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Family Urticaceae
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.

Zhui tou ma

Scientific names Common names
Poikilospermum sinense (C. H. Wright) Merr. Anapol (Ig., Bik.)
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Anapul (Ig.)
  Anopo (Bon.)
  Buburubad (Sub.)
  Hanapul (Tag.)
  Hanapol (Tag.)
  Hanupol (Bik.)
  Kanupul (Tag.)
  Lagna (Tag.)
  Napul (Sul.)
  Pañgau (Tag.)
  Tagimi (Yak.)
  Tobayan (Tag.)
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Entaban.
CAMBODIA: Krape roo.
CHINESE: Xiang tian zhui tou ma.
INDONESIA: Mentawan, Besto, Areuy kakejoan, Akar rundang.
JAVA: Besto.
MALAY: Murah, Tentawan.
MALAYSIA: Bunatol.
THAI: Airai, Charai, Khaman.
VIETNAMESE: Sung d[aa]y, Rum th[ow]m.

Hanopol is a stout and woody climber. Leaves are oblong-ovate or subobovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, 8 to 15 centimeters wide, tapering to a point at the apex, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, smooth or hairy on both surfaces, dotted and streaked with cystoliths. Stipules are large, rusty-brown, and smooth. Male heads are about 6 millimeters in diameter, in broad, short, peduncled, dichotomous cymes. Stamens are 3 or 4. Female heads are about 25 millimeters in diameter, occurring in rounded, concave, deciduous bracts. Flowers are sweet-scented.

- Common in forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Borneo, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Parts used
Roots, sap, stem.


- In Malaysia, young cooked leaves are eaten as vegetable.
- The Higaonon tribe of Rogongon in Mindanao apply the latex or sap of stem for relief or treatment of sore eyes. (5)
- In Celebes, plant is used for diseases of the eye.
- In Lower Siam, sap is considered cooling for fevers. In Java, sap is used for the same purpose.
- Malays used the a poultice of roots for itches and fevers.
- In Java, pounded stems made into hair wash to destroy vermin.
- In Serampas, Indonesia, used for beri-beri.
- In Northern Thailand, one of the plants used in the preparation of postpartum herbal baths.
- In Malaysia, sap used for stomach ulcers; shoots applied to wounded skin.
(2) Sap from stem is drunk for postpartum treatment.
- In Malaysia, stem sap prepared in an oral drink, used for night fever. (9)

Antiviral: In a study of antiviral activity of plant extracts with cells infected with virus for 24 hours, two plants showed moderated antiviral activity: Poikilospermum suaveolens and Pseuduvaria macrophylla.
• Postpartum Baths:
Study evaluated the use of medicinal plants--168 species belonging to 80 families and 145 genera, 131 wild and 37 cultivated in home gardens--by the Mien in Nan Province for potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women. The most common preparation was decoction or oral use and bathing uses. Poikilospermum suaveolens was one of the plants used in postpartum bath formulae. (9)
• Antiviral / Cytotoxicity: In a study of methanolic extract f leaves from plants collected from Malaysian forests, P. suaveolens showed brine shrimp toxicity >1000 mg/L, Vero cytotoxicity CTC50 575.44 mg/L, and was one of two plants that showed moderate antiviral activity in cells inoculated with MV (measles virus.) (10)
• Myrmecophilic Disposition / Association with Ants:
Study (Jolivet, 1996) reported that stipules and capitulate inforescences of Poikilospermum suaveolens usually harbor ant, e.g. Dolichoderus sp. (thoracicus group). He suggests the plant has a myrmecophilic disposition. The plant has nectaries at the base of the inflorescence and spacious stipules suitable for habitation by carton-building ants. (11)
• Anti-Babesial Potential:
Study evaluated 45 plants from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia for inhibitory effects against Babesia gibsoni in vitro and acute toxicity to mice. Twenty-one extracts exhibited antibabesial activity with IC50 values ≤ 62.5 µg/ml. Poikilospermum suaveolens showed an IC50 of 56.0 ± 3.5. (12)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated July 2018 / June 2015

IMAGES SOURCE: (3 Images) / Poikilospermum suaveolens / Kwan / Nature Love You / click on image to go to source page / www.NatureLoveYou.sg

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in Northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women / Panyaphy K, Van On T, Sirisa-Ard P et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17; 135(2): pp 226-37
A Survey of Indigenous Plants Used for Food and Medicine by the Kadazanduzun Ethnic in Tambunan, Sabah East Malaysia / Julius Kulip /
Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.
/ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Poikilospermum suaveolens / Vernacular names / GlobinMed
Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines / Lilybeth F. Olowa, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Eduardo C. Aranico and Cesar G. Demayo / Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4): 1442-1449, 2012
Uras: Medicinal and Ritual Plants of Serampas, Jambi Indonesia / Bambang Hariyadi and Tamara Ticktin / Ethnobotany and Research Applications
An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia / Julius Kulip / Telopea 10(1): 2003
Poikilospermum suaveolens / Synonyms / The Plant List

Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in Northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women. / Panyaphu K, On T V, Sirisa-ard P, Srisa-nga P, ChansaKaow S, Nathakarnikitkul S / J Ethnopharmacol. May 17, 2011; 135(2): pp 226-237 / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.03.050
A survey on phytochemical and bioactivity of plant extracts from Malaysian forest reserves
/ J. Nardiah Rizwana, I. Nazlina*, A. R. Mohd Razehar, A. Z. Siti Noraziah, C. Y. Ling, S. A. Shariffah Muzaimah, A. H. Farina, W. A. Yaacob, I. B. Ahmad and L. B. Din / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4 February 2010; 4(3): pp 203-210

Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia / Edited by T. Okuda, N. Manokaran, Y. Matsumoto, K. Niiyama, S.C. Thomas, P.S. Ashton / Ebook
Effects of Central Kalimantan Plant Extracts on Intraerythrocytic Babesia gibsoni in Culture / SUBEKI, Hideyuki MATSUURA, Masahiro YAMASAKI, Osamu YAMATO, Yoshimitsu MAEDE, Ken KATAKURA, Mamoru SUZUKI, TRIMURNINGSIH, CHAIRUL and Teruhiko YOSHIHARA* / J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2004; 66(7): pp 871–87

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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