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Family Fabaceae
Kadios
Cajanus cajan
(Linn.) Millsp.
PIGEON PEA

Mu dou

Scientific names  Common names
Cajan cajan (L.) Millsp.        [Spelling variant] Gablos (Tag.) 
Cajan indorum Medik. Kadios (Mang., Tag., P. Bis.) 
Cajan inodorum Medik. Kagyos (Tag.) 
Cajanus bicolor DC. Kagyas (Tag.) 
Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth Kaldis (Ig., Ilk.) 
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Kalios (Tag.) 
Cajanus flavus DC. Kardis (Ibn., Ilk., Ig.) 
Cajanus indicus Spreng. Kidis (Ilk., Bon.) 
Cajanus inodorum Medik. Kusia (Ig., If.) 
Cajanus luteus Bello Tabios (Bik., C. Bis.)
Cajanus obcordifolia Singh Congo pea (Engl.)
Cajanus obcordifolius V. Singh Pigeon pea (Engl.) 
Cajanus striatus Bojer Red gram (Engl.)
Cytisus cajan L.  
Cytisus guineensis Schum. & Thonn.  
Cystisus pseudocajan Jacq.  
Phaseolus balicus  L.  
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Bisillah hindîyah, Lûbyâ sûdânî, Shakul.
BENGALI: Tur.
CHINESE: San ye dou, Niu dou, Dou rong, Shu tuo, Mu dou.
DANISH : Ærtebønne, Ærteboenne.
DUTCH : Struikerwt, Katjang goedé,
ESTONIAN : Harilik tuvihernes.
FINNISH : Kyyhkynherne.
FRENCH : Ambrevade, Pois d'Angola, Pois du Congo, Pois cajan.
GERMAN: Straucherbse, Strauchbohne, Taubenerbse.
HINDI: Arhar, Toor, Tuur, Tur, Tuvar, Tuver.
ITALIAN : Pisello d'Angola, Pisello del tropico, Caiano.
JAPANESE: Pijonpii, Ki-mame.
KHMER : Sândaèk dai, Sândaèk kroëb sâ, Sândaèk klöng.
LAOTIAN : Thwàx h'ê.
MALAY : Kacang kacang dal, Kacang hiris, Kacang kayu, Kacang gude.
NEPALESE: Rahar.
PORTUGUESE : Feijão-guandu, Guandu, Guisante-de-Angola.
SANSKRIT: Adhaki.
SPANISH : Cachito, Fríjol de árbol, Frijol de la India, Frijol guandul, Frijol quinchancho, Gandul.
SWEDISH : Duwärt.
THAI: Thua rae, Thua maetaai, Ma hae.
VIETNAMESE: Cay dau chieu, Dau thong.

Botany
Kadios is an erect, branched, hairy shrub, 2 to 4 meters high. Stems are angled and covered with fine hairs. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, trifoliate with two lateral leaflets and a central/terminal leaflet on a longer petiole. Flowers are yellow, occurring in sparse peduncled racemes, about 1.5 centimeters long. Pod is hairy, flattened, 4 to 7 centimeters long, about 1 centimeter wide, containing 2 to 7 seeds. Seeds are smooth, 4 to 8 millimeters in diameter, green when immature, turning white, yellow, red or black on maturity, entire or mottled.

Distribution
- In settled areas throughout the Philippines, cultivated, semicultivated, and in some places, spontaneous, occurring from sea level to 2,400 meters.
- Probably prehistoric introduction
from tropical Asia of Malaya.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, fats and oils, steroid, glycosides, anthraquinone glucoside, saponin glycoside, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds.
- Pigeon pea is rich in starch, protein, calcium, manganese, crude fiber, fat, trace elements, and minerals.
- Seeds are rich in carbohydrates (58%) and proteins (19%).
- Studies yielded 2'-2'methylcajanone, 2'-hydroxygenistein, isoflavones, cajanin, cahanones, among many others.

- Leaves are rich in polyphenolic compounds, i.e., flavonoids like luteonin and apigenin, and also stilbenes, saponins, tannins, resins, and terpenoids.
- Roots yield genistein and genistin, hexadecanoic acid, α-amyrin, ß-sitosterol, pinostrobin, longistylin A, longistylin C and cajanol. (23)
- Physicochemical study of leaf powder yielded total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively.
Significant phenolic and flavonoid content was observed. (see study below) (30)

Properties
- Roots are considered antihelmintic, expectorant, febrifuge, sedative, vulnerary.
- Studies have suggested antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-plasmodial, anti-sickling, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- Used mainly for its edible young pods and seeds.
- Vegetable food crop ( seeds and pods) in South-East Asia.
- Fair source of calcium and iron; good source of vitamin B.
Folkloric
- Decoction or infusion of leaves for coughs, diarrhea, abdominal pains.
- Tender leaves are chewed for aphthous stomatitis and spongy gums.
- Pulped or poulticed leaves used for sores.
- Leaves used in the treatment of measles.
- Roots chewed for toothache; leaves used to clean teeth.
- In Peru, leaves are used as an infusion for anemia, hepatitis, diabetes, urinary infections and yellow fever.
- In Argentina, leaves used for genital and skin problems; flowers used for bronchitis, cough and pneumonia.
- In China, as vermifuge, vulnerary; for tumors.
- In Panama, used for treatment of diabetes and jaundice.
- In Bangladesh, used for treatment of diabetes.
- In Indian folk medicine, used for a variety of liver disorders.
- Used in the treatment of jaundice, bronchitis and cough; used as anthelmintic and in child delivery.
Others
- As forage or hay.
- Branches and stems for basket and fuel.



Studies
RBC Sickling Inhibition / Sickle Cell Anemia : Clinical studies have reported seed extracts to inhibit red blood cell sickling and potential benefit for people with sickle cell anemia.
Sickle Cell Anemia: In a single blind placebo controlled study, results showed CC extract may cause a reduction of painful sickle cell crises and ameliorate the adverse effects of sickle cell anemia on the liver.
Sickle Cell Anemia / Phenylalanine: Paper reports that both extract of C. cajan and the amino acid phenylalanine of which it is rich, are good biochemical reducing agents and oxidative free radical scavengers, and can be employed in the treatment not only of sickle cell disease, but other conditions involving oxidative stress. (13)
Antiplasmodial constituents of Cajanus cajan:
Study isolated two stilbenes, longistylin A and C and betulinic acid from the roots and leaves of CC and showed moderately high in vitro activity against Plasmodium falcifarum strain. (2)
Stilbenes / Neuroprotective / Alzheimer's Disease:
Study of stilbenes containing extract-fraction from C cajan showed significant amelioration of cognitive deficits and neuron apoptosis. Findings suggest SECC has a potential in the development of therapeutic agent to manage cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease through increase choline acetyltransferase activity and anti-oxidative mechanism. (9)
Hypocholesterolemic Effect:
Study on the stilbenes containing extract-fraction of CC showed a hypocholesterolemic effect possibly through enhancement of hepatic LDL-receptor and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression levels and bile acid synthesis. (3)
Hyperglycemic Effect: Evaluation of traditional medicine: effects of Cajanus cajan L. and of Cassia fistula L. on carbohydrate metabolism in mice: Contradicting its traditional use for diabetes, CC did not have a hypoglycemic effect on sugar, instead at higher doses, it produced a hyperglycemic effect. (4)
Antimicrobial: Study shows the organic solvent extracts to inhibit E coli, S aureus and S typhi and the aqueous extract were inhibitory to E coli and S aureus. (5)
Antimicrobial / Antifungal: Nigerian study on the antimicrobial effects of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of locally available plants, including C cajan, showed inhibition against S aureus, P aeruginosa, E coli and C albicans. The extracts of C cajan produced wider zones of inhibition against C albicans. (6)
Hyperglycemic Effect / Leaves: Study of the aqueous extract of C cajan leaves showed a hyperglycemic effect, suggesting a usefulness in controlling hypoglycemia that may be due to excess of insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs. (7)
Hepatoprotective / Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage: Study of the methanol-aqueous fraction of C cajan leaf extract showed it could prevent the chronically treated alcohol induced rat liver damage and presents a promise as a non-toxic herb for therapeutic use in alcohol-induced liver dysfunction. (8)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon-Tetrachloride Hepatotoxicity: Study in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage showed the methanol extracts of B orellana, C cajan, G pentaphylla and C equisetifolia showed significant decrease in levels of serum markers, indicating the protection of hepatic cells in a dose-dependent manner. (10)
Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic: Study of methanolic extract of CC in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats showed a significant reduction in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine concentrations. Antioxidant activity was confirmed with in vitro studies.
Anticancer / Cajanol / In vitro Cytotoxicity: Cajanol, an isoflavanone from the roots of C. cajan was investigated for anticancer activity towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Results showed inhibition of growth of MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induction of apoptosis via a ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. (16)
Cajachalcone / Leaves / Antimalarial Potential: A bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude methanolic extract of leaves yielded Cajachalcone, 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4-methoxy chalcone, as the biologically active constituent from the ethyl acetate fraction. Chalcones and derivatives are small bioactive synthesized molecules with a high potential as leads for discovery and development of antimalarial agents. (18)
Toxicity Study / Dose Related Hepatotoxic Potential: Study evaluated the effect of oral aqueous leaf extract on electrolyte concentration and ALT, AST, and ALP activities in normal rats. Results showed the aqueous leaf extract has a hepatotoxic potential when consumed at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg BW or more for 14 days, and suggests lower dosages for local use of the plant extract. (19)
Effect on Litter Size and Serum Progesterone in Pregnant Rats: Study showed oral administration of aqueous leaf extract increases litter size and plasma progesterone in pregnant rats. (20)
Anti-Drepanocytosic Activity: Study evaluated four plants, including Cajanus cajan, for anti-depranocytosic activity. C. cajan showed the presence of fatty acids, one of which was characterized as an unsaturated fatty acid. Crude hexane and methanol extracts of Cajanus cajan showed in vitro anti-sickling activity. (21)
Anti-Oxidative Protection Against Iron Overload Induced Liver Damage / Leaves: Study investigated a methanol extract of C. cajan leaf for antioxidative protection against iron-overload induced liver damage in mice. The plant extract reversed the serum enzymes to approach normal value, and counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. In vitro studies suggested potential antioxidant activity. Histopath studies substantiated the ameliorative effects of the plant extract. (22)
Anti-Drepanocytosic Activity: Study compared the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and antihyperglycemic activity of a methanolic extracts of Cajanus cajan root and Tamarindus indica seeds. Both plants showed high antioxidant capacity. Reduction efficacy of blood glucose was proportional to their dose, but the methanol extract of C. cajan showed more potent reduction of blood glucose. (24)
Anti-Fertility Activity / Seed: Study of methanol extract of Bassia latifolia bud and Cajanus cajan seed produced anti-fertility activity on mature female mice. The contraceptive action of both plant extracts is not permanent and the ovarian activities return a few days after withdrawal of the extract. (26)
Anti-Ulcer / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for possible anti-gastric ulcer properties and anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Results showed anti-ulcer activity in three acute models: HCl/ethanol induce ulcer, immersion-restraint stress, and drug-induced ulcer. Study also showed significant anti-inflammatory effect in cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan induced paw edema models. (27)
Antihyperglycemic / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and cytotoxic potential of methanolic extracts of leaves and roots of C. cajan in mice. Results showed dose dependent and significant reductions of glucose levels. On brine shrimp lethality bioassay, both leave and root extracts showed high degree of cytotoxicity suggesting a promising source of anticancer compounds. (28)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study for in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts showed concentration dependent activity. The aqueous extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested (DPPH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and phosphomolybdenum assays). The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts were attributed to the presence of polyphenols. (see constituents above) (30)
Biosorbent for Ni / Pods: Study evaluated pods of pigeon pea as eco-friendly material for nickel binding efficiency. Results suggest the pods to be a promising adsorbent for removal of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. Findings suggest an economical alternative to the commercially available activated carbon in the treatment of effluent containing Ni(II) ions. (31)
Hepatoprotective / D-galactosamin-Induced Hepatitis: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of CC on hepatic antioxidant status is D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats. Results suggest a possible and potential antiperoxidative role for Cajanus cajan plant extract in hepatic extract. (32)
Antiulcer / Pylorus-Ligated Induced Gastric Ulcer / Leaves: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. cajan for antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in rats showed dose dependent reduction of total acidity and ulcer index, and increase in pH of gastric juice. (33)
Rust Prevention / Seed Hull Extract: Study evaluated the effect of pigeon pea seed hull extract against rust. Results showed the combination of pigeon pea seed hull extract with turpentine or distilled water is effective in preventing formation of rust. (34)
Effect of Addition of Pigeon Pea Flour on Cassava Bread: Study showed cassava bread elaborated with the addition of pigeon pea flour resulted in higher content of protein, fat, fiber, ash and resistant starch, and lower contents of carbohydrates, cyanide, in vitro alpha-amylosis rate and calories compared to counterpart without pigeon pea flour. Results may be of benefit in people requiring a low carb diet, including diabetic and obese patients. (35)
Pulp and Papermaking: Study evaluated pigeon pea plant for suitability in pulp and papermaking. Results showed the short fibered plant can be mixed with long fibered wood species for production of paper with good properties and increased pulp yield. The addition of 0.13% anthraquinone to pulping liquor reduced active alkali consumption and increased pulp yield. (36)

Availability
Cultivated, semicultivated, or wildcrafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update December 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Cajanus cajan Blanco1.167-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / 1880-1883? / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
GUANDU / Cajanus cajan / RainTree
(2)
Antiplasmodial constituents of Cajanus cajan / George Duker-Eshun et al / Phytotherapy Research
Volume 18 Issue 2, Pages 128 - 130 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1375
(3)
Hypocholesterolemic effect of stilbenes containing extract-fraction from Cajanus cajan L. on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in mice / Q. Luo, L. Sun, J. Si, D. Chen / Phytomedicine, Volume 15, Issue 11, Pages 932-939 /
(4)
Evaluation of traditional medicine: effects of Cajanus cajan L. and of Cassia fistula L. on carbohydrate metabolism in mice / Exposito Avella M et al / Rev Med Panama. 1991 Jan;16(1):39-45.
(5)

Antimicrobial effect of leaf extracts of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.) on some human pathogens / Okigbo R N and Omodamiro O D / Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants, 2006, vol. 12, no1-2, pp. 117-127
(6)
Antimicrobial Activities of Cajanus cajan, Garcinia kola and Xylopia aethiopica on Pathogenic Microorganisms / G. O. Ezeifeka et al / Biotechnology, 3 (1):41-43,2004/
(7)
Study of glycemic profile of Cajanus cajan leaves in experimental rats / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry / Volume 23, Number 2 / April, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s12291-008-0037-z
(8)
Cajanus cajan Linn. (Leguminosae) prevents alcohol-induced rat liver damage and augments cytoprotective function / Kundu R, Dasgupta S, Biswas A, Bhattacharya A, Pal BC, Bandyopadhyay D, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug 13;118(3):440-7. Epub 2008 May 15 /

(9)
Protective effect of stilbenes containing extract-fraction from Cajanus cajan L. on Aβ25–35-induced cognitive deficits in mice / Can-Jun Ruan et al / Neuroscience Letters, Vol 467, Issue 2, 25 December 2009, Pages 159-163
(10)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanol Extract of Some Medicinal Plants Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Md. Rajib Ahsan et al / European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.37 No.2 (2009), pp.302-310
(11)
Clinical Evaluation of Extract of Cajanus cajan (Ciklavit®) in Sickle Cell Anaemia / A O Akinsulie, E O Temiye, A S Akanmu et al / Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Volume51, Issue4Pp. 200-205
(12)
Evaluation of hypolipidemic and potential antioxideant effects of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L>) Millsp. leaves in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats / Akinloye O A and Solanke O O / J. Med. Plant. Res.
(13)
Mechanism of the Antisickling Effects of Cajanus cajan and Phenylalanine / Chidi G. Osuagwu / Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 25 (2): 68 - 71, 2010.
(14)
Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(15)
Sorting Cajanus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(16)
Cajanol, a novel anticancer agent from Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] roots, induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. / Luo M, Liu X, Zu Y, Fu Y, Zhang S, Yao L, Efferth T. / Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188(1):151-60./ doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.07.009. Epub 2010 Jul 16.
(17)
Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. / Dilipkumar Pal, Pragya Mishra, Neetu Sachan, and Ashoke K. Ghosh / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Oct-Dec; 2(4): 207–214. / doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.90874
(18)
Cajachalcone: An Antimalarial Compound from Cajanus cajan Leaf Extract / E. O. Ajaiyeoba, O. O. Ogbole, O. O. Abiodun, J. S. Ashidi, P. J. Houghton,4 and C. W. Wright / Journal of Parasitology Research
Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/703781
(19)
EFFECTS OF Cajanus cajan AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT ON SERUM AMINO TRANSFERASE, ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND ELECTROLYTES CONCENTRATIONS OF NORMAL WISTAR RATS /
IGHODARO, O. M. and OMOLE, J. O. / Animal Research International (2010) 7(3): 1304 – 1308 1304
(20)
Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Cajanus cajan on litter size and serum progesterone in pregnant rats /
Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki*, Ibiyemi Olatunji-Bello, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Olusegun Rabiu Jimoh, Olaide Ghazal and Martins Ighodalo / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Vol. 1 (2) pp. 021-024, August, 2009
(21)
Phytochemical and anti-drepanocytosis studies of Cajanus cajan, Callistemon viminalis, Melaleuca bracteata var. Revolution Gold and Syzygium guineense / Theses, 2010 / Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey
(22)
Anti-Oxidative Protection against Iron Overload-Induced Liver Damage in Mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Leaf Extract / Rhitajit Sarkar, Bibhabasu Hazra & Nripendranath Mandal / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 51, Feb 2013, pp 165-173.
(23)
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Cajanus cajan Linn. / P.K. Mohanty*, Neha Chourasia, Neraj Kumar Bhatt and Y.A. Jaliwala / Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2011; Vol. 1: Issue 2, Pg 49-52
(24)
Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity / Laizuman Nahar, Fatema Nasrin, Ronok Zahan, Anamul Haque, Ekramul Haque, Ashik Mosaddik / Pharmacognosy Research, 2014, Vol 6, Issue 2, pp 180-187.
(25)
Quality nutrition through pigeonpea—a review / Kul Bhushan Saxena, Ravikoti Vijaya Kumar, Rafat Sultana / DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.211199 3,990
(26)
Anti-Fertility Activity of Methanol Extract of Bassia latifolia and Cajanus cajan in Female Albino Mice Ovaries
/
S. BANDYOPADHYAY / IJPT, July2010, vol.9, no.2, 83-87
(27)
Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cajanus cajan Linn. / Jaliwal Y A, Mohanti P K, Jain Neetesh Kumar / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2014, 5(4).
(28)
Antihyperglycemic Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Studies on Methanol Extract of Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp. Leaves and Roots / Md. Mazharul Anwar, Marjina Akhter Kalpana, Bithika Bhadra, Shahnaz Rahman, Sanjoy Sarker, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahmatullah / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 311-316, 2010
(29)
Cajanus cajan / Synonyms / The Plant List
(30)
In vitro antioxidant and pharmacognostic studies of leaf extracts of cajanus cajan (l.) millsp
/ B Mahitha, P Archana, Md. H Ebrahimzadeh, K Srikanth, M Rajinikanth, N Ramaswamy / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015, Vol 77, Issue 2, pp 170-177.
(31)
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) pod as a novel eco-friendly biosorbent: a study on equilibrium and kinetics of Ni(II) biosorption / Jeyaseelan Aravind*, Shanmugaprakash Muthusamy, Sangeetha Hubbathalai Sunderraj, Lenin Chandran and Kanmani Palanisamy / International Journal of Industrial Chemistry 2013, 4:25 / doi:10.1186/2228-5547-4-25
(32)
Hepatoprotective effect of Cajanus cajan on tissue defense system in D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats / Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Moshood Olajire Olaniyi / Türk Biyokimya Dergisi [Turkish Journal of Biochemistry–Turk J Biochem] 2011; 36 (3) ; 237–241.
(33)
Phytochemical And Antiulcer Activity Of Cajanus Cajan Leaves Against Pylorus Ligation-Induced Gastric Ulcer In Rats / Mohammad Mansoor, Cheelapogu Venkateswarlu*, Srinivasa Rao D. / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHARMACY MEDICINE AND BIOALLIED SCIENCES, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 84-88, May-August 2015.
(34)
The Effect of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Hull Extract against Rust / Antones, Jo Kristoffer G.; Baldove, Grover; Ermita, Andrew Paul J.; Loreno, Cyril Rio L.; Nama, Jerwin Patrick N / John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University
(35)
Effect of the addition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour on the chemical, nutritional and sensory quality of cassava bread ("casabe") / Ciarfella, A. T.; Perez S, E.; Tovar, Juscelino LU ; Sanchez, T. and Dufour, D. /
(2013) In Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad del Zulia 30(1). p.131-148
(36)
Pulp and Papermaking Characteristics of Cajanus cajan Stems from Sudan / Osman Taha Elzaki, Tarig Osman Khider and Safaa Hassan Omer / American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (2): 159-163, 2012 ISSN 1818-6769 © IDOSI Publications, 2012

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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