (see constituents above) (26)
• Diuretic / Bark: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of various extracts of bark of S. cumini in Wistar albino rats. Results showed the methanol and aqueous extracts possess diuretic activity as evidenced by increase in total urine output, significant increase in excretion of sodium and potassium. (27)
• Anti-Diabetic / Mycaminose / Seed: Study of isolated compound mycaminose and EA and ME of S. cumini seeds against STZ-induced diabetic rats showed anti-diabetic effects with significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose. (28)
• Immunomodulatory / Seeds: Mastan et al suggested the methanolic extract of seeds possesses promising immunomodulatory activity. In a hemagglutination reaction and delayed type hypersensitivity response in rats induced by Sheep RBC, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in total WBC, neutrophils and lymphocytes. (Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of S. cumini seeds. / Mastan et al / Pharmacogyonline, 2008,3,895-903). (29)
• Biosorbent / Leaves: Study reports the adsorption capabilities of S. cumini leaves for crystal violet and eosin B using batch adsorption method. Adsorption of crystal violet was endothermic while that of Eosin B was exothermic, both spontaneous at all temperatures. (30)
• Anti-Breast Cancer / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated various concentrations of methanolic extract of fruit pulp for in-vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cells using MTT assay. Cell viability was inhibited to different extents by different concentrations of the extract. (31)
• Antimicrobial Cancer / Fruit Pulp: Study of various extracts of stems and leaves showed antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. Maximum zone of inhibition was seen against routella plantikola. It also showed maximum inhibition against fungal strains Penicillum chrysogenum and minimum inhibition against Candida albicans. (32)
• Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles showed effective antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species. (33)
• Cuminoside / Cardioprotective / Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of S. cumini seeds in normal and NIDDM in rats. Study isolated an active principle, Cuminoside, which caused significant reduction in FBS in diabetic rats, significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, ALT, AST, and LDH, together with improvement in HDL levels. Results suggest cuminoside has cardioprotective potential and antidiabetic activity. (34)
• Protection Against Diabetes Induced Ulcerogenic Stimuli / Seeds: Study evaluated the protective effect of E. jambolana alone and in combination with Acarbose in T2D rats exposed to models which caused ulcerogenic stimuli. Results suggest the concurrent administration of S. cumini and Acarbose at low doses may have prevented the development of diabetes induced ulcerogenic stimuli by decreasing gastric oxidative stress and providing a direct gastroprotective action. The low dose combination may have provided a synergistic ulcer protective effect. (35)
• Effect of Prolonged Treatment with S. cumini on Salivary Glands: Study evaluated the effects of prolonged treatment with S. cumini sheet aqueous extract on the structure of cells responsible for secretory process in parotid and submandibular salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice. Results showed structural alterations in the salivary glands of mice with nuclear and cytoplasmic atrophy and occurrence of inflammatory cells and elevated blood sugar levels. (36)
• Anti-inflammatory / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed the SC leaf had remarkable acute (carrageenan, histamine, and serotonin induced rat paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet induced rat granuloma) anti-inflammatory actions in the tested rodent models. (37)
• Antihypertensive / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo potential antihypertensive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of SC leaves in normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneoously hypertensive rats (SHR), and in vitro effect on vascular reactivity of resistance arteries. Results showed reduction of blood pressure and heart rate of SHR probably due to the inhibition of arterial tone and extracellular calcium influx. (39)
• Platelet Effect / Protection from Oxidative Damage / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro effects of S. cumini incubation on platelets from patients with diabetes, to test its efficacy as potential adjuvant therapy. Results showed in Sc activity counteracts oxidative damage by improving platelet function through augmented membrane fluidity and Na+/K+ ATPase activity, as well as functionally enhancing the antioxidant system by increasing NO levels, SOD, and TAC. SC supplementation may have a preventive and protective effect in oxidative damage progression associated with diabetes mellitus and its complications. (40)
• Protective Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Study evaluated various extracts of S. cumini and Bauhinia forficata on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as protective activities against toxic agents. The major chemical constituent of SC was rutin. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity. Both partially prevented lipid peroxidation. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+. Results suggest S. cumini might represent a therapeutic option for treatment of diseases associated with mitchondrial dysfunction. (41)
• Chemopreventive / Anticarcinogenic / DMBA-Induced Skin Papillomagenesis: Study evaluated the protective effect of S. cumini seed extract against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results suggests an anticarcinogenic effect during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis that is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status. (43)
• Radioprotection / Seeds: Study the effect of a seed extract of S. cumini in normal as well as in tumor bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in biological tissues. Results suggest the seed extract has protective effects against radiation induced cellular damage and biological alterations which may be attributed to the scavenging of free radicals and antioxidant properties. Author suggests the seed extract may be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress and mitigate the side effects of radiation to normal tissues. (44)
• Biosorbent / Seed: Study reports on a very low cost biosobent from S. cumini seeds for treatment of hexavalent chromium from contaminated waters. (45)
• Antibacterial / Dental Caries / Leaves: Study investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of leaves of S. cumini against Streptococcus viridans, S. mutans, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. Aqueous, methanolic, hexane and EA extract of leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against dental caries causing strains. Results suggest a potential phytomedicine source to cure dental caries. (46)
• Hepatoprotection / Seed: Study of an aqueous extract of seed powder on hepatoprotection in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a dose-dependent protective effect. (47)
• Sustained Release Matrix Tablets / Anti-Diabetic: Study reports on the formulation of Metformin HCl sustained release matrix tablets using S. cumini as a release rate retarding agent which is also antidiabetic in nature by means of wet granulation method. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated with alloxan model of experimental rats. Results suggest that the S. cumini extract acted as a good release rate retarding agent and showed promising additive antidiabetic activity with Metformin. (48)
• Nephroprotective / Seed: Study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of S. cumini seed in diabetic Wistar albino rats. High dose seed extract and standard oral hypoglycemic drugs showed significant decrease in creatinine and urea levels. The seed powder extract showed significant nephroprotective effect. (49)
• Staining Capability / Seed: Study evaluated the staining capability of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from S. cumini, C. blumei, S. pallida and B. vulgaris as dyestuffs on different fungal species. Results showed the extracts have capability to be alternative biological stains to Lactophenol cotton blue in staining Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. (50)
• Antioxidant / Leaf Gall Extracts: Study evaluated leaf gall extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and FRAP methods. In all methods, the methanolic extract showed the higher antioxidant potential than standard ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity correlated with the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. (52)
• Anti-Leishmanial Activity / α-Pinene / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of essential oil and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania amazonensis. Study showed α-pinene was effective against L. amazonensis promastigote forms, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.7 µg/mL. The anti-leishmanial effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity as evidenced by increased in phagocytic and lysosomal activities. (Rodriguez et al, 2015) (53)
• Antidiarrheal Activity / Seed: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of aqueous extract of seed in mice in a castor oil induced diarrhea model and charcoal meal test. Results showed the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect attributed to an antimotility and antisecretory effect. (Shamuwar et al., 2012) (53)
• Anti-Hyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Seeds: Study of S. cumini seed extract showed anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. SC significantly (p<0.05) reduced serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL. LD50 was found to be 1000 mg/kg. No toxic symptoms were observed at 150 and 250 mg/kg doses. (54)
• Homeopathic Tincture in Diabetes: Study evaluated the remedial effects of homeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of STZ-induced diabetic male albino rat. The homeopathic tincture of S. jambolanum showed therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (55)
• Antifertility / Seeds: Alcohol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini at 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days showed anti-spermatogenic effect in rat. (Shad et al., 2014) (58)
• Comparative Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of seeds, leaves, fruit pulp of S. cumini. Results showed the total phenolic and flavonoid content in leaves is higher than the pulp and seed extracts. A linear correlation was shown between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. (59)
- Seasonal fruiting.
- Extracts and tinctures in the cybermarket.