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Family Meliaceae
Kalantas
Toona calantas
Merr. & Rolfe.
PHILIPPINE CEDAR
Hong chun

Scientific names Common names
Cedrela calantas Merr. & Rolfe. Anipla (Iv.)
Cedrela febrifuga C. DC. Danigga (Ibn.)
Cedrela odorata Blanco Danupra (Ilk.)
Cedrela toona F.-Vill Kantingen (Ilk., Sbl.)
Toona cilliata Merr. Lanigda (Bik.)
  Lanigpa (Bik.)
  Lanigpa (Bik., S.L. Bis., C. Bis.)
  Porak (Ilk.)
  Philippine mahogany (Engl.)
  Philippine cedar (Engl.)
  Red cedar (Engl.)
  Hong chun (Chin.)

Botany
Kalantas is a large forest tree. Leaves are alternate, oddly pinnate, 30-50 centimeters long or longer. Leaflets are smoothy or hairy along the nerves below, oblong or broadly lanceolate, 12 centimeters long and 5 centimeters wide. Panicles are profuse, lax, equal to or shorter than the leaves. Fruit is 3 to 4 centimeters long, with a 5-ridged central column. Seeds are distinctly but unequally winged on each side.

Distribution
- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes in the Batan Islands, Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; Mindoro, Samar, Negros, Leyte, Cebu and Mindanao.
- Also reported in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea.

Constituents
- Wood contains 0.3 to 1.2 % essential oil; caninene is one of the principal constituents.
- Study yielded three new norlimonoids, toonaciliatins A, F, and G; four new limonoids and five known compounds.


Properties
- Considered astringent, antiseptic and antispasmodic.
- Heartwood is reddish brown, while the narrow sapwood is pale red in color.


Parts used
Bark, flowers.

Uses
Folkloric
- Decoction of bark is astringent and used for cleaning wounds.
- Powder of the bark is considered antiseptic and is dusted over gangrenous ulcers.
- Decoction of flowers used as an antispasmodic.
Others
- Wood: Used in the manufacture of cigar boxes. Also used for decorative applications such as timber veneers, paneling, joinery and furniture. Also used for building boats, piano cases and carving.

Studies
Anti-Ulcer / Gastroprotective: Study of ethanol extract of Toona ciliata showed gastroprotective effect in ethanol-induced and stress-induced ulcers in rats.
Analgesic:
In a study of Indian medicinal plants, the ethanolic extract of Toona ciliata showed the most significant analgesic activity.
Anti-tumor / Cytotoxicity:
Crude extract study yielded a major isolate, siderin. T ciliata was found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity and mild to moderate antitumor activity. Results were compared to those produced by vincristine sulphate.
Lectins: In a screening of twelve Meliaceae species for the presence of lectins, Toona calantas was one of eight that tested positive for lectin activity. Studies on lectins show its possible participation in the wound healing process.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update: August 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Cedrela toona Bra14.png / Toona ciliata (syn. Cedrela toona). Reduced to b/w from tab. 14 of D. Brandis, Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, 1874 / Published by Kurt Stüber / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Meliaceae : Toona calantas / Infructescence / Copyright © 2013 by Greg Rule (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL66823]/ Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Limonoids from the Leaves and Stems of Toona ciliata / Shang-Gao Liao et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2007, 70 (8), pp 1268–1273 / DOI: 10.1021/np070146c
(2)
Anti-ulcer activity of crude alcoholic extract of Toona ciliata Roemer (heart wood) / P Malairajan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 110, Issue 2, 21 March 2007, Pages 348-351 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.018

(3)
Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants / P Malairajan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 106, Issue 3, 19 July 2006, Pages 425-428 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.015
(4)
Bioactivity from Toona ciliata Stem Bark / Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 41, Issue 4 June 2003 , pages 281 - 283 / DOI: 10.1076/phbi.41.4.281.15662

(5)
LECTINS FROM TWO PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS / Marivic Lacsamana, Ana Christina Opina et al / Abstracts / 17th Philippine Chemistry Congress May 23-25, 2001 / Cagayan de Oro City


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