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Family Vitaceae
Kalit-kalit
Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) Quis
THREE-LEAF CAYRATIA

San ye wu lian wei

Scientific names Common names
Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) Quis. Alañgiñgi (Tag.)
Cayratia carnosa Gagnep. Arinat (Tag.)
Columella trifolia (Linn.) Merr. Barinatnat (Ilk.)
Cissus carnosa Lam. Kagindi (Bis.)
Cissus acida Blanco Kalit-kalit (Tag.)
Cissus trifolia K. Schum. Lagili (Sul.)
Vitis carnosa Wall. Lagini (Bik.)
Vitis trifolia Linn. Lañgiñgi (Bik.)
  Lupo (Bik.)
  Kabilan (Tag.)
  Kulutpamo (Pamp.)
  Nalalnat (Ig.)
  Nagigni (Mbo.)
  Pakopol (Tag.)
  Ragindi (Bik.)
  Ragining-ayam (Bik.)
  Fox grape (Engl.)
  Three-leaf cayratia (Engl.)
  Three-leaved wild vine (Engl.)
  Bush grape (Engl.)
  San ye wu lian mei (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Amal-lata
CHINESE: Gou jiao ji, San zhao long.
HINDI: Amalbel, Gidardrak, Ramchana, Tamanya.
MALAYALAM: Amarcakkoti, Corivalli, Kattuperanta, Tsjori-valli, Vatakkoti.
SANSKRIT: Amlavetasah, Atyamlaparni, Gandirah.
TELUGU: Kanupu tige, Puli mada.

Botany
Kalit-kalit is a perennial vine, climbing by means of tendrils found opposite the leaves. Leaves are trifoliolate with petioles 2 to 3 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, 1.5 to 5 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, and coarsely toothed at the margins. Flowers are small, greenish white, borne on axillary and solitary cymes. Fruit is a berry, fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, subglobose, and about 1 centimeter in diameter.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines, in thickets at low altitudes.
- Also reported in China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

Constituents
- Plant yields a yellow waxy oil, carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins.
- Yield kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes, and epifriedelanol.
- Plant leaf yields steroids, tannins, flavonoids, fatty acid, and terpenoids.
- Leaves yield stilbenes (piceid, resveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin) and flavonoids (cyanidins).
- Stems, leaves, roots reported to yield hydrocyanic acid and delphinidin.
- Studies on bark extract have shown antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, hypoglycemic and diuretic properties.

Properties
- In India, plant is considered astringent, antibacterial, antiscorbutic, antitumor, hypoglycemic, and rubefacient.
- Plant used as diuretic,
- Root considered astringent.

Parts used
Root and leaves.

Uses

Culinary
In India, Vitis trifolia is a nutritious and edible wild weed.
Folkloric
- Leaves in decoction considered antiscorbutic.
- Sap of the leaves also antiscorbutic.
- Root, ground with black pepper, is applied to boils.
- Root also used as astringent medicine.
- In India, roots are grounded with black pepper and applied as poultice on boils. Also used as a tonic stimulant in debility. Plant used for eye diseases (conjunctivitis, cataracts and night blindness).
- Infusion of seeds with extract of tubers used for diabetes.
- Paste of tubers applied to snake bites.
- Whole plant used as diuretic; also for tumors, neuralgia and splenic afflictions.
Others
- Veterinary: In India, climbers are wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock. Poultice of leaves used for yoke sores of bullock.


Studies
Antioxidant:
Study of two weeds, Chenopodium album and Vitis trifolia, showed significant reducing power and free radical scavenging effect on DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radicals. (1)
Anti-Tumor / Epifriedelanol: Study isolated epifriedelanol from V. trifolia, which exhibited antitumor activity in a potato disc bioassay. (2)
Anti-Implantation Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiimplantation properties of a petroleum ether extract of leaves in rats. Results showed potent dose-dependent antiimplantation activity. The exact mechanism of activity was not pinpointed by the study. (7)
Anti-Diabetic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of C. trifolia using glucose uptake by isolated rat hemidiaphragm in vitro model. The extract showed a direct peripheral action on glucose uptake and suggests a potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus caused by resistance to the stimulatory effect of insulin on GLUT-4 protein. (8)
Anti-Diabetic Activity / Roots: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical studies yielded steroids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results showed C. trifolia ethyl acetate extract of roots possessed potent antidiabetic activity. (9)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Updated October 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin [as Vitis carnosa (Lam.) Wall.] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 2: t. 252 / Illustration contributed by the library of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A./ / Plant Illustrations
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: illutration / File:Vitaceae sp Blanco1.24.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / 2 Photos /Cayratia trifolia [Threeleaf Cayratia] / http://www.natureloveyou.sg / Non-Comercial Use / Click on image to go to source page / ©/ Nature Love You

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF EDIBLE WEEDS
/ Kumar S and D Kumar / AJFAND, Volume 9 No. 5 2009, August 2009
(2)
Antitumor activity of epifriedelanol from Vitis trifolia
/
J.K. Kundu, A.S.S. Rouf, Md. Nazmul Hossain, C.M. Hasan, M.A. Rashid / Fitoterapia, Vol 71, No 5, 1 Sept 2000, Pages 577-579 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00191-X
(3)
Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) Leaf
/ Dinesh Kumar, Jyoti Gupta, Sunil Kumar et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropivcal Biomedicine, 2012, 1-4
(4)
Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(5)
Bush grape / Common names / Flowers of India
(6)
A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)
/ Dinesh Kumar, Sunil Kumar, and Ankit Gupta / Pharmacognosy Reviews
(7)
Antiimplantation activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of Cayratia trifolia Linn. on female Albino rat /
Ankit gupta, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Jyoti gupta*, Anindya Bagchi / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S197-S199
(8)
In vitro study of Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin on isolated rat hemi-diaphragm by glucose uptake method / Batra Shikha*, Batra Nikhil, Pareek Anil, Nagori Badri Prakash / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2012, Volume : 5, Issue : 5
(9)
Preliminary Phytochemical Studies and Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Roots of Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats / Shikha Batra*, Nikhil Batra, and Badri Prakash Nagori / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 (03), pp. 097-100, March, 2013 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.30319


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