- The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprise about 50 species of evergreen and deciduous trees; an important source of edible fruit, timber and folkloric medicinal use.
Breadnut (kamansi, Artocarpus camansi)
is often confused with its close relative breadfruit (A. altilis), but is distinguished by its large spiny fruits with little
pulp and numerous large, light brown seeds.
- Artocarpus camansi has often been considered to be a form of seeded breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Breadfruit, however, is a separate species that originated from its wild-seeded ancestor, breadnut. (5)
Kamansi differs from rimas (A. altilis) in the following: Fruit is seeded, the anthocarps are narrowly conical and prolonged, male inflorescence is club-shaped, stigmas are elongated, and the leaves have more divisions.
Kamansi is a large tree, 10 to 15 meters high, similar in habit to Artocarpus altilis. Leaves are large, leathery, ovate to oblong-ovate, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 25 to 45 centimeters wide, with deeply incised margins, 4- to 5-lobed. Male spikes are cylindric, greenish-yellow, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is green, ovoid or somewhat rounded, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 7 to 12 centimeters in diameter, with a spiny surface, with little pulp. Tips of the anthocarps are narrowly conical, prolonged, 5 to 8 millimeters long, and 5 thick or less at the base. Seeds are numerous, light brown, ovoid or somewhat rounded, about 2.5 centimeters in diameter.
Native to New Guinea, possibly the Moluccas (Indonesia) and the Philippines.
Grows in tropical regions,
especially in seacoast areas.
- Reported from Cagayan and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; Leyte and Cebu.
- Occasional in the Quezon province.
- Cultivated in Manila.
Leaves and fruit.
- Artocarpus species are rich in phenolic compounds including flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a lectin.
- Oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acid comparing well with melon seeds, soybean and groundnut oil.
- Seeds are a good source of minerals and contains more niacin than other nuts. A 100 g edible portion yields amino acids--methionine 3.2 g, leucine 2.6 g, isoleucine 2.4 g, and serine 2.1 g, comprising 50% of 14 amino acids analyzed. (5)
- A lectin was isolated and purified frm the seeds of A. camansi Blanco. It was a complete lectin since it agglutinated erythrocytes without trypsin treatment and addition of metal ions.
- Vulnerary, laxative.
- Grown for their large, nutritive seeds.
- Fruits, particularly the young ones, are boiled and eaten as a vegetable.
- Seeds are rich in starch, eaten boiled or roasted.
- Ripe fruit is sweet. and flavorsome.
- Seed is rich in protein, low in fat; rich in minerals, especially niacin.
- Breadfruit is laxative.
Heated up, the slices are used for furuncles.
- Decoction of leaves used for baths in rheumatism.
- Tree latex used for hernia in children, applied with a belt or truss.
- Decoction of bark used for dysentery.
- Decoction of bark used as vulnerary.
- Latex massaged onto skin, for broken bones and sprains and bandaged
on the spine are for sciatica.
- Crushed leaves used for thrush.
- In the Visayas, bark decoction used for dysentery.
- Diluted latex used for diarrhea, stomach aches and dysentery.
- Juice from stems of leaves for ear infections.
- In the West Indies, decoction
of yellowing leaf used for high blood pressure and asthma.
- Tea also used for diabetes.
- Wood: Lightweight, flexible, and easy to work with. Used for carving statues, bowls, fishing floats, etc. (5)
- Fuel: Fast burning wood.
- Insecticide: Dried male flowers burned to repel mosquitoes and other flying insects. (5)
- Fodder: All parts of the mature and ripe fruits are edible and fed to pigs and other livestock. Breadnut is also an important food source for flying foxes and arboreal mammals in its native range. (10)
• Infant Food Formulation:
New product development studies have been carried out to formulate an infant food from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) pulp and breadnut (A camansi) seeds to provide a nutritious and palatable alternative. (3)
• Nutritional Composition of Breadnut Seeds:
Study showed the proximate composition of seeds as: protein, 4.87%; fat, 3.48%; and carbohydrate, 26.11%; ash, 3.43%, crude fiber, 1.20%. Highest mineral content was phosphorus, 363 mg/kg; potassium, 325 mg/kg; and sodium, 248 mg/kg. Predominant essential amino acid were leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, isoleucine, and lysine - in decreasing order. Oil was rich in palmitic 21.4%, oleic 12.4% and linolenic acid 14.8%. Results suggest the breadnut seed can be used as composite flour and a source of edible oil for human consumption. (4)
• Chemical Constituents:
Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded friedelinol (1), squalene (2), β-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) and phytol (5), while the stems yielded polyprenol (6), cycloartenol (7) and cycloartenol acetate (8). (6)
• Camansi Flour as Additive / Camanhon: Study produced fried Canton using an additive of Camansi flour from mature seeds with commercially used flour. Compared with other staple starch crops, camansi is a better source of protein, comparable to sweet potato and banana, and a good source of iron, calcium, potassium, riboflavine and niacin. Results proved to be both nutritive and good tasting. (7)
• Biosorbent for Methylene Blue / Peel: There has been an increase in the amount of dyes being disposed in wastewater or the natural ecosystem, seriously adding to environmental pollution. Study showed the oven-dried breadnut peel to be an effective and highly promising low-cost biosorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB). (8)
• Blood Glucose Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of ethanol leaf extracts of Kluwih on mice using glucose tolerance test. EELK at doses of 50 and 100 mg/KBW showed antidiabetic effect better than 200 and 400 mg/KBW. Increasing the doses showed antagonistic effect, with ability to increase blood glucose levels. (9)