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Family Rutaceae
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.
Shan xiao ju

Scientific names Common names
Chionotria monogyna Walp. Aniñguai (Pang.)
Chionotria rigida Jacl. Gingging (Tag.)
Glycosmmis arborea (Roxb.) DC. Linauin (Ilk.)
Glycosmmis chylocarpa Wight & Arn. Mabutan (Sul.)
Glycosmmis madagascariensis Correa ex Risso Mayongtung (P. Bis.)
Glycosmmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. Panigiran (Ibn.)
Glycosmmis quinquefolia Griff. Patulautulau (Ibn.)
Glycosmmis retzii M.Roem Panalayapen (Ilk.)
Glycosmmis rigida (Jack) Merr. Gin berry (Engl.)
Limonia angustifolia Wall. Opal orange (Engl.)
Limonia arborea Roxb. Orange berry (Engl.)
Murraya exotica Blanco Rum berry (Engl.)
Murraya lobata Blanco Toothbrush plant (Engl.)
Myxospermum chylocarpum M.Roem.  
Sclerostylis pentaphylla Blume  
Sclerostylis timoriensis M.Roem.  
glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Tejmoyee.
BENGALI: Ash-sheora, Ban jamir, Datonm Kawatuti, Matkhila, Motali, Motmoti.
CHINESE: Shan xiao ju, Shin ling ju.
FRENCH: Glycosmisier de conchinchine.
HINDI: Ban nimbu, Girgitti, Potali.
KANNADA: Guruvade, Jangama, Manikyana gida, Pandelu, Vadimadige.
KHASI: Dieng-soh-Sning.
MALAYALAM: Kuttippabakm Kurumpanal, Panchi, Panal.
MANIPURI: Yong komla.
MARATHI: Kirmira.
ORIYA: Anachara, Chauladhua.
SANSKRIT: Ashvashakota, Vananimbuka.
TAMIL: Amutam, Kattu-k-konci, Pana-c-ceti, Pumippalam. Anam, Panal.
TELUGU: Gonji, Konda golugu.
THAI: Khoei tai, Luk khoei tai, Som chuen.

Gen info
- The genus name Glycosmis derives from two Greek words viz. "Glynis" and "Esme", which mean sweet and smell, respectively, indicating the characteristic sweet-scented flowers common in the genus.
- The genus belongs to the family Rutaceae and includes at least 51 species. (17)

Glycosmis pentaphylla is a tree up to 5 m tall. Leaves 3- or 5-foliolate; petiolules 2-10 mm; leaflet blades oblong, 10-25 by 3-7 cm, papery, base cuneate, margin serrate, apex mucronate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, paniculate. Flowers globose in bud. Sepals broadly ovate, less than 1 mm. Petals white or pale yellow, 3-4 mm, caducous. Stamens 10. Ovary globose to broadly ovoid; style extremely short; stigma slightly expanded. Fruit reddish, subglobose, 8-10 mm in diameter. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,100 meters, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most if not all islands and provinces.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, East and West Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Cultivated for its edible pink fruits or as an indoor houseplant.

- Extensive photochemical studies of different parts have yielded at least 354 secondary metabolites from diverse classes including alkaloids, amides, phenolic compounds, steroids, terpenoids, and fatty derivatives.  (17)   
- Contains the active principle, glycosmin, a crystalline glucose, present in traces throughout the plant
, its greatest concentration found in the new leaves and buds where it reaches 0.2 per cent; in the mature leaves, it varies from 0.08 to 0.1 per cent.
- Leaves also yield a tannin, a phlobaphene, traces of salicin, and about 2.1 per cent of sugars (reducing and non-reducing).
- From the leaves, study isolated glycolone, a quinolone alkaloid. (3)
- From the root bark, study isolated carbazole and 3-methylcarbazole. (4)
- Stem extract yielded a new naphthoquine, glycoquinone, and a new acridone alkaloid, glycocitrine-III along with 12 known compounds. (14)
- GC-MS study of leaves for essential oil yielded 67 compounds representing 99.71% of essential oil. Phytol (28.03%) was the dominant compound. Most representative compounds were sesquiterpenes (46.39%), followed by diterpenes (28.58%), fatty acids (10.61%), monoterpenes (5.81%), and alkane and alkene (3.83%). (21)
- Phytochemical screening of root extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (23)
- Study of stems yielded a new simple carbazole alkaloid, 4-(7-hydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-9H-carbazol-4-yl)but-3-en-2-one (1), and two new dimeric carbazole alkaloids, bisglybomine B (2) and biscarbalexine A (3), together with seven known alkaloids. (24)
- Study of stems isolated two new flavanols, glycoflavanones A (1) and B (2), both possessing α-pyrone moiety, together with five known compounds 4'-O-methylgallocaechine (3), ß-sitosterol (4), alphitol (5), 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-trans-cinnamyl alcohol (6), and oxyresveratrol (7).  (25)
- Study of BuOH-soluble fraction of EtOH extract from stems isolated three new phenolic glycosides, glycopentosides D-F (1-3). (40)
- Study isolated a new ent-abietane lactone,3-oxojolkinolide A (1), together with 16known compounds, helioscopinolide E (2), helioscopinolide A (3), 3-methyl-9H-carbazole (4), carbalexin (5), carbalexin B (6), glycaborinine (7), arborinine (8), 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (9), glycoamide A (10), glycoamide B (11),
2-(N-methyl-2-phenylacetamido)benzoic acid (12), 2-(methylamine)-methylbenzoate (13), fraxidin (14), scopoletin (15), (-)-syringaresinol (16) and ferulic acid (17). (41)

- Glycosmin is slightly bitter.
- Considered astringent, vermifuge, anti-inflammatory and expectorant..
- Studies have suggested anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antipyretic, antidiabetic, anticancer, antiarthritis, anticancer, mosquitocidal properties.

Parts used
Stems, roots, bark and leaves.


- Fruits are edible with a juicy spicy flesh with a gin-like flavor.
- Used in various traditional medicine systems for treatment of chest pains, cough, fever, anemia, jaundice,  liver problems, bronchitis, inflammation, rheumatism, urinary tract infections, pain, bone fractures, toothache, gonorrhea, diabetes, cancer. Topical preparations are used for boils, eczema. (17)
- Bitter juice of leaves used for fevers, liver complaints and intestinal worms, especially in children.
- Stems and roots of plant used on ulcers.
- Paste of leaves, with a bit of ginger, applied to eczema and other skin diseases; also, applied over the navel for worms and other bowel disorders.
- Infusion of leaves given to women after delivery to induce appetite.
- Wood is used for snake bites.
- Used for cough, jaundice, inflammation, rheumatism and anemia.
- In Bangladesh, used to reduce blood sugar and to relieve pain.
- In traditional Indian medicine, used for jaundice and other liver afflictions.
- In India, used as astringent, expectorant, and for snakebites.
- Toothbrush: In eastern Bengal, stems used as toothbrushes for its fibrous nature and slightly astringent and bitter quality.

Anthelmintic / Roots:
Study showed extracts from G pentaphylla roots showed potent anthelmintic activity on the earthworm, Pheretima posthuma, The methanolic extract showed greater activity than the chloroform extract. (5)
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluating the hepatoprotective activity of plant materials on Swiss albino rats with liver damage induced by CCl4 showed G. pentaphylla, B orellana, C caja, and C equisetifolia exhibited moderate dose-dependent protective effect evidenced by lowering of serum enzymes and supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. (6)
Antibacterial: Study of the methanol extracts of seven medicinal plants, including Glycosmis pentaphylla, showed moderate activity against all the tested organisms. (7)
Sulfur-Containing Amides / Cytotoxic Against Leukemia Cell Line: Chloroform extracts of G citrifolia and G elongata yielded a triterpene, four sulfur-containing amides (E-dambullin, Z-dambullin, E-methyldambullin and Z-methyldambulin) and two alkaloids (skimmianine and arborinine). The amides were strongly cytotoxic against a T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. (8)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed the extract of leaves of G. pentaphylla and Bauhinia variegata inhibited free radical scavenging activity. The effect was attributed to flavonoids, phenolics and other phytochemical constituents. (9)
Antipyretic / Aerial Parts: Study of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of B. variegata and Glycosmis pentaphylla exhibited significant antipyretic activities in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Activity was attributed to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. (10)
Antidiabetic / Analgesic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects in Swiss albino male mice. Results showed an antihyperglycemic effect with blood sugar reduction more significant at 120 minutes, comparable to that induced by metformin. The extract also exhibited an analgesic effect comparable to diclofenac sodium. (11)
Apoptosis Inducing Effect / Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer and apoptosis inducing activity of G. pentaphylla in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep3 B. Results showed concentration and time dependent induction of apoptosis. (12)
Anti-Diabetic / Anti-Arthritic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and anti-arthritic potential of an ethanolic extract of stem bark of G. pentaphylla. Results showed significant reductions in fasting glucose levels and inflammation observed in diabetic and arthritic animals. Observed increase in insulin levels was attributed to pancreatic ß cell regeneration. There was also significant improvement of hematologic parameters, including ESR. (13)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Arthritic / Leaves: Study investigated a methanolic extract of leaves for anti-nociceptive activity. The extract produced an antinociceptive effect with significant inhibition of late phase formalin induced pain and significant decrease in the number of writhing. (15)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Leaves and Stems: A methanolic extract of stems showed moderate antioxidant activity, probably due to polyphenolic content. Both stem and leaves extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity. The stems extract showed showed potent cytotoxic activity. Several antitumor alkaloids were identified. (16)
Anti-Chikungunya Virus / Isovaleric Acid and Avicequinone C: Oral administration of tender leaf extract is traditional known to prevent chikungunya virus infection. Study profiled phytocompounds in the plant through LC-MS/MS, sought to identify active antiviral constituents and drug-likeness through molecular docking. Docking results showed compounds isovaleric acid and avicequinone-C have good interaction with chikungunya causing protein targets. ADME/T profiling of the phytocompounds revealed the two compounds could be promising molecules for drug development against chikungunya virus. (18)
Anticancer / Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest /  Breast Cancer Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of various fractions of G. pentaphylla leaves on cell cycle and apoptosis of breast cancer cells viz. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. HPTLC and HPLC profiling revealed presence of lupeol, chrysin,  quercetin, ß-sitosterol and kaempferol. Selected fractions possess cell cycle inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effect on both MCF-7 and MMDA-MB-231 cells. Apoptotic effect may be through the mitochondrial pathway by activation of caspase-3/7. (19)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antiproliferative / Leaves: Study isolated 18 previously undescribed sulphur-containing amides (1-18) and three known analogues (19-21) from the leaves of G. pentaphylla. Isolates were investigated for antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Prenylated sulphur-containing amides exhibited significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 254.7 cells.  They also exhibited considerable antiproliferative activities against HepG2 cell line. (20)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of G. pentaphylla against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant reduction in the elevated serum ALT (p<0.001). AST (p<0.001), ALP (p<0.001) and total bilirubin (p<0.01) and an increased level of total protein (p<0.01) with a significant reduction in liver weight. Biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. (22)
Anti-Arthritic / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic efficacy of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol root extracts screened by bovine serum albumin renaturation method. All extracts tested showed positive response, with the ethanol extract showing maximum efficacy of 46.46%. (see constituents above) (23)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanol extract of G. pentaphylla leaves for antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Antioxidant activity of different concentrations of plant extracts increased in a concentration dependent manner with IC50 of 69.64 µg/ml compared to ascorbic acid (27.02 µg/ml). Total phenol content was 25.28 mg/g GAE. Highest antimicrobial activity was against Salmonella paratyphi with zone of inhibition of 22 mm. (26)
Glycosmisines / Antiproliferative / Stems: Study of stems isolated two unique carbazole-indole-type dimeric alkaloids, glycosmisines A and B (1 and 2), and their cytotoxicity was tested against three cancer cell lines (A549, HepG-2, and Huh-7 cells) using MTT assay. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant levels of cytotoxicity against the three human cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis in the same cell lines as evidenced by changes in morphological features of the treated cells and dose-dependent accumulation of a sub-G1 population. (27)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study of evaluated the anthelmintic effect of methanolic extract of leaves on adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. The extract produced significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. (28)
ZnO Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on the simple, green synthesis of of zinc oxide nanoparticles from methanolic leaf extract of G. pentaphylla. The synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against pathogenic organisms. (29)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Fruit Pericarp: Study reports on a novel, one-pot, cost-effective, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from fruit epicarp extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla. The AgNPs showed strong antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Candida albicans and antibacterial  activity against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. (30)
Arborine and Skimmianine for Multidrug-Resistant S. aureus: Study aimed to isolate antibacterial principles against the clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus from ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Isolated compounds were identified as arborine and skimmianine, which exhibited significant antibacterial effect with lowest MIC and MBC values against MMDR Staphylococcus aureus and in vitro kinetic and protein leakage assays supported the antimicrobial activity. Significant morphological changes such as unneven cell surfaces and morphology, cell shrinkage, and cell membrane damages were observed in MDR S. aureus upon treatment of arborine and skimmianine. (31)
Glycopentalone / Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study aimed to isolate and characterize the most active anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compound from an alcoholic extract of G. pentaphylla. The most active anti-HCC compound was a chalcone derivative, which showed specificity against Hep3 B with minor cytotoxicity against non HCC cell lines, RAW 264.7 and HEK293. MTT assay, physiological and FACS analysis showed the anti-HCC efficacy of the isolated compound in vitro. (32)
Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extract of roots of G. pentaphylla using carrageenan and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema, xylene induced mouse ear edema and formaldehyde induced arthritis inflammation tests at doses of 5-400 mg/kg intra- peritoneally. Results showed significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibition of edema formation in all four methods. Results seem to justify use of the plant in traditional Indian medicine in the treatment of inflammation. (33)
Effect against Arsenic Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla leaf powder against sodium arsenite (NaAs)2) induced toxicosis in adult albino rats. Results showed G. pentaphylla leaf powder may mitigate the arsenicosis in rats at a dose dependent manner, with potential for use to reduce or prevent arsenic toxicity in humans. (34)
Glycopentanolones / ß-Hexosaminidase Inhibition / Alkaloids / Stems: The ethanolic extract from stems was found to suppress antigen-mediated degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Study isolated four new geranylated 2(1H)-quinolone alkaloids and 12 known compounds from the stem of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Four alkaloids (1,2,8, and 11) with N-methyl moiety exhibited potent inhibition of ß-hexosaminidase release. (35)
Effect against Arsenic Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla on key markers of apoptosis, metastasis, and  angiogenesis in vitro and evaluated the effect of fractions in vivo in DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. Results showed fractions induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through the intrinsic/mitochontrial apoptotic pathway. Fractions inhibited the metastatic and angiogenic markers, MMP-9 and HIF-1α. Anti-tumor studies in DMBA-induced mammary model in Sprague Dawley rats also showed favorable results. (36)
Wound Healing / Excisional Model / Leaf Ointment: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of 10% and 15% ointment formulations of methanolic leaf extract om am excision wound model in rats. The 15% w/w ointment group showed significant wound healing comparable to that of nitrofurazone ointment treated animals. Closure time was less and percentage of wound contraction was more. Both concentrations of methanolic extract ointment showed significant responses when compared to the control group. (37)
Mosquitocidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors. G. pentaphylla extracts showed larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the mosquito vectors. Acetone extracts showed highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ae. aegypti with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413; and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. Results suggest potential for an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquito vector control. (38)
Selenium Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using G. pentaphylla leaves. The NPs showed strong antibacterial activity against four urinary tract pathogens viz., E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. (39)


Updated September 2022 / August 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Glycosmis pentaphylla in the Brooklyn Botanic Garden / Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz / CC by SA 4.O International /  click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Glycosmis pentaphylla fruits / Vinayaraj  / CC by SA 3.O /  click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: illustration / File:Glycosmis pentaphylla Blanco1.137-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Glycosmis pentaphylla / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Glycosmis pentaphylla / WFO: The World Flora Online
Glycolone, a quinolone alkaloid from Glycosmis pentaphylla
/ P Bhattacharyya and B K Chouwdhury / Phytochemistry, 1985; Volume 24, Issue 3: pp 634-635 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)80795-5
Carbazole and 3-methylcarbazole from Glycosmis pentaphylla / B K Chowdhury, A Mustapha et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 26, Issue 7, 1987, Pages 2138-2139 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81785-9
Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanol Extract of Some Medicinal Plants Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Rajib Ahsan, Monirul Islam et al / European Journal of Scientific Research, 2009; Vol 37, No 2: pp 302-310 / ISSN 1450-216X
In vitro Antibacterial Screening and Toxicity Study of Some Different Medicinal Plants / Rajib Ahsan, Monirul Islam et al / World Journ of Agri Sciences, 2009; 5(5): pp 617-621, 2009.

Alkaloids and Sulphur-containing Amides from Glycosmis citrifolia and Glycosmis elongata / MAWARDI RAHMANI*, ROSMIATI MUHAMMAD SERANG & NAJIHAH Mohd HASHIM et al / Sains Malaysiana 39(3)(2010): 445–451

In-vitro Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Glycosmis pentaphylla and Bauhinia variegata / Bhatia L, Bishnoi H, Chauhan P, Kinja K, Shailesh S / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(7): pp 01-03
A Comparative Antipyretic Activity of the Crude Extracts of the Ariel Parts of Glycosmis pentaphylla and Bauhinia variegata / Mandal S, Upadhyay N, Sharma I, Rohit S, Mandloi A / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(7):  pp 16-18
Antidiabetic and Analgesic Effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) in Swiss Albino Mice / Most. Chand Sultana Khatun, M Ripon Mia, M Ashraf Ali, M Moshiur Rahman, Khadiza Begum, Kohinur Begum / Ibrahim Medical College Journal, 2012; Vol 6, No 1
The apoptosis inducing effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa and its influence on gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep3 B / Sreejith PS, Mascarenhas RR, Praseeja RJ, Asha VV / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012; Vol 139, No 2: pp 359-365
Chemical Constituents of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Isolation of A Novel Naphthoquinone and A New Acridone Alkaloid / Chihiro ITO,* Yuichi KONDO, K. Sundar RAO, Harukuni TOKUDA, Hoyoku NISHINO, and Hiroshi FURUKAWA / Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1999; 47(11): pp 1579-1581
Anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla
/ Namita Arora*, M S Ranawat and Pankaj Arora / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(1): pp 54-58
Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) / Md. Amran Howlader, Farhana Rizwan, Shapna Sultana, Mohammad Rakibur Rahman, K M Shams-Ud-Doha, Rumana Mowla, and Apurba Sarker Apu / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 01(08): pp 137-140
Etnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicological profile of Glycosis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC: A review / Labony Khandokar, Md Arreful Haque et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021; Vol 278: 114313 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.2114313
Isovaleric acid and avicequinone-C are Chikungunya virus resistance principles in Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa / OP Binda, Deepa Mathew, PA Valsala et al / Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 2019; 56(2): pp 111-121 / DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.263719
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis via caspase-3/7 activation in breast cancer cells / M H Shoja. C Mallikarjuna Rao et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015; Vol 168: pp 50-60 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.048
Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative prenylated sulphur-containing amides from the leaves of Glycomis pentaphylla / Hefeng Nian, Guangzhong Yang et al / Fitoterapia, Oct 2020; Vol 146: 104693 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104693
Chemical fingerprint of essential oil components from fresh leaves of Glycosmmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa / Pressy P Prakasia, Ashalatha S Nair / The Pharma Innovation Journal, 2015; 3(12): pp 50-56 /
ISSN: 2277-7695
Hepatoprotective activity of Glycosmis pentaphylla against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice / Siva Shankar Nayak, Ranjeet Jain and Atish Kumar Sahoo / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2011; 49(2) / DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2010.501084

Comparative in-vitro anti-arthritic studies on the various extracts of Glycosmis pentaphylla DC roots
/ M Sivakumar, D Chamundeeswari, E Susithra / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2014; 8(7): pp 986-989 / ISSN: 0974-6943
Alkaloids from the Stems of Glycosmis pentaphylla
/ Guang-Zhong Yang, Yi Wu, Yu Chen / Helvetica Chiica Acta, 95(8): pp 1449-1454 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.201200027
Two new flavanols from Glycomis pentaphylla
/ Yi Wu, Xin Hu, Guang-Zhong Yang, Zhi-Nan Mei, Yu Chen / Journal of Asian Natural Research, 2012; 14(8) / DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2012.688745
Study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic leaf extract of Glycommis pentaphylla against various microbial strains / Israt Jahan Bulbul, Nisrat Jahan / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2016; 5(4): pp 53-57 / pISSN: 2349-824=34 / eISSN: 2278-4136
Glycosmisines A and B: isolation of two new carbazole-indole-type dimeric alkaloids from Glycomis pentaphylla and an evaluation of their antiproliferative activities / Yu Chen, Chu Tang, Zhinan Mei et al / Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2015; 13(24): pp 6773-6781
Anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla / Namita Arora, M S Ranawat, Pankaj Arora / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, 2011; 1(5) /
ISSN: 2249-3379
Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from leaf extract of Glycomis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC / S Vijayakumar, N Parameswari et al / Microbial Pathogenesis, 2018; Vol 116: pp 44-48 / DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.01.003
Green synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla and its theoretical explanations / Tanmoy Dutta, Vivekananda Mandal et al / Journal of Molecular Structure, 2022; Vol 1247: 131361 / DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2021.131361
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Rutaceae): A Natural Candidate for the Isolation of Potentail Bioactive Arborine and Skimmianine Compounds for Controllin Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
/ Natarajan Murugan, Ramalingam Srinivasan et a; /  Front. Public Health, 2020 / DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00176
Glycopentalone, a novel compound from Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa with potent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activty / PS Sreejith, VV Asha et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015; Vol 172: pp 38-43 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.05.051
Anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of roots of Glycosmis pentaphylla / Namita Arora, Pankaj Arora / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 4(2): pp 1-4 / ISSN: 2320-4850
Effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla leaf powder against chronic arsenicosis in rats / Amartya De, Sarmila Nath, A K Das et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017; 8(5): pp 2287-2298 / eISSN: 0975-8232 / pISSN: 2320-5148 / DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.8(5).2287-98
Glycopentanolones A-D, four new geranylated quinolone alkaloids from Glycosmis pentaphylla / Yun-Hyeok Choi, Seong Su Hong et al / Bioorganic Chemistry, 2019; Vol 87: pp 714-719 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.03.069
In vitro mechanistic and in vivo anti-tumor studies of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC agaisnt breast cancer / M H Shoja, C Mallikarjuna Rao / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2016; Vol 186: pp 159-168
Effect of the topical applica tion of the extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla on excisional wound model in mice / Megha Jha, Versha Sharma et al / Pharmacologyonline, 2009; 3: pp 356-360
Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) / Govindaraju Ramkumar, Sengodan Karthi, Ranganathan Muthyusamy et al / PLOS ONE /
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158088
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.)DC leaf extract mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticle and investigation of its antibacterial activity against urinary tract pathogens / Rajesh Dev Sarkar. Mohan Chandra Kalita / Bioresource Technology Reports, 2022; Vol 17: 100894 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2021.100894
Glycopentosides D-F, Three New Phenolic Glycosides from Glycosmis pentaphylla
/ Yu Chen, Er-Li Tian, Xin Hu, Jun Li, Guang-Zhong Yang / Helvetica Chimmica Acta, 98(8): pp 1160-1166
A new ent-abietane lactone from Glycosmis pentaphylla / Suwadee Chokchaisiri, Nuttapon Apiratikul, Thitima Rukachaisirikul / Natural Product Research, 2020; 34(21) / DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1540477
Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats /

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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