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Family Meliaceae
Toona calantas
Merr. & Rolfe.
Hong chun

Scientific names Common names
Cedrela calantas (Merr. & Rolfe) Burkill Anipla (Iv.)
Toona calantas Merr. & Rolfe                     Unresolved Danigga (Ibn.)
  Danupra (Ilk.)
  Kantingen (Ilk., Sbl.)
  Lanigda (Bik.)
  Lanigpa (Bik.)
  Lanigpa (Bik., S.L. Bis., C. Bis.)
  Porak (Ilk.)
  Philippine mahogany (Engl.)
  Philippine cedar (Engl.)
  Red cedar (Engl.)
Toona calantas Merr. & Rolfe is an unresolved name. The Plant List
There are conflicting attributions of synonyms on Toona calantas.
GBIF publishes several synonyms for Toona calantas: Cedrela febrifuga var. inodora (Hassk.) C.DC. infraspecific name; Cedrela inodora Hassk., Cedrela odorata Blanco; Surenus inodora (Hassk.) Kuntze; Toona inodora (Hassk.) Reid & Chandler, Toona paucijuga Merr.; Toona philippinensis Elmer; Toona sureni var. Philippinensis (Elm.) Bahadur.
The genus Cedrela is included in the tribe Cedreleae of subfamily Sietenioideae, as is the genus Toona. All the easter species of Cedrela have been transferred to Toona. Cedrela differs from Toona by its prominent androgynophore with adnate petals and filaments, the cuplike calyx, the bigger and woodier capsule, and seedlings with entire leaflets. (World AgroForestry)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hong chun.
HINDI: Toon.
JAVA: Soeren.

Kalantas is a large forest tree. Leaves are alternate, oddly pinnate, 30-50 centimeters long or longer. Leaflets are smooth or hairy along the nerves below, oblong or broadly lanceolate, 12 centimeters long and 5 centimeters wide. Panicles are profuse, lax, equal to or shorter than the leaves. Fruit is 3 to 4 centimeters long, with a 5-ridged central column. Seeds are distinctly but unequally winged on each side.

- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes in the Batan Islands, Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; Mindoro, Samar, Negros, Leyte, Cebu and Mindanao.
- Also reported in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea.

- Wood contains 0.3 to 1.2 % essential oil; caninene is one of the principal constituents.
- Study of leaves and stems yielded three new norlimonoids, toonaciliatins A, F, and G; four new limonoids, toonaciliatins B-E, and five known compounds, 5α,6β,8α-trihydroxy-28-norisotoonafolin, toonaciliatins H and I, febrifugin, and khayasin T. (1)

- Considered astringent, antiseptic and antispasmodic.
- Heartwood is reddish brown, while the narrow sapwood is pale red in color.

Parts used
Bark, flowers.

- Decoction of bark is astringent and used for cleaning wounds.
- Powder of the bark is considered antiseptic and is dusted over gangrenous ulcers.
- Decoction of flowers used as an antispasmodic.
- Wood: Used in the manufacture of cigar boxes. Also used for decorative applications such as timber veneers, paneling, joinery and furniture. Also used for building boats, piano cases and carving.

Anti-Ulcer / Gastroprotective: Study of ethanol extract of Toona ciliata showed gastroprotective effect in ethanol-induced and stress-induced ulcers in rats. (2)
In a study of Indian medicinal plants, the ethanolic extract of Toona ciliata showed the most significant analgesic activity.. (3)
Anti-tumor / Cytotoxicity:
Crude extract study yielded a major isolate, siderin. T ciliata was found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity and mild to moderate antitumor activity. Results were compared to those produced by vincristine sulphate. (4)
Lectins: In a screening of twelve Meliaceae species for the presence of lectins, Toona calantas was one of eight that tested positive for lectin activity. Studies on lectins show its possible participation in the wound healing process. (5)


Updated September 2019 / July 2017 / December 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Cedrela toona Bra14.png / Toona ciliata (syn. Cedrela toona). Reduced to b/w from tab. 14 of D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874 / Published by Kurt Stüber / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Meliaceae : Toona calantas / Infructescence / Copyright © 2013 by Greg Rule (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL66823]/ Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Limonoids from the Leaves and Stems of Toona ciliata / Shang-Gao Liao et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70 (8), pp 1268–1273 / DOI: 10.1021/np070146c
Anti-ulcer activity of crude alcoholic extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood) / P Malairajan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 110, Issue 2, 21 March 2007, Pages 348-351 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.018

Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants / P Malairajan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 106, Issue 3, 19 July 2006, Pages 425-428 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.015
Bioactivity from Toona ciliata Stem Bark / Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 41, Issue 4 June 2003 , pages 281 - 283 / DOI: 10.1076/phbi.

LECTINS FROM TWO PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS / Marivic Lacsamana, Ana Christina Opina et al / Abstracts / 17th Philippine Chemistry Congress May 23-25, 2001 / Cagayan de Oro City

Cedrela odorata / World AgroForestry
Toona calantas / Synonyms / The Plant List

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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