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Family Moraceae
Ficus hauili Blanco

Leng guo rong

Scientific names Common names 
Ficus hauili Blanco Abnug (C. Bis.,P. Bis.)
Ficus septica Burm. f. Auili (Tag.)  
Ficus laccifera Blanco Diudiu (Ig.)
Ficus leucopleura F. Vill. Hauili (Tag.) 
Ficus radiata F. Vill. Kauili (Tag.) 
Ficus leucantatoma Merr. Labnog (P. Bis.) 
Ficus philippinensis Bonard Labnong (Tag.) 
Ficus altimeraloo F. Vill. Lagmut (P. Bis.) 
Ficus didymophylla Warb. Lapting (Ilk.)
Ficus rapiformis Rolfe Latayi (Bon.) 
  Liliau (Ibn.) 
  Lio-lio (Pamp.) 
  Liu-liu (Ting., If., Bon., Ilk,) 
  Raya-raya (Ilk.)
  Reya-reya (Ilk.) 
  Ria-ria (Ilk.) 
  Sio (Bik.)
  Tabung (Sul.) 
  Tuliao (Ibn.) 
  Yabnoi (Iv.)
  Leng guo rong (Chin.)
  Septic fig (Engl.)
  Hauli fig tree (Engl.)

Hauili is an erect, small tree, growing 3 to 8 meters high, smooth, with more or less hairy young shoots. Leaves are smooth and shining, not all roughened, oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with tip tapering to a rather sharp point, and the base pointed. Receptacles are axillary, solitary, depressed-globose or turbinate, obscurely ridged or angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and shortly peduncled.

- In thickets at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.

• Phytochemical study isolated isoflavones: ficusin A and ficusin B from the root bark.
• Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.

• Diuretic, sudorific, antiherpetic, antirheumatic.

Part utilized
Root, leaves, latex.

· In the Philippines, decoction of roots used as diuretic.
· Poultice of roots used for boils.
· Fresh leaves are sudorific; bruised with oil, used for headaches.
· Leaves applied externally as antirheumatic.
· Latex used for herpes.
· Used by the Ifugaos for diarrhea, cough, malaria and stomach problems.

• Phytochemicals / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Stems / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, eight new alkaloids – ficuseptines B-D, 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide, 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide among others – from the methanol extract of stems of Ficus septica. Cytotoxicity of the new alkaloids were assessed in vitro using HONE-1 and NUGC cell lines. (1)
• Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Leaves / Cytotoxicity: Study yielded phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide, ficuseptine-A together with 18 known compounds from the leaves of FS. Some of the compounds exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against two human cancer cell lines. (
• Mucarinic Receptor Activity: Malaysian study of 224 plant extracts from 50 plant families for muscarinic receptor binding activity showed the greatest inhibition, and with other extracts that exhibited significant muscarinic properties were suggested to be worthy of further investigation. (
• Anti-inflammatory:
Study examined the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Ficus septica. Study suggests that it exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting expression of the proinflammatory factors and related signaling pathways. (
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal / Antiprotozoal:
Study of ethanol extracts of F septica and S foetida showed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of S aureus and E coli. F septica inhibited Candia albicans and showed antiprotozoal activity against T vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, quarternary base, tannins, 2-deoxysugars and benzopyrone nucleus. Results suggest the extracts can be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. (
• Antimicrobial Alkaloids:
Study of methanolic extract displayed intense antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.
• Immunomodulatory / Anticancer:
Previous study has shown anticancer effects singly or in combination with doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer lines. Study in thirty male Sprague Dawley rats showed HIF (hexane insoluble fraction) of leaves has a potential as protective agent combined with doxorubicin. (8)
• Apoptosis / Chemopreventive: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed potential as chemopreventive agent with its activity on inducing apoptosis in liver cancer with p53-independent pathway. (9)


Last Update May 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Stems of Ficus septica / Amooru G. Damu, Ping-Chung Kuo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (7), pp 1071–1075 DOI: 10.1021/np050095o
Muscarinic Receptor Activity of Some Malaysian Plant Species / L.Y. Chung, K.F. Yap, M.R. Mustafa, S.H. Goh and Z. Imiyabir / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2005, Vol. 43, No. 8, Pages 672-682
Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids and Their Cytotoxicity from the Leaves of Ficus septica / Heterocycles / VOL.57;NO.12;PAGE.2401-2408(2002)
Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Cheng-Wei Yang, Wei-Liang Chen, Pei-Lin Wu, Huan-Yi Tseng, and Shiow-Ju Lee / Mol Pharmacol 69:749-758, 2006 / DOI: 10.1124/mol.105.017764
Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Ficus septica Burm and Sterculia foetida
L. leaf extracts
/ Pierangeli G Vita et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(1), pp. 058-063, 4 January, 2010
An antimicrobial alkaloid from Ficus septica / Beat Baumgartner et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 29, Issue 10, 1990, Pages 3327-3330 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)80209-Y
Scrutinising special qualities of phytochemicals / Anthony C. Dweck FLS FRSC FRSH – Technical Editor
Immunomodulatory effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. in doxorubicin-treated rats
Nugroho AE, Hermawan A, Nastiti K, Suven, Elisa P, Hadibarata T, Meiyanto E. / Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(11):5785-90.
Ficus septica burm. F. Leaves Ethanolic Extract Induces Apoptosis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene-induced Rat Liver Cancer Quatitavely / Dita Brenna Septhea, . Anindyajati, Andita Pra Darma, Ika Nurzijah, Agung Endro Nugroho / Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Vol 2, No 2, 2011.

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