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Family Connaraceae
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Merr.
Hong ye teng

Scientific names Common names
Aegiceras minus Gaertn. Gikos-gikos (Tag.)
Cnestis acuminata Wall. Guraikan (Tag.)
Cnestis erecta Blanco Hanmababau (Bis., Tag.)
Cnestis florida Jack Kamagsa (Tag.)
Cnestis glabra Blanco Kamagsa-tagilis (Tag.)
Cnestis monadelpha DC Kamumin (Tag.)
Connarus javanicus Blume Magtabig (Bis., Pamp.)
Connarus monocarpus Wight & Arn. Paragauuk (Ibn.)
Connarus obliquus (C.Presl) C.Presl Big-leaved rourea (Engl.)
Connarus roxburghii Hook. & Arn. Cow vine (Engl.)
Connarus santaloides Vahl  
Omphalobium pictum Blanco  
Pterotum procumbens Lour.  
Rhizophora aegiceras C.F.Gaertn.  
Rourea acropetala Pierre  
Rourea acuminata Hook.f.  
Rourea afzelii R.Br. ex Planch.  
Rourea anomala King  
Rourea bamangensis De Wild. & T.Durand  
Rourea chiliantha Gilg  
Rourea commutata Planch  
Rourea erecta (Blannco) Merr.  
Rourea florida Miq.  
Rourea gudjuana Gilg  
Rourea heterophylla Planch  
Rourea humulis Blume  
Rourea imbricata Elmer  
Rourea javanica Blume  
Rourea luzoniensis Merr/  
Rourea microcarpa Elmer  
Rourea millettii Planch.  
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston  
Rourea multiflora Planch.  
Rourea platysepala Baker  
Rourea pulchella Planch.  
Rourea rubella Pierre  
Rourea samoensis Lauterb.  
Rourea santaloides (Vahl) Wight & Arn.  
Rourea simplicifolia Blume  
Rourea sookurthoontee Voigt  
Rourea splendida Gilg  
Rourea striate De Wild.  
Rourea subvolubilis Elmer  
Rourea unifoliolata Merr.  
Rourea volubilis Merr.  
Santalodes acuminatum (Hook.f.) Kuntze  
Santalodes floridum (Miq.) Kuntze  
Santalodes hermannianum Kuntze  
Santalodes heterophyllum (Planch.) Kuntze  
Santalodes humile (Blume) Kuntze  
Santalodes monadelphum (DC.) Kuntze  
Santalodes multiflorum (Planch.) Kuntze  
Santalodes pulchellum (Planch.) Kuntze  
Santalodes roxburghii (Hook. & Arn.) Kuntze  
Santalodes simplicifolium (Blume) Kuntze  
Santaloides acropetala (Pierre) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides afzelii (R.Br. ex Planch.) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides anomala (King) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides bamangensis (De Wild. & T.Durand) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides beccarii G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides celebica G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides cordata G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides desmos Guillaumin  
Santaloides discolor G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides elmeri G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides erecta (Blanco) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides florida (Jack) Kuntze  
Santaloides gossweileri Exell & Mendonca  
Santaloides gudjuana (Gilg) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides luzoniensis (Merr) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides microphyla var. grandifolioolata G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides minor (Gaertn.) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides minor subsp. monadelpha (DC.) Y.M.Shui  
Santaloides papuana G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides pierrana G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides platysepala (Baker) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides rubella (Pierre) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides samoensis (Lauterb) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides siamensis G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides splendida (Gilg) G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides sumatrensis G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides urophylla G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides vieillardii G.Schellenb.  
Santaloides vitiensis G.Schellenb.  
Connaropsis varians Craib  
Sarcotheca paniculata Ridl.  
Sarcotheca varians (Craib) R.Knuth  
Tali minor (Gaertn.) M.R.Almeida  
Gikos-gikos is a local common names shared by (1) Rourea erecta and (2) Rourea volubilis, and (3) Saga, Arbus precatorius
Kamagsa is a local common names shared by both (1) Rourea erecta and (2) Rourea volubilis.
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Merr. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Kurochick shak.
CHINESE: Hong ye teng, Ha ji me wo.
HINDI: Kalavidhara.
MALAYALAM: Cheriyamarikunni, Kuriel.
MALAYSIA: Akar nyamuk, Akar sembelit.
SPANISH: Palo santo.
SRI LANKAN: Kirindi wel, Goda kirindi.
VIETNAMESE: D[ooj]c ch[os], Doc cho, Tr[os]c claar ju, Troc cau.

Gen info
- Rourea is a genus of plants in the family Connaraceae. They are found worldwide across the tropics and subtropics.

Kamagsa is a sprawling shrub or a suberect, woody, smooth vine attaining a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are pinnately compound and 15 to 25 centimeters long. Leaflets are 12 to 20, oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 4 to 8 centimeters in length. Flowers are white or pink, very numerous, and 5 to 7 millimeters long, and grow on panicles 5 to 15 centimeters long which are borne at the axils of the leaves. Pods are red, about 1 centimeter long, somewhat curved, split down one side, and surrounded at the base by the calyx.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In dry thickets and second-growth forests at low and medium altitudes from northern to central Luzon, and in Lubang, Mindoro, Cuyo, Leyte, Panay, and Bantayan, from sea level to 1800 m altitude.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Congo, Fiji, Ghana, India, Kenya, Laos, Malaya, Maluku, Nigeria, Samoa, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaire, etc. (2)

- Fruit contains an active poison. It has been found very poisonous to dogs but without any effects on guinea pigs. Study suggests the nonpoisonous character of the plant toward herbivora. A study found the poison to be glucosidal in nature.
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of the antimalarial active CHCl(3) extract of the dried stems of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) yielded two glycosides, rourinoside (1) and rouremin (2), as well as five known compounds, 1-(26-hydroxyhexacosanoyl)-glycerol (3), 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E-8Z)-2-N-(2'-hydroxypalmitoyl)-octadecasphinga-4,8-dienine, 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid, dihydrovomifoliol-9-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. (see study below) (1)
- Study isolated 23 compounds from a methanolic stem extract. Two represented new natural products: lethedocin 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(6′-O-vanilloyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol. Majority of known constituents were phenolic compounds (derivatives of bergenin, catechin, and lignans) and fatty acids. Of the quantified compounds, bergenins was the most abundant (0.12%). (11)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of stems iisolated three compounds, namely: ß-sitosterol, vanilic acid, and sitoindoside I. (13)

- Fruit considered poisonous.
- Plant considered aperient, emetic, depurative, tonic, sudorific and purgative.
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimalarial, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- Decoction of fresh or dried leaves used for gastralgia. Also, considered, absorbent.
- Plant considered sudorific and purgative.
- Decoction of roots used as uterine tonic and depurative.
- Roots and twigs used for rheumatism, scurvy, diabetes.
Decoction of roots, at one teaspoon or less, used as emetic; exceeding this amount, it is poisonous.
- Wood of the root, pounded, boiled, and mixed with food, known to kill dogs who feed on it.
- In Peninsular Malaysia, plant used as an aperient. Decoction of wood taken for fever and as post-partum medicine. Root rubbed on sore places in the mouth of children with thrush.
- In Bangladesh, leaf infusion drunk to treat diarrhea.
- In Yunnan, China, the Hani ethnic tribe used mashed leaves as dressing in polio. (5)
- In Indo-China, stem bark and leaves used as tonic and diuretic; decoction used as post-partum tonic.   (6)
- Poison: Decoction of roots, mixed with food, will kill dogs and hogs feeding on it. The animals become nauseated or swoon and die.

Rourinoside and Rouremin / Antimalarial / Stems:
Study of dried stems of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) isolated two glycosides, rourinoside and rouremin, as well as 5 known compounds. Compounds 1-3 showed weak in vitro activities against Plasmodium falcifarum. (see constituents above) (1)
Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Roots: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential of Rourea minor root in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Acute toxicity study showed good tolerance to single doses as high as 3 g/kg. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in serum glucose level. The ethanol extract was more effective in reducing SG compared to the aqueous extract. Both extracts exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in all tested lipid parameters. (3)
Antihyperglycemic / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and serum insulin augmentation property of a methanolic extract of R. minor roots on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) increment of serum insulin levels and higher reduction of hyperglycemia compared to diabetic control rats. (4)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic / Effect on Insulin Levels / Roots: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of roots of Rourea minor for effects on serum insulin augmentation and anti-hyperglycemic property on STZ-induced. The diabetes induced rats were feed plant extracts of increasing dosage of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kbw. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) increment of serum levels and higher reduction in hyperglycemic compared to control. (7)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Benefits / Stems: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of R. minor stems for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the extract at dose of 2000 mg/kbw did not exhibit toxicity and death. The extract significantly (p<0.001) recuced elevated blood glucose, glycolated hemoglobin, creatinine, urea, LDL, AP, SGPT. SGOT, glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathion S-transferase, and malondialdehyde. (9)
• Antibacterial / Silver Nanoparticles / Stem Bark and Roots: Study evaluated crude methanol extracts and AgNPs of Santaloides afzelii for antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi. The AgNPs showed more activity than crude extracts. (10)
• Antioxidant / Thrombolytic / Membrane Stabilizing / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing actvities of crude methanolic extract of leaves and soluble fractions of Rourea minor. Total phenolic content ranged from 9.4 to 57.4 mg GAE/g of dry extracts.  All extracts showed mild to moderate thrombolytic potential inhibiting clot lysis by 3.47% - 18.43%. Extracts also showed potential membrane stabilizing activity in both hypotonic and heat-induced hemolysis indicating anti-inflammatory activity. (12)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated March 2023 / October 2018 / July 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rourea minor. Vine with young inflorescence / Copyright © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL101652]/ Non-Commercial Use / image modified by G. Stuart / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rourea minor / Flowering stem / loupok / Creative Commons / Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / image modified by G. Stuart / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Drawing of flowering stem / Rourea minor / Photograph by: Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., Indian medicinal plants, Plates, vol. 2: t. 285 (1918) / Creative Commons / Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / / click on image to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Rourinoside and rouremin, antimalarial constituents from Rourea minor / Zhen-Dan He, Cui-Ying Ma et al /

Phytochemistry, 2006; Volume 67(13): pp 1378-1384 / DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.04.012
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Antidiabetic potential of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) root in streptozotocin—induced diabetic rats
/ Preeti Kulkarni, Vishal Patel, S. T. Shukla , Ankur Patel, Venkatrao Kulkarni / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, March 2014, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 69-76
Anti-hyperglycemic potential of Rourea minor roots in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats / Anu Chaudhary, Anil Bhandari, Dr Pandurangan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, Vol 4, Issue 1: pp 59-62 / ISSN: 0975-2366
Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants utilised by Hani ethnicity in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China / Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Gerhard Langenberger, Liu Feng, Joachim Sauerborn
Rourea minor / Useful Tropical Plants
Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Rourea minor in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. / ANU CHAUDHARY, ANIL BHANDARI, A.PANDURANGAN / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Rourea minor (PROSEA) / Pl@ntUse
Assessment of Anti-Diabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Rourea Minor Stems in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats /  Kavya Yedelli, Ramachandran Kumar Pathangi / Journal of Medicinal and Chemical Sciences,  2023, 6(6): pp 1370-1382 / DOI: 10.26655/JMCHEMSCI.2023.6.17

Medicinal Potentials of Extracts of Nanoparticles Synthesized from the Stem Bark and Roots of Rourea Minor (Santaloides afzelii) / Terver John Sase, Yilni Edward Bioltif, Philomena Ayika, Wushiba Habila Gorip, Job Dawulung / SSR Inst Int J Life Sci., 2020; 6(3): pp 2557-2564 /  eISSN: 2581-8740 / pISSN: 2581-8732 / DOI: 10.21276/SSR-IIJLS.2020.6.3.5
Phytochemical study of Rourea minor stems and the analysis of therein contained Bergenin and Catechin derivatives by capillary electrophoresis / Hieu Nguyen Ngoc, Simone Löffler, Markus Ganzera et al / Microchemical Journal, 2019; Vol 149: 104063 /  DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2019.104063
In vitro Antioxidant, Thrombolytic and Membrane Stabilizing Activities of the Rourea minor Leaves / Jannatul Ferdous, Mohammad Ashraful Islam, S. M. Neamul Kabir Zihad, Md. Fazlul Karim Tipu, Md. Alamgir kabir, Md. Mobinul Haque Adon, Jyotimoi Gosh, Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 2021; 26(1): pp 51-55 / DOI: 10.3329/bpj.v26i1.64218
ISOLATION OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT FROM THE STEMS OF ROUREA MINOR / Vu Thi Ha Mai, Nguyen Trong Tin, Tran Thi Hanh, Dinh Ngoc Thuc / Hong Duc University Journal of Science, 2022; E7, Vol 2: pp 76-81


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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