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Family Mimosaceae
Ipil-ipil
Santa Elena
Leucaena glauca
Linn.
LEAD TREE
Yin he huan

Scientific names Common names
Mimosa glauca Linn.  Agho (P. Bis.)
Acacia glauca Wiild.. Aghog (P. Bis.)
Leucaena glauca Linn.   Ipel (Tag.)
Leucaena leucocephala Lam.   Ipil-ipil (Tag.)
  Kabahero (C. Bis.)
  Kariskis (Ilk.)
  Komkompitis (Ilk.)
  Loyloi (S. L. Bis.)
  Santa Elena (Span.)
  San Pedro (P. Bis.)
  Lead tree (Engl.)
  Leucaena (Engl.)
  Yin he huan (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Reuse Wattel.
CHAMORRO: Tangan-Tangan, Tangantangan.
CHINESE: Bai he huan.
FIJIAN: Balori, Vaivai, Vaivai Ni Vavalangi.
FRENCH: Faux mimosa, Faux-acacia, Graines de lin, Tamarin batard.
HAWAIIAN: Koa haole.
INDONESIAN: Lamtoro.
KOSRAEAN: Rohbohtin, Tuhngantuhngan.
PALAUAN: Telentund.
SAMOAN: Fua Pepe, Lusina.
SPANISH: Guaje, Huaxin, Tamarindo Silvestre, Uaxim, Santa Elena.
TONGAN: Siale Mohemohe.

Botany
Ipil-ipil is a small tree growing up 8 meters high. Leaves are compound, 15 to 25 centimeters long, with hairy rachis. Pinnae are 8 to 16, and 5 to 8 centimeters long. Leaflets are 20 to 30, linear oblong, and 7 to 12 millimeters long. Heads are solitary, at the axils of the leaves, long-peduncled, globose, and 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter, with many flowers. Flowers are whitish, in dense globue heads, 2 to 3 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is an oblong or linear pod, strap-shaped, 12 to 18 centimeters long, 1.4 to 2 centimeters wide, papery, green turning to brown and splitting open along two edges when mature, and several fruits developing from each flower head. Each pod contains 15 to 25 elliptic, compressed, shining, brown seeds, each 5 to 8 millimeters long, 3 to 5 millimeters wide.

Distribution:
- In settled areas at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Locally gregarious and abundant.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
• Raw seeds yield fat, 8.68%; crude fiber, 22.59%; nitrogen-free material other than fiber, 9.78%; nitrogen, 6.42%; sucrose; water, 14.8%; ash, 4.2%.
• Seed contains the toxic amino acid mimosine.

Properties
• Acrid, sweet, bitter, mildly toxic.

Parts utilized
Dried seeds.

Uses
Edibility
In some provinces, seeds occasionally used as a coffee substitute.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, not much utilized as a medicinal plant.
- Roasted seeds used as emollient.
- Used for Intestinal parasitism: ascaris and trichinosis.
- Roots in decoction used as emmenagogue.
- Decoction of bark and roots is a powerful emmenagogue. In the West Indies, used as abortifacient.
- In China, seeds are eaten to rid of round worms.

Others
Leaves: Leaves are high in protein and can be used as feed supplement.
Wood
: In the Philippines, popular use as firewood and reforestation work. Also, used for carving.
Cover crop:
Also much used as a cover crop and exterminator of kogon.
Dye:
Produces a brown dye.
Seeds:
Occasionally used as coffee substitute; also for decorating bags
.
Forage: Highly nutritious forage tree.

Veterinary concerns
Leaves reported to be injurious to horses and young cattle who feed on it, causing falling hair from the manes and tails. Goats do not seem to be affected. The effect is attributed to the glucoside mimosine in leaves and seeds.
Feeding the leaves to breeding animals may also affect reproduction. In poultry, it may cause decrease in production and delay in the birds reaching sexual maturity.


Studies

Seed Gum / Tablet Binder:
(1) R&D on seed gum for a pharmaceutical substitute for the imported guar gum used as a binder in tablet formulation. In 1996, ipil-ipil was found to be an excellent liquid excipient as a suspending and thickening agent. (2) The seed galactomannan of L leucocephala, with properties similar to guar gum was evaluated as a pharmaceutical binder and compared with standard pharmaceutical binders regarding properties of compressibility, micromeritic and mechanical properties.
Inhibition of Growth of Hair by Mimosine: Loss of hair been reported in animals following ingesting of seeds and foliage and in women after consumption of LG seeds. The toxic principle is leucenol, an amino-acid (identical to the mimosine of Mimosa pudica) found primarily in the seeds of ipil-ipil, and in lesser amounts in foliage and stems. (1)
Mimosine-Iron Complexes: Study by Andre Gerard van Veen studied the properties of the seed's amino acid mimosine, a pyridoxine derivative, associated with hair follicle toxicity in the anagen phase of growth. He noted that the outbreaks of alopecia occurred only when the plant consumed was prepared in clay pots. In iron pots, no alopecia occurred, explained by the formation of mimosine-iron complexes that reduced the absorption of mimosine.
Mimosine Enhancement of sensitivity of hepatoma and lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs: Mimosine inhibited the proliferation of liver and lung cancer cells and blocked cell cycle progression from G1 to S phases. There was reduction of formation of colony of cancer cells. Mimosine may act via inhibition of cyclin D1 synthesis. Long-term treatment of mimosine induced apoptosis in liver and lung cancer cells. Results conclude mimosine is a potent anti-cancer agent and can enhance the cytocidal effect of chemotherapeutic drugs. (3)
Anti-Cancer / Mimosine: Mimosine, a plant specific amino acid extracted from the seeds of Lg, inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma and lung cancer cells by suppression of cyclin D1, activating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells.
Anti-Cancer / Mimosine / Additive Cytocidal Effect
: Mimosine showed an additive cytocidal effect in combination with chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in vivo.
Anti-Cancer / Antiproliferative: Study extract polysaccharides from the seeds of L leucocephala, sulfated to a sulfated glycosylated form. Results showed the sulfated glycosylated form possessed significant anti-proliferative activity against different cell lines. It induced HepG2 cell death by necrosis, but not apoptosis. Study concludes the chemical modification of leucaena gum induced its cancer chemopreventive and anti-proliferative activities.
Bioactivity Study / Central Nervous System Depressant: Study of chloroform soluble and ethyl acetate soluble alkaloidal extracts from the seeds of Leucaena leucocephala showed central nervous system depressant activity evidenced by a decrease in respiratory rate and depth and a decrease in motor activity.
.Disintegrant Action: L leucocephala seed gum was evaluated for disintegrant action in lactose-based tablets containing ibuprofen, a relatively insoluble drug. Study showed the seed gum swells rapidly when brought in contact with water, generating enough pressure to cause disintegration action
. (8)
Anthelmintic Effect: Study of seed extracts showed the most active fraction to contain polar polyphenols, providing scientific
justification for the use of the aqueous extract in traditional practice and application in anthelmintic therapy in veterinary practice. (9)
Polyprenols: Study
isolated from the whole plant of L leucocephala: ficapreol-11 (polyprenol), squalene and lupeol, isolated fro the first time from the species, plus 9 other known compounds.
Hypoglycemic: Study in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed the extract of LL seed acts as a hypoglycemic agent by selective regeneration of beta-cells of STZ-damaged pancreas while also protecting the beta-cells from the necrotic effect of STZ. (15)
Seed Polysaccharide / Drug Delivery: Seed polysaccharide can be used for controlled release of both water-soluble and water-insoluble types of drugs. The extent of release can be varied by controlling degree of cross-linking
. (16)
Iron in Mimosine Toxicity: Growing rats consuming diets with 25% L. leucocephala suffered mild alopecia, cataracts, reversible paralysis, severe growth retardation and mortality. Addition of Ferrous sulphate (2%) protected the animals from toxic symptoms.
Antidiabetic: Study of active fractions of L. leucocephala seeds on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed antidiabetic activities, with bioactive compounds indicating glycoside compounds with galactose monosaccharide clusters and other saccharides. (18)
Seed Oil / Antimicrobial: L. leucocephala seed oil extract showed concentration-dependent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The lotion formulation had good pharmaceutical properties. (19)
Seed Composition and Activities: Study on two varieties of L. leucocephala whole seeds and seed fraction revealed that the seed kernel portion is primarily the potential source of protein. Seeds exhibited urease activity, amylase activity, saponins, and hemagglutinins; while trypsin inhibitors, amylase inhibitors, and cyanogenetic glycosides were absent. (21)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: A 20% aqueous methanol dried leaf extract was evaluated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Fractionation isolated epicatechin-3-O-gallate (1) along with two quercetin glycosides: quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside (2) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (3) together with apigenin (4). On DPPH assay, the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Compound 1 showed slight toxicity against Vero cells. (22)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update July 2013


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / Lead tree, Leucaena leucocephala / Flower head / File:Leucaena leucocephala.jpg / Photo by Scott Bauer / Agricultural Research Service, the research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Inhibition of Growth of Hair by Mimosine / R G Crounse, J D Maxwell and H Blank / Nature 194, 694 - 695 (19 May 1962); doi:10.1038/194694b0
(2)
Andre Gerard van Veen / Mimosine-iron complexes /
(3)
Study of enhancement of sensitivity of hepatoma and lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutc drugs by mimosine from seeds of Leucaena Benth / Wen-Chun Hung / School of Technology for Medical Sciences Kaohsiung Medical College
(4)
Study of the anti-cancer effect of mimosine in vivo / Wen-Chun Hung / Year of 1999 / Number¡G CCMP88-RD-043 / Wen-Chun Hung / School of Technology for Medical Sciences Kaohsiung Medical College
(5)
Mimosine, a toxin produced by the tree-legume leucaena provides a nodulation competition advantage to mimosine-degrading rhizobium strains / M Soedarjop and D Borthakur / Soil Biology and Biochemistry Volume 30, Issue 12, 1 October 1998, Pages 1605-161 / doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00180-6
(6)
Bioactivity studies on the alkaloid extracts from seeds of Leucaena leucocephala / Irene Villasenor et al / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 11 Issue 8, Pages 615 - 617 / DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199712)11:8<615::AID-PTR170>3.0.CO;2-P
(7)
Preliminary evaluation of Leucaena leucocephala seed gum as a tablet binder./ Deodhar UP et al / Summary Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 1998, Vol. 24, No. 6, Pages 577-582 / DOI 10.3109/03639049809085662
(8)
Studies on disintegrant action of Leucaena leucocephala seed gum in ibuprofen tablet and its mechanism / P R P Verma and Balkishen Razdan / Dept of Pharm Sciences • Birla Inst of Tech, Mesra, Ranchi
(9)
Comparative Nematocidal Activity of Chromatographic Fractions of Leucaena leucocephala. Seed Against Gastrointestinal Sheep Nematodes / I O Ademola et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 2005, Vol. 43, No. 7, Pages 599-604
(10)
Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena leucocephala forage / I V Nsahlai et al / South African Journal of Animal Science 2000, 30 (Supplement 1)

(11)
Polyprenol from the Whole Plants of Leucaena leucocephala / Chung-Yi Chen and Yau-Der Wang / Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 70-72 / doi:10.4236/jep.2010.11009
(12)
Antiproliferative and cancer-chemopreventive properties of sulfated glycosylated extract derived from Leucaena leucocephala / amira M Gamal-Eldeen et al / Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:805-11 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.39438
(13)
Toxic action of mimosine—I. Inhibition of mitosis and DNA synthesis of H.Ep-2 cell by mimosine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine / doi:10.1016/0041-0101(71)90076-6 / Toxicon, Vol 9, Issue 3, July 1971, Pages 241-247
(14)
Yin he huan / Joe Hing Kwok Chu / Complementary and Alternative Healing University
(15)
The Effects of Leucaena leucocephala (lmk) De Wit Seeds on Blood Sugar Levels: An Experimental Study / Darmono Syamsudin, Simanjuntak and Partomuan Simanjuntak / International Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 2 (1), 2006, pp.49-52
(16)
Sustain-Release of Various Drugs from Leucaena Leucocephala Polysaccharide / S Jeevanandham, M Sekar, D Dhachinamoorthi et al / J Young Pharm. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2(1): 15–20. / doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.62207

(17)
REACTION OF RATS FED ON LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA / B A El-Harith, Y Schart and U ter Meulen / Trop Anim Prod 1979 4:2
(18)
Antidiabetic Activity of Active Fractions of Leucaena Leucocephala (lmk) Dewit Seeds in Experiment Model / Syamsudin, Ros Sumarny, Partomuan Simanjuntak / European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.43 No.3 (2010), pp.384-391
(19)
ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SEED OIL OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT (LEGUMINOSAE) / Segun A Aderibigbe, Oladapo A Adetunji, Michael Ayodele Odeniyi / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol 14, No 1 (2011)
(20)
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(21)
Leucaena leucocephala (Acacia) / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
(21)
Chemical composition of Leucaena leucocephala seeds / Poonam Sethi and Pushpa R. Kulkarni / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 1994, Vol 45, No 1, pp 5-13.
(22)
Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity study of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit leaf extract constituents / M.A Aderogba, L.J McGaw, B.T Bezabih, B.M Abegaz / Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, ISSN: 1118-6267



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