Hagonoy is a bushy herb or subshrub with long rambling branches, spreading into tangled dense thickets up to 2 meters high. Base of the plant is hard and woody while the branch tips are soft and green. Leaves are arrowhead-shaped, 5 to 12 centimeters long and 3 to 7 centimeters wide, with three characteristic veins in a pitchfork pattern, growing in opposite pairs along stems and branches. Flowers are in clusters of 10 to 15, tubular, pale pink-mauve or white, 10 millimeters long, at the end of the branches. Seeds are dark, 4 to 5 millimeters, narrow and oblong, with a parachute of white hairs which turn brown as the seeds dry. (1)
- Native to North America.
- Introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and Australia.
- It has become one of the most invasive weeds of Asia and Africa, with consequent economic and ecological burden. (36) (Also seed study below: 28)
- Aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves yielded carbohydrates (1.10%), protein (24.08%), lipid (14%), fiber (50%), ash (10.98%), with an energy content of 220.20 kcal. Leaves were also a rich source of mineral elements such as Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, P, and Mg. Leaves also yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, and phytic acid. (See study below) (2)
- Study of dried leaves yielded ash (11%), crude fat (11%), fiber (15%), crude protein (18%), and carbohydrate (31%). Active phytochemical substances are flavonoid aglycones (flavanones, flavonols, flavones) including acacetin, chalcones, eupatilin, luteolin, naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetagetin, and sinensetin; terpenes and terpenoids; essential oils; alkaloids including pyrrolizidine; saponins and tannins; phenolic acids including ferulic acid and protocatechuic acid; and phytoprostane compound including chromomoric acid. (14)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts yielded secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates. (see study below) (16)
- Study investigated the proximate, amino acid, and phytochemical compositionof Chromolaena odorata. Analysis yielded high total carbohydrate (20.58% ww and 50.82% dw), crude fiber (10.76% ww and 26.57% dw) and protein (6.56% ww and 16.20% dw). Protein is rich in essential amino acid with very high histidine and phenylalanine, with a protein score of 88.24% with methionine as limiting amino acid. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids (aurone, chalcone, flavone, and flavonol), phytates saponins and tannins. (18)
- Fractionation of aerial parts yielded a new flavonoid, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4-dimethoxyflavanone, in addition to 14 known flavonoid compounds. (27)
- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of terpenoid, flavonoid, and alkaloid. GC-MS analysis of leaf extract yielded four major compounds viz. germacrene, hexadecoic acid, cyclohexane, and caryophyllene. Column chromatography yielded three compounds: 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-one; 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-7-methoxy-chromen-4-one and of 2- (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-4-one.
(see study below) (32)
- In a study of biochemical parameters yielded chlorophyll 'a' 0.182 ± 0.20, chlorophyll 'b' 0.108 ± 0.05. and total chlorophyll content of 0.290 ± 0.25.
Protein content was 19.6 ± 1.414 mg/g, carbohydrate 2.53 ± 0.11 mg/gm of leaf sample. (see study below) (32)
- Mineral analysis of leaves (mg/100g) yielded calcium 487.40, sodium 44.22, potassium 96.91, magnesium 116.70, zinc 3.77, iron 67.71, phosphate 143.15,
copper 1.41, manganese 0.81, chromium 0.97. (33)
- Leaves are emit a pungent odor when crushed.
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, wound healing, hemostatic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, platelet protective, anticancer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insecticidal, anti-anemic properties.
- In the Philippines, crushed leaves used for "kulebra," boils and tumorous inflammatory conditions.
- Concoction of juices of leaves and fruits of hagonoy, kalamansi, dilaw, dahon ng sili, mixed with apog (lime) and pulot (honey), used for skin diseases and boils.
- In many tropical countries, used to stop bleeding and wound healing.
-In Indonesia, young leaves are used to treat wounds.
- In Vietnam, aqueous extract of leaves used for the treatment of soft tissue wounds, burn wounds, and skin infections.
- In the Antilles, juices extracted from pounded leaves, mixed with honey, castor oil, and olive oil, used for colds and flu.
Tea of leaves used for bles. (7)
- In Nigeria, used for wound healing and as anthelmintic. (13) Also used for treatment of piles. (32)
- Livestock toxicity: C. odorata has been reported to be toxic to cattle and can cause allergic reactions. (13)
- Soiil fertility: In Nigeria, used extensively to improved soil fertility. (13)
- Aquaculture / Antivibriosis: See study below. (34)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves / Food Supplement: Study of aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves showed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, and antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Aspergillus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhizopus sp. Results showed leaves could be a useful source of antimicrobial drugs as well as food supplement. (See constituents above) (2)
• Wound Healing / Hemostatic Activity: Study evaluated the molecular mechanisms for its wound healing and hemostatic activities. The weed extract promoted Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast migration and proliferation. Results showed accelerated hemostatic and wound healing activities by altering the expression of genes, including HO-1, TXA, and MMP-9. (3)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves showed significant free radical scavenging activity against nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. (4) Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging, superoxide scavenging, reducing power, NO scavenging, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, FRAP, and chelating ability assays. All the invitro antioxidant assays revealed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. (30)
• Wound Healing / Eupolin: Study evaluated the effect of Eupolin extract on hydrated lattice contraction by human dermal fibroblasts, an in vitro model of wound contraction. Preliminary results showed the inhibitory effect of Eupolin extract on collagen contraction. It was postulated that synergistic properties of components of the natural extract contributed to the positive effects on various wound healing mechanisms. (5)
• Egg Yolk Colorant: Study evaluated the potentials of Chromolaena odorata leaf meal as possible egg yolk colorant and its effect on egg quality characteristics. Results suggest potential utility of C. odorata as possible egg yolk colorant for laying eggs, providing a possible alternative of subtle cultivation rather than eradication. (6)
• Antibacterial and Antioxidant / Leaves and Roots: Study of methanol and aqueous extracts of Eupatorium odoratum by GC-MS analysis yielded 17 major and 26 minor compounds with significant antibacterial, antioxidant, and other prophylactic activities. All fractions of leaf and root showed significant inhibitory activity against all bacterial pathogens tested, while flowers and stems did not show any activity. (7)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves in rats showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis models of inflammation. (8)
• Antibiotic Synergism against ß-Lactamase Producing Bacteria: Study showed C. odorata exhibited in vitro interactions between penicillin G and the extracts with synergism against E col, while antagonism was seen in cephalosporin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Study evaluated the synergism of the extract and some antibiotics on resistance enzyme cleavage of ß-lactam rings mechanism in an effort to explore new bioactive molecules. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Fatty Acids: Study evaluated the inhibitors of nitric acid production and NF-kB activity from Chromolaena odorata. Aerial parts yielded six fatty acids (S)-coriolic acid (1), (S)-coriolic acid methyl ester (2), (S)-15, 16-didehydrocoriolic acid methyl ester (4), linoleamide (5) and linolenamide (6). All compounds inhibited NO production; Compound 2 was the most active The fatty acid components in C. odorata with NF-kB inhibitory activity could explain the anti-inflammation property of this plant in traditional medicine. (10)
• Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara, and Euphorbia hirta for cytotoxicity.. Results showed potent concentration-dependent activity brine shrimp lethality. The observed lethality indicated the presence of potent cytotoxic and probably antitumor components. (11)
• Adverse Effects on Kidney: C. odorata has been shown to be toxic to cattle. Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic plant extract on kidney and intestine of albino rats using concentrations of 50, 100, and 250 mg/kbw. (Previous studies using higher concentrations have already shown toxic effects.) Results showed uncontrolled use of the plant extract has adverse effect on kidney function and histology of the rats in the study. While histological exam of the kidney showed no signs of deterioration, histological sections of the kidney showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and epithelial erosion. (13)
• Effect on Bleeding Time / Hemostatic Activity:Study of aqueous extract reported significantly higher hemostatic activity than an ethanolic extract in coagulation time (15.18 ± 0.023 min vs 21 min) and clotting time (0.26 ± 0.014 min vs 2 min), respectively. Results suggest good hemostatic property, reducing bleeding and clotting times by inducing formation and activation of platelets. (14)
• Effect on Superficial and Enteric Bacteria: Study evaluated ethanol and expressed extracts of leaves of C. odorata for antibacterial activity against two hospital bacterial isolates viz., E. coli and S. aureus as indicator of enteric and superficial pathogenic bacteria, respectively. Ampiclox was used for comparison. Ampiclox showed significantly higher activity against E. coli compared to the extract. For S. aureus, the ethanol extract showed higher activity, supporting its use in traditional medicine for superficial wounds, burns, etc. (15)
• Wound Healing / Antioxidant / Excision Wound Model: Study evaluate The aqueous extract showed high antioxidant and lipid peroxide inhibitory activity, while the ethanolic extract showed high phenolic content and hydrogen peroxide inhibitory activity. The most effective concentration for excision wound healing was 5.0% (w/w), with faster reduction in wound area compared to control and Betadine-treated group. (see constituents above) (16)
• Oral Polyphenols /
Role in Hemostasis / Protection of Platelets and Prevention of Thrombocytopenia: Chromolaena odorata has proven hemostatic activity and wound healing properties. Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract and spray-dried powder on ulcers, platelets, and heparin-induced bleeding diathesis in Wistar rat model with gastric bleeding induced by absolute alcohol, thrombocytopenia induced by Busulfan, and bleeding diathesis induced by tail truncation. The presence of polyphenols in C. odorata was considered crucial in arresting internal bleeding from stomach ulcers, preventing destruction of thrombocytes, and minimizing bleeding diathesis in mice. (17)
• Source of Protein Supplement: Study investigated the proximate, amino acid, and phytochemical composition of Chromolaena odorata. Results suggest C. odorata is a source of high quality protein and can serve as a potential source of protein supplement. (see constituents above) (18)
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata for antifungal activity in mice. The extracts and fractions inhibited in vitro growth on Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 500 µg/ml for the extract and 25 to 100 µg/ml for fractions. Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and steroids. No toxic effect was observed in the mice studied. (19)
• Hypoglycemic / Hematologic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic, hematologic, and hypolidemic potentials of C. odorata ethanol leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as reference drug. All test doses of CELE significantly (p<0.05) lowered glucose levels in diabetic rats, comparing favorably with the reference drug. Hematologically, RBC counts, PCV, and hemoglobin values were all significantly raise (p<0.05). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and VLDL were significant (p<0.05) decreased, along with increase in HDL-C. Results suggest a potential in the management of diabetes, associated anemia, and lipid abnormalities. (20)
• Antimicrobial Efficacy on Viscose Fabrics: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of C. odorata for potential use as antimicrobial agent on viscose non-woven fabric treated with various extract concentrations (1% to 9%) via ultrasonic atomizer. Antibacterial and antifungal assay was done against E. coli, S. aureus, A. niger and C. albicans. Results showed 5% extract can be used as a natural antimicrobial agent on textiles which can be used for medical applications. (21)
• Anticancer / Impact on Clonogenicity of Cancer Cell Lines / Leaves: Study of ethanolic (80% v/v) extract and fractions. The hexane-soluble fraction yielded three compounds viz., 5‐hydroxy‐7,4′‐ dimethoxy-flavanone (1)and 2′‐hydroxy‐4,4′,5′,6′‐tetramethoxychalcone (2) (previously identified in leaves) and 1,6‐dimethyl‐4‐(1‐methylethyl)naphthalene (cadalene) (3). Compound 2 was found to be both cytotoxic and anticlonogenic in Cal51, MCF7 and MDAMB‐468 cell lines, and acted synergistically with Bcl2 inhibitor ABT737 to enhance apoptosis in Cal51 breast cancer cells. (22)
• Insecticidal / Houseflies Musca domestica / Leaves: Chicken dung manure is used as fertilizer by farmers/vegetable growers. It attracts houseflies which acts as vectors of common disease. Study evaluated the insecticidal properties of C. odorata for potential to control or get rid of houseflies. Results suggest that fresh leaf extract applied by spray can be used to eradicate adult houseflies, Musca domestica, and prevent the occurrence of diseases brought by the insect. (23)
• Insecticidal / Cockroach / Periplaneta americana /
Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of C. odorata as insecticidal against cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Results showed the leaf extract was toxic to the insect vector. Maximum mortality was seen after exposure of test species to the highest concentration of the leaf extract (1.0 concentration / 36.63 % mortality / 18.68% survival) with 0.001% level of confidence. (24)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and EA extracts of stem bark of Uncaria perrottetii for antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, using disc diffusion and MIC assays for antimicrobial testing, and antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays using in situ cell death assay for cytotoxicity. C. odorata inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, S. aureus, and S. typhimurium. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays against Trichomonas vaginalis and Blastocystis hominis showed both plant extracts can reduce the number of parasites. (25)
• Antidiabetic / Anti-Anemic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic property of a methanolic leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Study showed the leaf extract exhibited hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-anemic, and possibly, immune-stimulating and prophylactic properties. Extract treatment may have restored the integrity and functions of the damaged pancreatic tissues. The extract restored the renal and hepatic damage to their normal architecture. The anti-anemic activity may be attributed to the high iron content of its chlorophyll. (26)
• Toxicological Potential / Invasive Form / Contradictory Results: Study evaluated the toxicological potential of methanolic extract of C. odorata in mice. The extract did not cause mortality in mice; however, oral feeding of the extract resulted in sedation, loss of appetite, enteritis, and decreased weight gain in treated mice. Significant elevation (p<0.05) of SGOT and SGPT was observed, along with decreased serum SOD and catalase. Gross pathologic exam revealed subcutaneous hemorrhages, friable liver, congested lungs and kidney. Histopath exam of liver revealed centrilobular necrosis with varying degrees of changes of degenerative changes of periportal hepatic cells, congestion of portal vein, and proliferation of endothelial cells. Results are highly contradictory to a previous study by Ogbonnia et al., 2010, which reported an LD50 of 16.5 g/kbw in mice, with only mild toxic changes in the liver and kidney. The difference may be due to geographical differences and toxin accumulation like nitrate and sesquiterpene lactones. Also, the invasive forms reported differed from one another in morphology, biology, and ecology. Study suggests the invasive form found in Western Ghats of Indian subcontinent possessed severe toxic potential when given orally to mice. (28)
• Effect on Kidney Function and Intestine Histology with Uncontrolled Use: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of C. odorata on kidney and intestine of albino rats in varying doses from 50 mg to 250 mg/kg for six weeks. Results showed uncontrolled use has an adverse effect on kidney function and histology of the intestines of rats in the study. (29)
Phytochemical Study / Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated C. odorata for phytochemical properties and pharmacological activities. Toxicity evaluation and dermal irritation study of an aqueous leaf extract showed it to be non-toxic at maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. On formaldehyde-induced paw edema evaluation, the leaf extract at 100 mg/kg was 80.24% as effective as standard drug indomethacin. Antimicrobial evaluation showed medium inhibition of S. aureus ATCC 25293, weak inhibition of S. aureus ATCC 29213, and strong inhibition of P. aeruginosa, with no activity against fungus C. albicans. (see constituents above) (31)
• Antibacterial / Vibriosis / Leaves: Vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi is a serious bacterial disease in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon aquaculture. Shrimp mortality post larvae can reach 100%. Study evaluated the potential of koasandra (C. odorata) leave as natural antibacterial against Vibrio harveyi. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by a methanol extract with low MIC and MBC of 0.625 and 1.250 mg/ml, respectively. Results suggest C. odorata leaves have potential to be developed as raw material source for vibriosis prevention. The ME extract showed not toxicity to tiger shrimp post larvae up to 2,500 mg/ml. (34)
• Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity
Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts on albino Wistar rats. Estimated LD 50s for the AE and EA were 2154 and >5000 mg/kbw, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimp showed an LC50 of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Results suggest the non-toxic nature of C. odorata extracts. (35)
• Larvicidal Against Vector Mosquitoes / Leaves: Larvicidal bioassays evaluated methanolic extract of C. odorata leaves against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Highest mortality was observed in Cx. quinquefasciatus LC50 43 ppm, LC90 110 ppm), followed by Ae aegypti
(LC50 138 ppm, LC90 463 ppm). Results showed anti-larval activity against the mosquito vectors, and suggest a potential source of herbal herbicide for vector control. (37)
• Hemostatic Gel Preparations: C. odorata is used to stop bleeding. Previous studies have shown high hemostatic activity in a 70% ethanolic extract of leaves.
Study evaluated various concentrations of leaf extracts in hydrous and anhydrous gel preparations for hemostatic use. The anhydrous gel containing 1.5% w/w of extract exhibited the highest amount of cumulative percent permeation/unit area. (38)
• Ecophysiological Studies on Invasiveness: Study examined the ecophysiological attributes of C. odorata that contributes to its invasive success in measures of photosynthetic performance, gas exchange, chlorophyll and plant water relations, among others. The plant can successfully acclimatise to low photosynthetic photon flux density conditions to outcompete less tolerant species under low light condition. The plant showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) in summer. Increased proline concentration and leaf wilting probably increase WUE and may be an adaptive strategy to protect against dehydration injury. Herbicide response was studied. Because of the high plasticity of the weed, a coordinated study is needed to curtail the invasive spread of C. odorata. (39)
• Biiofilm Killing Effects Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Study evaluated the antibiofilm activity of C. odorata against Pseudomonas aeruginosa under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. GC-MS screening yielded germacrene D as major constituent in both chloroform and ethanolic extracts. Results suggest the biofilm activities of C. odorata extracts depend on solvent extraction method and oxygen level. Study findings can contribute to existing antimicrobial treatment plan to combat facultative anaerobic P. aeruginosa biofilm. (40)
• Termiticidal Potential / Leaves: Study evaluated the termiticidal potential of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts in terms of length of time for the termites to die upon application of various treatments viz. T1, control, commerical pesticide, Solignum; T2, leaf decoction; T3, expressed leaf juice; T4, 30% leaf extract solution; and T5, 60% leaf extract solution. Results showed T5, 60% leaf extract solution, showed least time with mean of 1.29 minutes. (41)