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Family Leguminosae / Fabaceae
Fire tree
Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf.
FLAMBOUYANT TREE
Hong hua ying

Scientific names Common names
Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. Fire tree (Engl.)
Poinciana regia Hook. Flambouyant tree (Engl.)
  Flamboyant (Engl.)
  Flame tree (Engl.)
  Gold mohn (Engl.)
  Peacock flower (Engl.)
  Royal poinciana (Engl.)
Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Krishnachura.
CHINESE: Feng huang hua.
FRENCH: Flamboyan.
HAWAIIAN: Gulmohar.
HINDI: Gulmohar.
KANNADA: Kempu torai.
MALAGASY: Alamboronala, Hintsakinsa, Hitsakitsana, Kitsakitsabe, Sarongadra, Tanahou, Tsiombivositra.
PORTUGUESE: Flamboiã.
SINHALESE: Mal-Mara.
SPANISH: Arbol del fuego.
TAMIL: Mayaram, Poo-Vahai.
TURKISH: Cennet A.

Botany
Delonix regia is a large, deciduous tree with fern-like leaves. Leaves are bipinnate, slightly hairy, about 30 centimeters long. Leaflets are oblong, in 18 to 30 pairs, about 1.5 centimeters long. Flowers are large, showy, red or red and yellow, up to 12 centimeters across. Pods are pendulous, elongate, woody, compressed, and up to 50 centimeters long.

Distribution
- Introduced to the Philippines during the early Spanish period.
- Planted along roadsides and gardens.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids.
- Bark yields ß-sitosterol, saponins, alkaloids, carotene, hydrocarbons phytotoxins, and flavonoids.
- Flowers yielded carotenoides, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, and ß-sitosterol.
- Leaves yield lupeol and ß-sitosterol.
- Stem bark yielded four triterpenes: lupeol, epilupeol, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and an aromatic compound p-methoxybenzaldehyde.
- Study isolated seven flavonoid glycosides: Kaempferol 3-rhamnoside 1, Quercetin 3-rhamnoside 2, Kaempferol 3-glucoide 3, Kaempferol 3-rutinoside 4, Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside 5, Quercetin 3-rutinoside 6 and Quercetin 3-glucoside 7. (see study below) (11)
- A hydroalcoholic extract of flowers yielded sugars, flavonoid, tannins, phenolic compounds, steroids, and saponins. (see study below) (12)
- Root bark extract yielded secondary metabolites like tannins, phenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, sterols, cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (14)
- Study of water extracts characterized three major anthocyanins: cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside. (19)
- Fractionation of 95% ethanolic extract of leaves isolated three sterols and its glucoside namely, stigmasten-diol-3-o-glucoside, 12,15-Dihydroxy-chol-8-en-24-oic-acid-3-oxy-6’-acetyl-glucoside and sodium, potassium adduct of 12,15- Dihydroxy-5-chol-9-en-24-oic-acid-3-oxy-rhamnosyl-rhamnoside, one flavonol, namely, kaempferol. (27)

Properties
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, wound healing, diuretic, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, antiulcer, anthelmintic, phytoremediative properties.

Parts used
Flowers, leaves, stem, bark.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Bangladesh folk medicine, used for the treatment of diabetes.


Studies
Antibacterial:
Delonix regia was one of 12 medicinal plants studied for antibacterial activity. The methanol extracts showed more activity than the aqueous extracts for all 12 plants studied. The most susceptible bacterial were S. subtilis, followed by S. epidermis. (2)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of leaves using a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma models. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in both models. (3)
Flowers Constituents / Phenols and Flavonoids: Study was done to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoidal content of the flowers. Results showed the flowers to contain significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids, with the total phenolic content to be much higher than the flavonoidal content. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Cytotoxic: Study of an ethanolic extract isolated three sterols (stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, and its 3-O-gucoside), a triterpene (ursolic acid) and four flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and rutin), plus an amino acid. Results showed cytotoxic activity against human liver cancer cell line (HEPG2). It also showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage, attributed to the free radical scavenging property of the flavonoids. (5)
Antimicrobial: In antimicrobial screening, a dichlormethane soluble fraction of a methanolic extract showed strong inhibition of S. paratyphi growth, with moderate inhibition of S. typhi, S. aureus and S. dysenteriae. Other fractions showed inhibition of C. albicans, S. cerevisiae.
Antidiarrheal: Evaluation of ethanolic extract of D. regia for in vivo anti-diarrheal activity in experimentally induced diarrhea, prostaglandin E2-induced enteropooling and charcoal-induced motility test in rats showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal properties. (7)
Seed Mucilage / Tablet Binder: Seeds of plant contain glucomannose. Mucilage obtained from the seeds were used in the preparation of calcium carbonate tablets. Results showed the endospermic mucilage obtained from the seeds possesses comparable binding properties. (8)
Wound Healing / Flowers: Study investigated the wound healing properties of Delonix regia in experimental models in albino rats using incision and excision wound models. Results showed ethanolic and aqueous extracts of flowers significant promoted the healing process, as evidenced by increase in wound breaking strength, percentage of wound contractions, increased hydroxyproline content and decreased epithelialisation period. (9)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaf for glucose tolerance efficacy in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. Results showed significant hypoglycemic effect on glucose-loaded mice at every dose. (10) Study evaluated the effect of gulmohar leaves extract on alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Results showed significant (p<0.001) reduction of blood glucose, with significant (p<0.001) reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (28)
Hepatoprotective / Anticancer / Antioxidant: On cytotoxicity testing, D. regia extract showed potent anticancer effect against HepG2 cell line. It also showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities attributed to the flavonoids content. (See constituents above) (11)
Mercury Adsorption/ Anticancer / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the feasibility of using pods of Delonix regia activated carbon or the removal of Hg from water by absorption. Results showed a suitable indigenous active carbon as an adsorbent for the removal of Hg from aqueous solution. (12)
In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity / Flowers / Cancer Cell Lines: Study for in vitro cytotoxic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of D. regia flowers showed anticancer effects against different cell lines (MCF-7 [breast], carcinoma of cervix HeLa cells, carcinoma of the brain, and carcinoma of colon). (13)
Antibacterial / Root Bark: A methanol extract of root bark of Delonix regia showed efficacy against all test bacteria (Gram negative E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Gram positive S. aureus, Strep pneumonia and B. subtilis). (see constituents above) (14)
Antinociceptive / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study investigated the antinociceptive and cytotoxic effects of alcoholic extract of leaves in Swiss albino rats. Results showed an analgesic effect which me be peripherally mediated via inhibition of synthesis and release of PGs and other endogenous substances. Results also showed cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality assay. (16)
Diuretic / Flowers: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of a methanol flower extract of Gul Mohr in Albino rat model. Results showed significant diuretic activity, with increased urine volume and electrolyte excretion when compared to control. (17)
Corrosion Inhibitor / Aluminum: Study evaluated the inhibitive effect of D. regia extracts in reducing the corrosion rate of aluminum in acidic medium. Results showed D. regia extracts inhibited the corrosion of aluminum in HCl solutions. (18)
Methylene Blue Biosorbent: Dyestuffs are prominent organic pollutants that industry use and discharge into surface and subsurface water bodies. Study showed Delonix regia pod to be a very effective biosorbent in the removal of methylene blue dye from waste waters. (20)
Removal of Copper, Cobalt and Lead / Flowers: Study evaluated the ability of Delonix regia flowers to remove Co, Cu, and Pb ions through biosorption. Study showed D. regia flower is a viable agricultural waste for the removal of Co, Cu and Pb ions. The main adsorption mechanism was possibly a chemisorption reaction. (21)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of leaf and seed of Delonix regia and A. aspera against five bacterial strains. The chloroform seed extract of D regia and ethanol seed extract of A aspera showed high inhibitory zone against E. coli than other bacterial strains. (22)
Antibacterial / Leaf and Seeds: Synthetic chemicals—methyl orange, phenolphthalein, phenol red, etc.—used as internal indicators in acid-base titrations are hazardous chemicals. Study evaluated Delonix regia for use as a natural indicator. Results showed D. regia flower petal can be used as a natural indicator, neither harmful to the environment nor causing any health hazard, while also being economical, simple, pollution free and inert. (23)
Larvicidal / Leaf and Seeds: A methanol extract of D. regia flowers were very effective against 3rd instar larvae of H. puera indicating a potential as bio-pesticide. (24)
Anthelmintic / Flowers: Fresh methanol and aqueous extracts of flowers of Delonix regia showed considerable anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. The methanol extract was more active. Piperazine citrate was used as reference drug. (25)
Anti-Ulcer / Flowers: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of various doses of an ethanolic extract of Delonix regia in an ethanol induced ulcer model in rats with lansoprazole as standard drug. Results showed significant antiulcer activity in a dose dependent manner attributed to antioxidant principles present in the plant. (26)
Antibacterial / Flowers: Study of methanolic extracts of flowers showed antibacterial activity: C. pulcherrima > P. ferrugineum > D. regia. The flower extracts were more effective against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacteria. (29)
Hepatoprotective / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated a methanol extract of aerial parts against CCl4 induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.
Hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by reduction in serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP, DBIL and TBIL. (30)
Palladium Nanoparticles / Leaves: Study reports on the biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) using D. regia leaf extract. The Pd-NPs showed catalytic activity through electron relay effect. (31)
Antiemetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plant leaves, viz., C. siamea, C. tetragonoloba, D. regia, S. saman and V. trilobata on emesis induced in male chicks by oral administration of copper sulphate. All extracts showed antiemetic activity. Delonix regia showed the highest activity (96.74%). Chlorpromazine was used a standard drug. (32)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of whole plant and root bark of D. regia against different pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Among all extracts, the methanol extract of whole plant (seeds, leaves, and stems) showed significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus (91.84%), P. aeruginosa (91.05%), B. pumilus (85.75%) and E. coli (78.71%). (33)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

January 2012
Last Update March 2016


IMAGE SOURCE: Plate from book / File:Delonix regia Blanco2.451.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Detail of a flower of Delonix regia / File:Delonix regia flower.JPG / B. Navez / 3 December 2006 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Gulmohur, Royal Poinciana, Flamboyant, Peacock Flower OR Firetree Delonix regia in Sanjeevaiah Park, Hyderabad, India. / File:Delonix regia (Gulmohur) in Hyderabad W IMG 8167.jpg / J M Garg. / 3.05. 09 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. / Catalogue of Life
(2)
Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity / Jigna Parekh, Darshana Jadeja, Sumitra Chandra / Turk J Biol 29 (2005) 203-210
(3)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Delonix regia (Boj. Ex. Hook)
/ Vaishali D. Shewale, Tushar A. Deshmukh, Liladhar S. Patil, and Vijay R. Patil / Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, Volume 2012 (2012) /
doi:10.1155/2012/789713
(4)
Quantification of Total Phenol and Flavonoid Content of Delonix regia Flowers / Shanmukha I, Harshil Patel, Jignesh Patel, Riyazynnisa / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp 280-283, Jan-Mar 2011
(5)
Hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities of Delonix regia flower extracts / Aly M. El-Sayed, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama and Amany A. Sleem / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.19.10
(6)
Chemical and biological investigations of Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.
/ ISRAT JAHAN, MOHAMMAD S. RAHMAN, MOHAMMED Z. RAHMAN et al / Acta Pharm. 60 (2010) 207–215 / DOI: 10.2478/v10007-010-0018-7
(7)
IN-VIVO ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DELONIX REGIA FLOWERS IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED DIARRHOEA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS
/ Rajabjau S Shiramane, Karnakumar V Biradar, Basavaraj V Chivde et al / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY / IJRPC 2011, 1(3)
(8)
Evaluation of Delonix regia Raf. Endospermic mucilage as tablet binder /
Kale R. H, Joshi U. M, Ambhore D. P., Sitaphale G.R / International Journal of ChemTech Research ISSN : 0974-4290 Vol.1,No.1,pp 11-15, Jan – March 2009
(9)
Study of wound healing activity of Delonix regia flowers in experimental animal models / Mohd Asif Khan, Amit Saxena, Farheen Tabassum Fatima, Gaurav Sharma, Veerana Goud, Asif Husain* / AJPTR-American Journal of PharmTech Research
(10)
Effect of Delonix Regia Leaf Extract on Glucose Tolerance in Glucose-induced Hyperglycemic Mice / Mahafuzur Rahman, Md, Nazmul Hasan, Md, Asish Kumar Das, Tozammal Hossain, Md, Rownak Jahan, Afsana Khatun, Mst, and Mohammed Rahmatullah / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(1): 34–36.
(11)
Phytochemical, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Delonix regia leaves extract / Mohamed Abdel-Daim, Samar S Azab, Omayma A Eldahshan / Medicinal Chemistry Research (Impact Factor: 1.61). 01/2013; 22(9). / DOI: 10.1007/s00044-012-0420-4
(12)
Utilising the Pods of Delonix regia Activated Carbon for the Removal of Mercury (II) by Adsorption Technique /
Shabudeen et al. / Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ., Vol.3, Issue 1, January 2013 (60-65)
(13)
In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Delonix regia (Bojer ex. Hook.) Flowers on Cancer Cell Lines / Madan R. Pusapati*, Tejaswi Jonnalagadda, Phani K. Kola, Ankamma C. Yarlagadda and Girijasankar Guntuku / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4(4): 443-452, 2014
(14)
Gulmohar / Common names / Flowers of India
(15)
Delonix regia / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(16)
Antinociceptive and cytotoxic potential of ethanolic extract of Delonix regia (Leaves)
/ Rozina Parul*, Md. Jahir Alam and Md. Sohel Rana / Indian J.Pharm.Biol.Res. 2014; 2(1):55-61
(17)
Evaluation of diuretic activity of Delonix regia (Gul mohr) flowers in albino rats / Senthil Velan S*, Jeeva Prakash G, Sindhan V, Somasekhar E, Bharathi S, Rajani B / Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 3(3), 369-372, 2012
(18)
Eco‐friendly corrosion inhibitors: the inhibitive action of Delonix Regia extract for the corrosion of aluminium in acidic media / O.K. Abiola, N.C. Oforka, E.E. Ebenso, N.M. Nwinuka / Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol. 54 Iss: 4, pp.219 - 224, 2007.
(19)
Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers / Felix Adje, Yves F. Lozano*, Emmanuelle Meudec, Paul Lozano, Augustin Adima, Georges Agbo N'zi and Emile M. Gaydou / Molecules 2008, 13, 1238-1245 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules13061238
(20)
Biosorption of Methylene Blue Dye Aqueous Solutions on Delonix regia (Flamboyant Tree) Pod Biosorbent /
T.O. Owoyokun, M.Sc. / The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 10. Number 2. November 2009 (Fall)
(21)
Sorption Study of Co (II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Flamboyant Flower (Delonix Regia) / Jimoh T. O., Iyaka Y. A, Nubaye M. M /American Journal of Chemistry, 2012; 2(3): 165-170 / doi: 10.5923/j.chemistry.20120203.12
(22)
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF AND SEED EXTRACTS OF DELONIX REGIA AND ACHYRANTHUS ASPERA AGAINST SELECTED BACTERIAL STRAINS / Dhanalakshmi D* and Manimegalai K / Int. J. Pharm. Med. & Bio. Sc. 2013
(23)
Green chemistry: Petal sap of Delonix regia as a substitute for hazardous internal indicators in volumetric analysis / Pramod Kumar Jain*, Pushpa Jain** and Prajvi Jain / Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 6(2): 186-189 (2013)
(24)
Larvicidal activity of the flowers of Delonix regia (Bojer Ex Hook.) Rafin. (Fabales: Fabaceae) against the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera Cramer / B. Deepa* and O. K. Remadevi / Current Biotica 5(2): 237-240
(25)
In Vitro Anthelmintic Property of Gulmohar Flowers against Pheritima Posthuma / R.A. Ahirrao*, M. R. Patel, Sayyed Hamid and J.K. Patil / Pharmacologyonline 1: 728-732 (2011)
(26)
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DELONIX REGIA FLOWER /
Samaresh Pal Roy*, Kamlesh Prajapati, Ramji Gupta, Dipanwita Bhadra4, Nikunj Patel, Archana Batiwala, Gautam Sonara, Neerav Gheewala, T. Kannadasan / Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Volume 1(3) May-June 2013
(27)
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM DELONIX REGIA LEAVES / J. MARIAJANCYRANI*, G. CHANDRAMOHAN, R. RAVIKUMAR / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Suppl 4, 2013
(28)
Anti-Diabetic Potential of Delonix regia / Chaturvedi Dev, Suhane Nidhi, Singh Deepa, Chaturvedi Neha, Mishra Asutosh / Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5(12)
(29)
Antibacterial activity of flower extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia and Peltaphorum ferrugineum against Urinary tract Pathogens / Sachidananda Swamy H.C, Asha M.M, Chaithra M, Vivek M.N, Yashoda Kambar, Prashith Kekuda T.R.* / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 3(4), 80-83, April (2014)
(30)
Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of aerial parts of Delonix regia / Jameel Ahmed, Sunil Nirmal, Vipul Dhasade, Anuja Patil, Sagar Kadam, Subodh Pal, Subhash Mandal, Shashikant Pattan / Phytopharmacology 2011, 1(5) 118-122
(31)
Biosynthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Delonix regia Leaf Extract and Its Catalytic Activity for Nitro-aromatics Hydrogenation / Preeti Dauthal and Mausumi Mukhopadhyay* / Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2013, 52 (51), pp 18131–18139 / DOI: 10.1021/ie403410z
(32)
Antiemetic Activity of Leaves Extracts of Five Leguminous Plants / Ahmed Salman et al / IJRAP 3(2), Mar-Apri 2012.
(33)
In vitro comparative study of antimicrobial activity of whole plant and root’s bark of Delonix regia (Bojer Ex. Hook) / Musaddique Hussain*, Shahid Masood Raza, Khalid Hussain Janbaz, Muhammad Razi Ullah Khan, Abdul Aziz and Abdul Majeed /
International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 5 (2014): 736-741
(34)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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