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Family Moraceae
Ficus callosa Willd.
Ying pi rong

Scientific names Common names
Ficus basidentula Miq. Hindang (Leyte, Surigao)
Ficus basidcallosa Willd. Kalayokai (Tag.)
Ficus cinerascens Thwaites Kalukoi (General)
Ficus cordatifolia Elmer Kalukot (Tag.)
Ficus longespathulata Sata Taloot (Cebu, Neg. Or.)
Ficus malunuensis Warb. Calloused fig (Engl.)
Ficus porteana Regel Hard fig (Engl.)
Ficus scleroptera Miq.  

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ying pi rong.
INDONESIAN: Salur, Ilat-ilatan, Ilat-ilat, Lasi, Pangsar.
KANNADA: Thagadu golimara, Thaudugoli, Neeruvate.
LAOS: Nong noua, Mi pa.
MALAYALAM: Kadaplavu, Kadapilavu, Kallalu.
TAMIL: Koli aal, Kolial, Koliyal.
THAI: Khong, Maduea kwang.
VIETNAMESE: Gua, Da gua.

Gen info
- Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae, many known as fig trees or figs.
- Ficus callosa is an Asian species of fig tree in the family Moraceae.

Ficus callosa is a tree growing 25-35 m tall; trunk straight, d.b.h. 25-35 cm. Bark gray to pale gray, hard. Branchlets wrinkled when dry. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, 1-1.8 cm, pubescent. Petiole 3-9 cm; leaf blade broadly elliptic, 15-30 by 8-20 cm, leathery, abaxially pale green but graying green when dry, adaxially green, glabrous, and shiny, base rounded to broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse or mucronate; secondary vein 8-11 on each side of the midvein, prominent on both surfaces. Figs axillary on normal leafy stem, paired or solitary, yellow when mature, pear-shaped-ellipsoid, 1.2-2.5 by 1-1.5 cm, pubescent but glabrescent, base attenuate into a 1 cm stalk, apical pore flat; peduncle 1-1.2 cm; involucral bracts lanceolate-ovate ca. 2 mm. Male, gall and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: near apical pore or scattered, thickly pedicellate; calyx lobes 3-5, spatulate; stamen 1 or 2; filaments thin, if stamen 1 then filament absent. Gall flowers: similar to female flowers but stigma very short. Female flowers: calyx deeply 3-5 lobed, broadly lanceolate; style lateral; stigma deeply 2-branched. (Flora of China@efloras.org) (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Study of methanol extract of Ficus callosa leaves by repeated column chromatography isolated one new megastigmane glycoside, ficalloside (1) and eleven known compounds: linarionoside A (2), corchoionoside C (3), (7R,8S)-dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (4), glochidioboside (5), syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside (6), styraxlignolide E (7), (1'R,2'R)-guaiacyl glycerol (8), tricin (9), glucotricin (10), luteolin (11) and rhoifolin (12). (see study below) (5)

Studies have suggested antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stem bark.


-  In southwest China, the young edible leaves are traditional consumed by local people in Xishuangbanna. (7)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Indonesia, the Tetun ethnic people of West Timor use the stem bark for treatment of malaria. (6)
- In Java, used for treatment of acne.

- Wood: In the Visayas, prized for its lightness and resistance to marine borer, which make it ideal for boat making.
Its nearly cylindrical bole and fast growth provides potential as material for electrical posts. May be used for light construction of sash door, panel cores, pulp and paper making, wall board, pencil slat, matchstick, musical instruments -- a potential livelihood for coastal communities. (8)

Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study of methanol extract of Ficus callosa leaves by repeated column chromatography isolated one new megastigmane glycoside, ficalloside (1) and eleven known compounds. Antioxidant activities of the compounds were measured by ORAC assay. Compound 8 exhibited potent antioxidant activity of 10.6 micoM trolox equivalents at concentration of 2 microM. At this concentration compounds 4-7 and 9-12 showed significant antioxidant activity ranging from 2.1-6.1 microM trolox. (see constituents above) (5)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of evaluated the young leaves of seven Ficus species traditionally consumed by local people in Xishuangbanna. Results showed the edible young leaves of the seven Ficus species possess abundant antioxidants at various concentrations. F. callosa extract showed substantial inhibition against peroxidation of linoleic acid. (7)


September 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ficus callosa Willd. / Forestowlet / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ficus callosa leaf / Modified from IndiaBiodiversity image / India Biodiversity Portal
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: illustration: Drawing of fruiting branch / Photo by: Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, vol 1: t. 85 (1888) G.C. Das / CC by NC ND / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sorting Ficus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Ficus callosa / Plants of the World Online
Ficus callosa / WFO: The World Flora Online
Ficus / Wikipedia
Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Ficus callosa / Phan Van Kiem, Nguyen Xuan Cuong, Young Ho Kim et al / Natural Product Communications, 2011; 6(2): pp 159-162 /
DOI: 10.1177/1934578X1100600201
Antiplasmodial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Selected Antimalarial Plants Used by Native People in West Timor Indonesia / Maximus M Taek, Gerardus D Tukan et al / Turk J Pharm Sci, 2021; 18(1): pp 80-90 / DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.29000
Preliminary assessment of antioxidant activity of young edible leaves of seven Ficus species in the ethnic diet in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China / Yin-Xian Shi, You-Kai Xu et al / Food Chemistry, 2011 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.113
Ficus callosa: Unheralded species shows promise as livelihood source for coastal communities / Lito Osmena, Calixto E Yao, Roberto Ybañez / Overseas: Online Magazine for Sustainable Seas, 2000; 3(3)
P.N.G. Fig (Ficus callosa) / ITTO: Lesser Used Species

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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