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Family Malvaceae
Sida rhombifolia Linn.

Ya mu tou

Scientific names  Common names 
Sida rhombifolia Linn. Alant (Germany)
Sida ruderata Macfad. Aunee (Frabce)  
Sida unicomis Marais Basbasot (Ilk.) 
Sida insularis Hatus Baseng-baseng (Bis.) 
Sida pringlei Gand. Elenio (Italy) 
  Escobilia (Span.) 
  Eskobang-haba (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) 
  Eskoba (C. Bis.)  
  Lubluban (Bon.)
  Nang-nang-isit (Ilk.)
  Sinaguri (Sul.) 
  Singitan (Ilk.) 
  Sinutan (Ibn.)   
  Taching-baka (Iv.) 
  Takim-baba (Ilk.) 
  Ualis-haba, Walis-haba (Tag.)
  Ualis-ualisan (Tag.)
  Walis-haba (Tag.)
  Walis-walisan (Tag.) 
  Arrow-leaf sida (Engl.)
  Paddy's lucerne (Engl.)
  Teaweed (Engl.)
  Yellow barleria (Engl.) 
Escoba / Escobilla / Eskuba/ Eskoba are common names confusingly shared by several Philippine medicinal plants: Sida acuta, Sida retusa (ualis), Scoparia dulcis (mala-anis), Sida rhombofolia (ualis-haba).
Ualis / ualisualisan / ualis-haba are also confusingly shared root-words: Sida acuta, Sida retusa, Sida rhombofolia.
Some compilations list S retusa and S rhombifolia as synonymous species; Quisumbing's compilation lists them as separate species.
Quisumbing lists S. rhombifolia and S. spinosa as synonyms. Other compilations list them as separate species.

Other vernacular names
AFRICA: Petoria-bossie.
ARABIC: Qinnab el Kûînsland (Egypt).
ASSAMESE: Boriala.
BANGLADESH: Lal berela atibala.
BENGALI: Svetbarela.
CHINESE: Bai bei huang huo ren, Huang huo, Ya mu tou, Mu wu.
FRENCH: Balyé wonzè, Chanvre d'Australie, Fausse guimauve, Faux thé, Herbe à balais.
GERMAN: Kubajute, Queensland Hanf, Sidafaserpflanze.
GUJARATI: Baladana.
HINDI: Baryara, Kharenti, Sahadeva, Swetbarela.
JAPANESE: Kingojika.
KANNADA: Bolamgadale, Kallangadale.
MALAYALAM: Vankuruntotti, Valankuruntotti, Velluram.
MARATHI: Baler, Sadeda, Sahadevi.
NEPALESE: Saano cilyaa.
ORIYA: Bajromuli.
PORTUGUESE: Chá-bravo, Erva do chá, Enula campana, Guaxuma, Malva-preta, Relógio, Vassourinha.
RUSSIAN: Sida rombolistnaya, Atibala.
SANSKRIT: Atibala, Bala, Mahabala.
SPANISH: Afata negra, Ancu-sacha, Angosacha, Axpcatzín, Escoba, Escoba blanca, Escobilla, Escobita ceniza, Huinar, Malva de puerco, Malva prieta, Mata-alfalfa, Popotalagua, Tipichaguazu.
SRI LANKAN: Chittamadi.
TAMIL: Chittamutti, Velaippacai.
TELUGU: Guba tada, Mahabala.
THAI: Khat mon, Ya khat , Yung pat mae mai.
TURKISH: Avsdralia keneviri.
URDU: Bala, Baryara.
VIETNAMESE: Ké hoa vàng.

Ualis-haba is an erect, branched shrub reaching 0.5 to 1.5 meters in height. Leaves are oblong to rhomboid, 1 to 4 centimeters long, the apex rounded or pointed, the margins toothed, and the lower surface covered with very short pale hairs. Flowers occur singly in the axil of the leaves. Calyx is green. Corolla is yellow, about 1.5 centimeters diameter. Fruit has 8 to 10 carpels which are smooth or somewhat wrinkled, about 2.5 millimeters long and awned.

A very common weed in the Philippines.

- Plant considered anti-rheumatic, antipyretic, analgesic, appetite stimulant, anti-asthmatic, CNS depressant, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, hypotensive, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vasorelaxant.
- Roots are considered febrifuge, cooling, astringent, tonic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

• Seven ecdysteroids, including three new compounds were isolated. Four – ecdysone, 20-hydoxyecdysone, 2-deoxyecdysone, 2-deoxy-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside and 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside–were reported for the first time.

• Phytoscreening of a methanol extract yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, and reducing sugars.
• Study yielded eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a) and stigmasterol (1b), sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a) and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b), phaeophytin A (3), 173-ethoxypheophorbide A (4), 132-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5), 173-ethoxypheophorbide B (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7), cryptolepinone (8) and a salt of cryptolepine (9). (See study below) (15)
• An aqueous-methanol extract yielded tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. (16)
Crude chloroform extracts yielded n-hexacos-11-enoic acid, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. (see studies below) (25)
• Proximate analysis of roots yielded moisture 7.5%, total ash 7.8%, crude protein 5.7%, crude fiber 36.7%, crude fat 2.8%, and nitrogen free extract 47%. Inorganic mineral analysis yielded calcium 0.85%, sodium 0.28%, zinc 371.1 ppm, and magnesium 0.32%

Parts used
Whole plant.

- In the Philippines decoction of the roots is used as a gargle for toothaches; internally, as a stomachic.
- Decoction of bitter bark used for fever.
- A decoction from any plant part used for irregular menses.
- Plant used for poulticing ulcers, boils, swellings, broken bone, cuts, herpes.
- Plant poultice used as application for chicken pox.
- Pulped leaves applied externally for stomach aches.
- Pulped leaves with Blumea balsifera (dalapot) applied externally for headaches, and to the gums for toothaches.
- Plant parts with coconut oil applied externally for itches and scurf.
- In Cuba, decoction of roots used for infantile diarrhea.
- The roots when crushed with ginger, held in the mouth, for toothaches.
- The leaves and juice, taken by mouth for stomach cramps.
- Fresh leaves are mucilaginous and emollient and a cataplasm used to promote maturation of abscesses.
- Pulped roots applied to sore breasts.
- In Amboina, crushed roots held in mouth for toothaches; also, chewed with ginger.
- Juice swallowed for abdominal cramps.
- In Borneo, reported use as abortifacient.
- Juice of pounded leaves used for fevers.
- Flowers applied to wasp stings.
- The leaves have been used as tea.
- The flowers are used for wasp stings.
- Mucilage used as emollient and for scorpion stings.
- In India, mucilaginous roots used as demulcent and emollient.
- Root decoction has been used for bronchitis and asthma; also for fevers and various abdominal troubles.
- In Johore medicine, used for rheumatism.
- Australian aborigines use the herb to treat diarrhea.
- Decoction of old root used to relieve constipation.
- Hindus use it for fever, nervous and urinary diseases.
- In Ayurveda, widely used in the treatment of fever; also, as diuretic.
- In Indonesia, a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of gout.
- Tea: In some parts of Mexico, leaves reportedly used as substitute for tea.
- Fiber: Stem yields a good fiber; considered a good substitute for jute.

Cytotoxicity / Antibacterial: Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae) grown in Bangladesh: The ethyl acetate extract showed potent cytotoxicity. Extracts showed weak antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative test organisms. (1)
Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Sida rhombifolia (L.) Ssp. retusa (L.) : All the extracts showed effective free radical scavenging activity, reducing activity, and superoxide scavenging activity. The results indicate S. rhombifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants. (2)
Antibacterial / Antifungal:
In a study of nine Zairean medicinal plants, six extracts, including Sida rhombifolia, demonstrated marked antibacterial activity against K pneumonia, S aureus, Strep mutans and significant antifungal activity against A niger, C albicans and M gypseum. Most of the bactericidal and fungicidal constituents were found in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. (4)
Results of study of aerial parts of Sida rhombifolia on adjuvant-induced arthritis, motor performance, distance traveled and histopathological findings showed it to be useful in the treatment of arthritis. (5)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Results showed the leaves of S rhombifolia possessed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities confirming its traditional uses for pain and inflammatory ailments. (6)
Anti-Gout / Xanthine-Oxidase Inhibitor: Earlier studies have reported that flavonoids from the crude extract possessed in vitro inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase. Study results showed the crude extract flavonoids had an inhibitory effect from 48 to 71%. (7)
Toxicity Studies: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the water extract of the root of Sida rhombifolia failed to show toxicity evidence in male and female rats. (8)
Antibacterial / Fruit Extracts: Study of fruit extracts showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against most of the test bacteria. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, and reducing sugars in the methanolic extract. (9)
Hypoglycemic: Study of aqueous extract of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa leaves showed significant hypoglycemic effects in normal rats but marginal activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (10)
Bioactive Components / Antibacterial: Study yielded major phytochemical compounds such as vasicinol, Ephedrine vasicinone, and Hypaphorine. The methanol extract was effective against all phytopathogens. Results suggest a potential source of compounds against bacterial diseases in humans and plants. (11)
Anthelmintic: Study results showed potent antioxidant and anthelmintic activity. Antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH, NO scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. (12)
Secondary Metabolites / Cryptolepinone / Vasorelaxant Activity: Phytochemical study of Sida rhombifolia L. yielded eleven secondary metabolites: sitosterol (1a) and stigmasterol (1b), sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2a) and stigmasterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (2b), phaeophytin A (3), 173-ethoxypheophorbide A (4), 132-hydroxy phaeophytin B (5), 173-ethoxypheophorbide B (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7), cryptolepinone (8) and a salt of cryptolepine (9). Their structures were identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR using one- and two-dimensional techniques. Cryptolepinone was reported to show vasorelaxant activity in rat mesenteric artery rings. (15)
Antibacterial / Acute Toxicity Study: Study investigated the in vivo antibacterial activity of methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of S. rhombifolia against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhea. The aqueous-methanol extract exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. In the acute toxicity study, some toxic effects were observed at dose of more than 8 g/kbw of extract. (16)
Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Roots: Roots have been found to have antioxidant properties. Study of a water extract from the roots of Sida rhombifolia administered orally did not cause acute or subchronic toxicities to male and female rats. (17)
Antidiarrheal / Acute Toxicity Study: Study investigated a methanolic extract of roots for antidiarrheal activity in castor-oil induced diarrhea. Results showed significant antidiarrheal activity. A single dose of 400 mg/kbw of extract produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhea. (18)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: A hydroalcoholic extract of leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity in an carrageenan-induced model. ß-sitosterol, a sterol isolated from different species of Sida, reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, might be responsible for the activity shown by the extract. (19)
Anti-Tubercular Activity / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of leaves and roots of S. rhombifolia. Results showed the ethyl acetate extract has anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis. (20)
Cytotoxic / Analgesic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of dried aerial parts for analgesic and cytotoxic activities in animal models. Results showed significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, comparable to diclofenac. The extract also produced prominent cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp Artemia salina. (21)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Stems and Roots: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Sida rhombifolia extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis in experimental rats. Results showed hematological parameters reverted to near normal levels, especially ESR. There was significant increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Free radical scavenging activity was evidenced by histological and electron microscopy observations.
No Toxicity on Acute Administration: Study evaluated the hematological and biochemical toxic effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida rhombifolia in Siwss mice and albino Wistar rats. SR was well tolerated on acute administration, with no mortality even at highest dose of 6 g/kg (LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg). In subacute administration, there were hemato-biochemical effects. (24)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study evaluated crude extracts from three solvents of roots of SR and isolated compounds for antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium. The antibacterial activities were comparable to each other, although weaker compared to reference drug ciprofloxacin. Crude chloroform extracts yielded n-hexacos-11-enoic acid, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. (25)
Anti-Diabetic / Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Antioxidant / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of aerial parts for hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential in STZ-induced diabetic rats. At 400 mg/kg, results showed a significant anti-diabetic effect, a significant decrease in TC, triglycerides, and LDL, with a significant increase in HDL, and a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes. The therapeutic potential was attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as glycosides, resins, alkaloids, sterols, saponins and flavonoids. (26)
Anti-Anxiety / Roots: Study of whole plant extracts of Sida rhombifolia using Elevated Plus Maze model in albino mice showed significant anti-anxiety activity. (27)
Anti-Malarial / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Sida rhombifolia and Gardenia lutea for in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei. Extracts showed significant antimalarial activity with acceptable margin of safety. (28)
Amelioration of Cadmium Effects: Recent studies confirmed cadmium significantly reduces body weight probably due to increased catabolism of body protein and improper nutrient digestion and absorption. Animals treated with S. rhombifolia root extract significantly increased body weight. The amelioration of body weight might be attributed to the antioxidant property of the root. (29)
Cardioprotective: Study investigated whether S. rhombifolia would attenuate the acute myocardial infarction in isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rat model. Results showed SR extract caused myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous antioxidants and protects rat hearts from decline in cardiac function and oxidative stress associated with ISP induced myocardial injury. (31)


Last Update January 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:(Sida rhombifolia) flower at Madhurawada.JPG / Adityamadhav83 / 26 August 2013, / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / File:Sida sp Blanco2.248-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Starr 050817-3925 Sida rhombifolia.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / 26 August 2013, / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license. / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae) grown in Bangladesh / M. Ekramul Islam, M. Ekramul Haque, M. A. Mosaddik
Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Sida rhombifolia (L.) Ssp. retusa (L.
) / Dhalwal K et al /
J Med Food. 2007 Dec;10(4):683-8.
Ecdysteroid Glycosides from Sida rhombifolia L.
/ Atul N Jadhav, Rahul S Pawar et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity, Vol 4 Issue 9, Pages 2225 - 2230 / DOI 0.1002/cbdv.200790180
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Nine Medicinal Plants from Zaire / D N Muanza et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, 1994, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pages 337-345 , DOI 10.3109/13880209409083012
Anti-arthritic activity of various extracts of Sida rhombifolia aerial parts / S R Gupta et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 23, Issue 8 May 2009 , pages 689 - 695/ DOI: 10.1080/14786410802242778
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Sida rhombifolia L. in Various Animal Models / M R Sulaiman, S moin et al / Research Journ of Pharma, 2 (2):13-16, 2008
Indonesian Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia L.) as Antigout and Inhibition Kinetics of Flavonoids Crude Extract on the Activity of Xanthine Oxidase / D Iswantini et al / Journ of Biological Sciences, 2009, Vol 9, Issue 5, pp 504-509 / DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2009.504.508
Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Sida rhombifolia Linn. in rats / Seewaboon Sireeratawong et al / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, 30 (6), 729-737, Nov. - Dec. 2008
Comparative in vitro Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Sida rhombifolia Linn Fruit Extracts / Rashmi Ranjan Sarangi et al / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol 2, No 2, pp 1241-1245, April-June 2010
Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa in Diabetic Induced Animals / Kamlesh Dhalwal, Vaibhav M. Shinde, Bhagat Singh, Kakasaheb R. Mahadik / International Journ of Phytomedicine, Vol 2, No2, 2010
Effect of Bioactive Compounds and its Pharmaceutical Activities of Sida cordifolia (Linn.) / Baby Joseph, A.U.Ajisha, Satheesna Kumari and S.Sujatha / Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 1038 – 1042
In Vitro Studies on Sida cordifolia Linn for Anthelmintic and Antioxidant Properties / Rajesh Singh Pawa, Angkit Jain, Preeti Sharma et al / Chinese Medicine, 2011, 2, 47-52

Sida rhombifolia L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Sida names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Secondary Metabolites from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) and the Vasorelaxant Activity of Cryptolepinone / Otemberg Souza Chaves, Roosevelt Albuquerque Gomes, Anna Cláudia de Andrade Tomaz, Marianne Guedes Fernandes, Leônidas das Graças Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Agra, Valdir Andrade Braga and Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza / Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2769-2777; doi:10.3390/molecules18032769
In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae). / Assam AJ, Dzoyem JP, Pieme CA, Penlap VB. / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jul 27;10:40. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-40.
Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Sida rhombifolia Linn. in rats / Seewaboon Sireeratawong*, NirushLertprasertsuke, UmaratSrisawat, AmornatThuppia, Anongnad Ngamjariyawat, Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid and Kanjana Jaijoy / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 30 (6), 729-737, Nov. - Dec. 2008
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA LINN. ROOT / Sarangi Rashmi Ranjan, Mishra Uma Shankar, Panda Susanta Kumar and Behera Saiprasanna / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2011
Anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcoholyc extract of leaves of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae)
/ Najeh Maissar KHALIL*, Joceana Soares SPEROTTO & Melania Palermo MANFRON / Acta Farm. Bonaerense 25 (2): 260 -1 (2006)
Anti-Tubercular Activity on Leaves and Roots of Sida rhombifolia L. / N.Papitha*, N.Jayshree, S.Prabu Seenivasan, Vanaja Kumar / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 20(2), May – Jun 2013
ANALGESIC AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L / Md. Atiqur Rahman*, Liton Chandra Paul, Md. Solaiman, A. A. Rahman / Pharmacologyonline 2: 707-714 (2011)
Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Sida rhombifolia stems and roots in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. / Narendhirakannan RT1, Limmy TP. / Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Apr;34(2):326-36./ doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.605142. Epub 2011 Oct 4.
Sida rhombifolia L. is an accepted name / The Plant List
Effect of Long-term use of Sida rhombifolia L. Extract on Haemato-biochemical Parameters of Experimental Animals / M. Ouédraogo, P. Zerbo, K. Konaté, N. Barro and Laya L. Sawadogo / British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 4(1): 18-24, 2013
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Compounds Isolated From Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)
Sileshi Woldeyes, Legesse Adane*, Yinebeb Tariku, Diriba Muleta and Tadesse Begashaw / Nat Prod Chem Res 1:101. doi: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000101
Anti-Hyperglycemic, Anti-Hyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Potential of Alcoholic-Extract of Sida cordifolia (Areal Part) in Streptozotocin-Induced-Diabetes in Wistar-Rats / Mahrukh Ahmad, Shahid Prawez, Mudasir Sultana, Rajinder Raina, Nrip Kishore Pankaj, Pawan Kumar Verma, Shafiqur Rahman / Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, June 2014, Volume 84, Issue 2, pp 397-405
Phytochemical studies and pharmacological screening of Sida rhombifolia Linn. / R Sundaraganapathy, V Niraimathi, Ananda Thangadurai*, M Jambulingam, B Narasimhan and Aakash Deep / Hygeia.J.D.Med.vol.5 (1), April 2013
In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Aerial Part Extracts of Gardenia lutea and Sida rhombifolia / Baye Akele / International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, Vol 2, Issue 1, 2013 /
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activities of Sida cordifolia Linn in Albino rats / Shailender Singh, Praveen Panchaksharimath* and Siddappa Devaru / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(6):136-142
Efficacy of Cardioprotective Effects in Ethanolic Extract of Sida Rhombifolia Linn. On Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Albino Rats / Ramadoss S*, KannanK,Balamurugan K, JeganathanNS,Manavalan R / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 3 No 2, April-June 2012

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