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Family Olacaceae
Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume

Scientific names Common names
Anacolosa arborea Koord. & Valeton Aluloy (Tag.)
Anacolosa celebica Valeton ex Koord.. Galo (Tag.)
Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume Matobato (Mindanao)
Anacolosa heptandra Maingay ex Mast. Salungugapit (Tag.)
Anacolosa luzoniensis Merr. Galo nut (Engl.)
Anacolosa puberula Kurz Promising nut (Engl.)
Anacolosa puberula var. andamanica Kurz  
Anacolosa zollingeri Baill.  
Salacia bartlettii Ridl.  
Stemonurus frutescens Blume  
Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Belian landak.
OTHERS: Kopi gunung, Tangki leuweung, Jerit, Salangugapit.

Gen info
- Anacolosa is a plant genus of 15-22 species in the family Olacaceae. Some place it in the segregate family Aptandraceae.
- Etymology: Anacolosa derives from the Greek work anakolos, meaning "knotted", referring to the calyx cup rim. The specific epithet frutescens derives from the Latin frutex meaning "shrub."
- A farmer's myth warns that if galo is planted beside a coconut tree, the coconut will die.

Galo is an erect shrub or medium-sized tree growing to a height of 5 to 25 meters. Bole can reach 140 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, penni-veined, and glabrous, measuring 7 to 15 centimeters long, 4,0 to 6.5 centimeters wide. Flowers are 3 millimeters in diameter, white-creamy in color, occurring in axillary bundles, 43 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a drupe, round to ellipsoid, light green, measuring 1.8 to 2.0 centimeters long, with a thin layer of pulp surrounding a single seed.

- Found in swamp forests and secondary forests, at low to medium altitudes up to 700 meters.
- Occasionally cultivated.
- Also found in Indo-China, Thailand, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, and Malaysia.

- Nuts yield 10--38.5% water, 2.9--3% ash, 10.7--11.1% protein, 7.5-8% fat, 39.5-75.5% carbohydrate, 3.7% fibre, and 2,733 calories per kilo. (Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991) (3)
- Leaves yielded triterpenes, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1) β- amyrin (2), and a mixture of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
- Boiled green pulp (100 grams) contain 80 gms water; 8.0 Kcalorie energy; 3.0 g protein; 0.4 g fat; 16.2 g carbohydrates; 1.7 g crude fiber; 28 mg calcium; 54 mg phosphorus; 1.3 mg iron; 770 µg carotene; 128 µg vitamin A; 0.9 mg niacin; and 12 mg ascorbic acid.


- Fruit is edible, often eaten raw. Boiling produces a more delectable taste, similar to avocado.
- Seed is edible, boiled or roasted, with a flavor similar to a mixture of sweet corn and chestnuts.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Wood: Hard and heavy but not durable; used as house posts.

Chemical Constituents / Leaves:
Dchlormethane extract of leaves of Anacolosa frutescens yielded triterpenes 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), β-amyrin (2) and a mixture of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. While there are no reported studies on constituents and biological activities, its cogener, A. pervilleana was found to have antiviral properties, moderate activity against CHIKV. Triterpene 1 has shown antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. typhimurium; significant inhibitory activity on vitality of adult male worms of O. gutturosa; strong inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II, and cytotoxicity against human lung carcinoma A549 cells. ß-amyrin has bee reported to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. (2)


Updated May 2023 / October 2018
July 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Aptandraceae : Anacolosa frutescens det. J.V. LaFrankie & Melanie Schori 8-Nov-12 / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL43964] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Aptandraceae : Anacolosa frutescens det. J.V. LaFrankie & Melanie Schori 8-Nov-12 / Flower and fruits / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL43872]/ Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Chemical Constituents of Anacolosa frutescens./ Agnes B Alimboyoguen, Kathlia A De Castro-Cruz, Chien-Chang Shen, and Consolacion Y Ragasa* / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5(5), Sept-)ct 2014
Nutritional Value: Galo / Potential Edible Nuts 4 / FA) Corporate Document Repository
Anacolosa frutescens / Wikipedia
sariling atin: 25 Promising Native Plants of the Philippines / MoCaFraM RLearning Center


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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