Chocolate comes from the fruit of the kakaw tree. Kakaw's scientific name "Theobroma" means "food for the
gods," derived from the Greek words theo (god) and broma (drink). In the Aztec language, the drink was called chocolati. In pre-Columbian times, its bean was a major currency and
great trading value.
Kakaw is a mall tree, growing
to 3 to 5 meters high. Leaves are alternate, entire, oblong-ovate to oblong, 15 to 40
centimeters long, 5 to 20 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and rounded base. Flowers are solitary or fascicled on the trunk and branches; yellowish
or nearly white, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Fruit is oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, prominently wrinkled, yellow or purplish. Seeds are numerous and embedded in whitish pulp.
- Widely scattered in cultivation at low and medium altitudes.
- Cultivated for its seeds.
- Nowhere spontaneous in the Philippines.
- Introduced from Mexico.
- Cocoa contains approximately 380 known chemicals and 10 psychoactive constituents.
contain fixed oil, 40-56 %; theobromine; glucose, saccharose;
vitamin A, 825-1400 I.U. per 100 gm; cellulose, 2.8-5.4%; water,
5-7%; ash, 3-5%; starch, 5% and a glucoside, cacarine.
- The mesocarp and seed contain theobromine and caffeine.
- The wall and pulp of the fruit contain arabinose and
-The flesh contain enzymes: protease, invertase, raffinase,
cesease and oxydase.
- Cacao is high in magnesium.
- High in antioxidants, approximately 40 times higher than blueberries.
- Possibly contains MAO inhibitors with effects on serotonin and
- Contains PEA (phenylethylamine) and anandamine.
- High in polyphenols, with three main groups: catechins (37%), anthocyanins (4%) and proanthocyanidins (58%). The main catechin is (-)-epicathechin with up to 35% of polyphenol content.
- Considered emmenagogue and ecbolic.
- Emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutritive.
- Theobromine resembles caffeine in action, with less powerful effects on the central nervous system.
- Rich source of polyphenols, reportedly with higher antioxidant activity than teas and red wines.
Seed, roots, oil.
Edibility / Culinary
- Cultivated for use in the manufacture of cacao, chocolate,
cacao butter, chocolate food, drink or fruit.
- Oil or cocoa butter is an excellent emollient, used to soften and protect chapped hands and lips.
Eczema, dry skin:
Roast 10-12 seeds and pound ; apply to affected areas as poultice after
a warm compress.
- Root decoction used as emmenagogue (promotes or stimulates
menstrual flow) and ecbolic (promotes labor by stimulating uterine contractions.
- Cocoa butter
(oil of theobroma) is an excellent emollient for use to prevent chapped
lips and hands.
- Cacao butter used in the manufacture of confections, toilet
articles and cosmetics; in pharmacy, used for pill coating and suppository
Properties of Malaysian Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) Polyphenols Extract:
Study showed that Malaysian cocoa polyphenol extract has a potential
of being an insulin-mimetic agent. Further studies are suggested to
elucidate on the underlying mechanisms for its glucose reduction and
insulin mimicking activities. (2)
Effects of polyphenol substances derived from Theobroma cacao on gastric
mucosal lesion induced by ethanol:
Study suggests that the antiulcer mechanism of the polyphenols was from
radical scavenging and modulation of leukocyte function. (3)
• Immune Activity:
Effect of Theobroma cacao flavonoids on immune activation of a lymphoid
cell line: Extract down-modulated T lymphocyte activation and the acquired
immune response which could be important in autoimmune or chronic inflammatory
• Flavonoids / Nitric Oxide / Endothelial
Function: (1) Study indicate flavanol-rich
foods provide extraordinary health benefits. In populations that no
longer consume large quantities of such foods, the risk of cardiac and
cancer deaths have significantly increased.
• Flavonoids / Decreased BP and LDL: Studies have suggested the antioxidants and flavonoids in dark chocolate with benefits of lowering effects on blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels.
• Epicatechin: Epicatechin,
one of the bioactive nutrients in cocoa can promote blood vessel relaxation
and the cardio-benefits might not be antioxidant dependent.
• Human Platelet Reactivity Modulation / Platelet Function Inhibition: Study sought to evaluate whether a 28-day supplementation with cocoa flavanols and related procyanidin oligomers would modulate human platelet reactivity and primary hemostasis and reduce oxidative markers in vivo. Results showed significant increase in plasma epicatechin and catechin concentrations and significantly decreased platelet function. (6)
• Antioxidative Polyphenols: Study isolated clovamide, deoxyclovamide, quercetin and its glucoside. In the bulk oil system, clovamide had the strongest antioxidative activity. Results suggest that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration due to the presence of these polyphenolic compounds. (7)
• Inhibition of NO Release / Cytokine Secretion Inhibition: Study shows that cocoa flavonoids not only inhibit NO release from macrophages but also down-regulate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (8)
• Polyphenols / Antioxidative Activity: Study showed the polyphenol content and its antioxidant capacity vary among a wide range of cocoa and chocolate products, with processing making a great impact on the level of polyphenols. (11)
• Hepatoprotective / Apoptosis Prevention / Autophagy Induction: Study shows that cocoa inhibits drug-triggered liver cytotoxicity and prevents apoptosis by inducing autophagy. Results suggest that cocoa can be added to the list of natural chemopreventive agents with a potential for hepatopathy prevention and therapy. (9)
• Antioxidant and Biologic Activities / Cocoa Hulls: A supercritical CO2 extraction method shows cocoa hulls by-product to be a matrix rich in fiber (pectin) and phenolics. A better characterization of the bioactivity of the phenolic pigments is suggested for its potential use in food technology as functional colorant ingredient or antioxidant complex extract. (12)
• Colon Cancer Benefits: Study evaluated cocoa's effect in colon cancer, both in-vivo and in-vitro. Several preclinical studies concluded that dietary polyphenols, in large amounts, can exert a desirable effect. Cocoa is a food rich in polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids). Its main flavonoids are flavan-3-ols, epicatechin, and catechin. Total polyphenols in raw cocoa is up to 60% in monomeric and oligomeric forms. In-vivo studies, demonstrated an antiproliferative effect of cocoa-rich diet. In-vitro studies were done on caco-2 cell line, considered as human epithelial colonic adenocarcinoma cells. Crude procyanidin and procynidin-enriched extracts showed an inhibitory effect on G2/M phase of cell cycle, leading to non-apoptotic cell death. Studies have shown potential inhibition on pro-inflammatory mediators on TNF-α-sensitized Caco-2 cells. Study concludes suggesting large scale, long term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. (14)
• Activated Carbon from Pod Husk / Arsenic Adsorption: Study showed cocoa pod husk material, a waste biomass, can be used to produce activated carbon by chemical activation and ZnCl2 showed to be the best chemical activation agent. The activated carbon can adsorb arsenic (As), up to removal levels of 80% in less than an hour. (15)
• Cacao and Cardiovascular Health: Review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, highlighting its potential clinical implications associated with consumption. Possible mechanisms of its protective effects include (1) endothelial Function and NO (2) antioxidant properties (3) platelet function (4) anti-hypertensive effect (5) antiatherogenic effects including effects on insulin resistance and blood lipids. (17)