Hauili is an erect, small tree, growing
3 to 8 meters high, smooth, with more or less hairy young shoots. Leaves are smooth and shining, not all roughened, oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with tip tapering
to a rather sharp point, and the base pointed. Receptacles are axillary, solitary, depressed-globose or turbinate, obscurely ridged or angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and shortly peduncled.
In thickets at low and
medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in China, from Northeast India to Australia and throughout Malesia.
study isolated isoflavones: ficusin A and ficusin B from the root bark.
• Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.
• Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded alkaloids, quarternary base, tannins, 2-deoxysugars and benzopyrone nucleus. (see study below) (5)
• Methanol extract of stems yielded eight new alkaloids, namely, ficuseptines B−D (1−3), 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide (4), 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide (5), 10S,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide (6), 10S,13aR-isotylocrebrine N-oxide (7), and 10S,13aS-isotylocrebrine N-oxide (8), together with six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids. (see study below) (1)
• Diuretic, sudorific, antiherpetic, antirheumatic.
Root, leaves, latex.
· In the Philippines, decoction
of roots used as diuretic.
· Poultice of roots used for boils.
· Fresh leaves are sudorific; bruised with oil, used for headaches.
· Leaves applied externally as antirheumatic.
· Roots used for neutralizing toxins; also, for prevention of asthma.
· Fruits used as laxative.
· Latex used for herpes.
· Used by the Ifugaos for diarrhea, cough, malaria and stomach
• Phytochemicals / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Stems / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, eight new
alkaloids – ficuseptines B-D, 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide, 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine
N-oxide among others – from the methanol extract of stems of Ficus
septica. Cytotoxicity of the new alkaloids were assessed in vitro using
HONE-1 and NUGC cell lines. (1)
• Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Leaves / Cytotoxicity: Study yielded phenanthroindolizidine
N-oxide, ficuseptine-A together with 18 known compounds from the leaves
of FS. Some of the compounds exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against
two human cancer cell lines. (3)
• Mucarinic Receptor
Activity: Malaysian study of 224 plant extracts from
50 plant families for muscarinic receptor binding activity showed the
greatest inhibition, and with other extracts that exhibited significant
muscarinic properties were suggested to be worthy of further investigation. (2)
• Anti-inflammatory / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids:
Study examined the molecular mechanisms for the
anti-inflammatory activity of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids isolated
from the leaves of Ficus septica. Study suggests that it exerts its
anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting expression of the proinflammatory
factors and related signaling pathways. (4)
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal / Antiprotozoal: Study of ethanol extracts of F septica and S foetida showed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of S aureus and E coli. Antifungal assay showed inhibition of Candia albicans. Antiprotozoal assay showed activity against T vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Results suggest the extracts can be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. (see constituents above) (5)
• Antimicrobial Alkaloids: Study of methanolic extract displayed intense antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine. (6)
• Immunomodulatory / Anticancer: Previous study has shown anticancer effects singly or in combination with doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer lines. Study in thirty male Sprague Dawley rats showed HIF (hexane insoluble fraction) of leaves has a potential as protective agent combined with doxorubicin. (8)
• Apoptosis / Chemopreventive: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed potential as chemopreventive agent with its activity on inducing apoptosis in liver cancer with p53-independent pathway. (9)
• Co-Chemotherapeutic Agent / Leaves / Breast Cancer: Study evaluated the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Results show the HIF has potential to be developed as co-chemotherapy for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. (10)
• Toxicity Study / Mutagenicity / Antifungal: Study of dried leaf extract showed no toxicity at upper limit dose of 5000 mg/kg. The AMES test showed the leaf extract to be mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Antifungal activity was done using Kirby-Bauer Method with an active zone of 16.67 mm (C. albicans). (11)
• In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect / Flavonoid and Phenolic Content: Study of various fractions of ethanolic extract exhibited increase in lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis activity. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction, with its phenolics and flavonoids, showed the highest immunomodulatory effect. (12)
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the antioxidant properties of leaf extract of F. septica and vine bark extract from U. perrottetti by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as by-products of lipid peroxidation, in the liver of ICR mice. Extract treated mice had lower MDA levels with various signs of histological cellular repair. Results suggested hepatoprotection. (14)
• Antiangiogenic Activity:: Study evaluating the potential of leaves of various plants, including Ficus septica Burm. f., for angiosuppressive activity. All the extracts tested except for P. laevigata can reduce CAM (chorio-allantoic membrane) vascular density pointing to an antiangiogenic activity. (13)