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Family Leguminosae
Pithecellobium dulce
(Roxb.) Benth.
Niu ti dou

Scientific names  Common names 
Acacia obliquifolia M.Martens & Galeotti Camachile (Pamp.)
Albizia dulcis (Roxb.) F.Muell. Chamultis (Ig.) 
Feuilleea dulcis  (Roxb.) Kuntze Damortis (Ilk.) 
Inga camatchili  Perr. Damulkis (Bon.) 
Inga javana  DC. Kamachili (Tag., Bik.) 
Inga javanica DC. Kamachilis (Tag.) 
Inga leucantha C.Presl Kamanchilis (P. Bis., Mag.) 
Inga pungens Willd. Kamansile (Tag.) 
Mimosa dulcis  Roxb. Kamantilis (Pang.)  
Mimosa pungens  (Willd.) Poir. Kamarsiles (Tag.)
Mimosa unguis-cati  Blanco Kamatsile (Tag.)
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Kamatsele (Tag.) 
Pithecellobium litorale Record Kamonsiles (Tag.) 
Pithecellobium litorale Brittpm & Rose ex Rec. Kamunsil (P. Bis.) 
Zygia dulcis (Roxb.) Lyons  Karamansili (Ibn.) 
  Komonsili (P. Bis.) 
  Komontos (Ting.)
  Komontres (Ting.)  
  Black bead (Engl.)
  Camachile tree (Engl.)
  Madras thorn (Engl.)  
  Manila tamarind (Engl.)
  Monkeypod (Engl.)
  Sweet inga (Engl.)
  Sweet tamarind (Engl.)
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Niu ti dou.
FRENCH : Campèche (New Caledonia), Cassie de Manille, Épine de Madras, Pois sucré, Tamarin de l'Inde, Tamarin de Manille.
GERMAN : Camambilarinde.
HINDI: Vilayati babul.
SPANISH : Guamúchil, Guayamochil, Huamúchil, Madre de flecha, Quamachil.
TAMIL: Kodukkapuli.
THAI : Ma kham khong, Ma kham thet.
VIETNAMESE : Me Keo, Keo Tây, Me nước, Găng Tây.

Gen info
- Referred to as Manila tamarind because of the sweet-sour tamarind-like taste.
- Etymology: Genus Pithecellobium derives from from the Greek words 'pithekos' (ape) and 'lobos' (pod), and the species name 'dulce' from the Latin 'dulcis' meaning sweet.

Kamatsile is a tree 5 to 18 meters high, with pendulous branches, with short, sharp stipular spines. The leaves are evenly 2-pinnate, 4 to 8 centimeters long. The flowers are white, in dense heads, 1 centimeter in diameter. Pods are turgid, twisted, and spiral, 10 to 18 centimeters long, 1 centimeter wide, and dehiscent along the lower suture. Seeds are 6 to 8, with an edible, whitish, pulpy aril. The arillus is sweet when the fruit is ripe.

Found throughout the Philippines at low or medium altitudes.

- Tannin, 25.36%; fixed oil, 18.22%, olein.
- A glycoside quercitin has been isolated.
- Seeds have been reported to contain steroids, saponins, lipids, phospholipids, glycosides, glycolipids and polysaccharides.
- Bark yields 37% tannins of the catechol type.
- Leaves yield quercitin, kaempferol, dulcitol and afezilin.

- Fatty acid analysis of seed extract yielded 9 saturated and 17 unsaturated fatty acids. Elemental composition yielded (mg/kg) arsenic 17.6µg/kg, copper 16.25, cadmium 3.48, iron 1.89, lead 0.19, magnesium 15.06, potassium 26.89, sodium 10.19, zinc 26.89. Total protein content was highest in the seeds (50.3-67.1%), followed by stems, roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits. (21)
- Ethanolic extract of fruits yielded ten compounds viz. (1) 2, 5, 6-trimethyl 1, 3-oxathiane, (2) trans-3-methyl-2-N-propylthiophane, (3) 2-furan carboxaldehyde-5-(hydroxymethyl), (4) D-pinitol, (5) heptacosanoic acid, (6) hexadecanoic acid, (7) tetracosanol, (8) 22-tricosenoic acid, (9) methyl-2-hydroxy icosanoate and (10) stigmasterol. (25)
- Evaluation of seed protein flour showed a protein content of 39.22%, calcium 48 mg, and phosphorus 542 mg/100 g. Major amino acids were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, lysine, valine, threonine and leucine. Ratio of essential to nonessential amino acid was 0.61. Total polyphenol content was 294 mg/100g. (31)
- GC-MS study of leaves yielded bioactive constituents: phytol, anthracene, 9(3butenyl), diisooctyl phthalate, 13-docosenamide, 3,6,9-triethyl3,6,9trimethyl formic acid, cyclotetrasiloxane, octamethyl, l(+) ascorbic acid 2,6dihexadecanoate. (see study below) (33)
- GC-MS analysis of fruit peel extract yielded 36 bioactive compounds with pinnitol, L-rhamnose and 1,5-anhydro-6-deoxyhexo-2,3-diulose as dominant compounds. (see study below) (43)
- Study of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce seeds yielded seven saponins, oleanane glycosides Pithedulosides A-G. (51)

- Considered abortifacient, anodyne, astringent, larvicidal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antidiabetic.
- Bark and leaves considered astringent.
- Leaves considered astringent, emollient, antidiabetic, and abortifacient.
- Roots reported to be estrogenic.
- Studies have suggested antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic, antituberculosis, antiulcerogenic, renoprotective, hepatoprotective, CNS depressant, larvicidal, anthelmintic, analgesic, antidiarrheal, cardioprotecitve, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

- Pulp around the seed is edible.
• Frequent bowel movements: Decoction of bark taken as tea.
• The leaves, when applied as plasters, used for pain, venereal sores.
• Salted decoction of leaves, for indigestion; also used as abortifacient.
• Bark used in dysentery, dermatitis and eye inflammation.
• In Brazil, used as a cancer elixir.
• In Mexico, decoction of leaves for earaches, leprosy, toothaches and larvicide.
• In India, bark of the plant used as astringent in dysentery, febrifuge. Also used for dermatitis and eye inflammations. Leaves used as abortifacient.
• In Guiana, root bark used for dysentery and as febrifuge.

Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Quercetin / Flowers:
Study of the fresh flowers of Pithecellobium dulce yielded a glycoside quercitin. The activity of the flavonol glycoside confirmed its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. (1)
Phenolics / Antioxidant:
Study of the aqueous extract of Pithecellobium dulce leaves revealed phenolics including flavonoids and showed potent free radical scavenging activity. (2)
Anti-inflammatory Triterpene:
Anti-inflammatory triterpene saponins of Pithecellobium dulce: characterization of an echinocystic acid bisdesmoside. A new bisdesmodic triterpenoid saponin, dulcin, was isolated from the seeds of PD. (3)
Genotoxicity / Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities:
In a study of 138 medicinal plants for genotoxicity, Pithecellobium dulce was one of 12 that exhibited detectable genotoxicity in any system. (4)
Anti-tuberculosis / Antimicrobial:
Hexane, chloroform and alcoholic leaf extracts were studied for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The alcoholic extract showed good inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity against secondary pathogens. (6)
Anti-Diabetic / Leaves:
Study of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of P dulce in STZ-induced diabetic model in rats showed significant activity, aqueous more than the alcoholic extract, comparable to glibenclamide. (7)
Anti-Ulcer / Free Radical Scavenging:
Study of the hydroalcoholic extract of PD was found to possess good antioxidant activity and suggests possible antiulcer activity with its free-radical scavenging and inhibition of H, K-ATPase activities comparable to omeprazole. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids - quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, naringin, daidzein. (8)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity:
Study of an aqueous extract of P. dulce in a murine model showed hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced oxidative impairments probably through its antioxidative property. Results were supported by histological findings. (9)
CNS Depressant:
Study evaluating the locomotor activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of PD in albino mice showed significant CNS depression, the alcoholic extract exhibiting greater effect when compared to chlorpromazine. The activity was attributed to an increase in the concentration of GABA in the brain. (10)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study of methanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects comparable to standard drugs. (11)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial:
Study of fruit peel for antioxidant and antibacterial potential revealed significant activity in the ethyl acetate, methanolic, and aqueous extracts.
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Fruit Extract:
Study on albino rats evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity profile of a hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce. PD did not cause any abnormal changes in hematological and biochemical parameters. Results suggest HAEPD can be used safely for experimental and clinical trials. (13)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated aqueous and methanol extracts of seeds for antioxidant potential. Results showed good dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The activity was attributed to high phenolic contents. (14)
Hypolipidemic / Free Radical Scavenging:
Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of an aqueous extract of leaves against triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Results showed lipid effects with a decrease in total serum cholesterol, LDL, and an increase in serum HDL cholesterol level. (15)
Adulticidal / Free Radical Scavenging:
Study evaluated the adulticidal activity of various solvent leaf and seed extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed the crude extract of P. dulce has excellent potential for controlling filiariasis vector mosquito Cx quinquefasciatus. (16)
Antimicrobial / Leaf Extracts: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of leaf of P. dulce against 20 pathogenic microorganisms. Results showed extracts possess bioactive compounds with significant antimicrobial activities. (17)
α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase / Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated bark and leaves of P. dulce for
α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition in vitro. α-amylase and α-gluscosidase inhibitors from food-grade plant sources offer an alternative approach for the treatment of post-prandial hyperglycemia by decrease glucose release from starch and delaying carbohydrate absorption. Results confirmed α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity of a methanol and ethanol extract. (18)
Skeletal Muscle Relaxant / CNS Depressant / Leaves:
Study showed an acutely administered single dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves possess skeletal muscle relaxant activity and CNS depressant activity but no anticonvulsant action. (19)
Larvicidal & Ovicidal Against Mosquito Vectors:
Study in Swiss albino mice evaluated various extracts of P. dulce for larvicidal and ovicidal potential against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the methanol extract of leaf showed the highest larval activity. Results suggest the seed and leaf extracts have potential as an eco-friendly option for mosquito vector control. (
Anti-Diabetic / Fruits:
Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of P. dulce fruits in STZ-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea and creatinine. There was also improved glycogen contact upon treatment with the extract. (
Cardioprotective / Fruit Peel:
Study evaluated the effect of P. dulce peel in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in adult male Wistar rats. ISO-induced MI in rats showed increase in marker enzymes. Pretreatment PD fruit peel extracts positively altered the activities of marker enzymes and biochemical parameters in ISO-induced rats. (
Anthelmintic / Leaves:
Study evaluated leaf extracts of P. dulce in three different concentrations for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. The aqueous extract was more potent than the alcoholic extract, with activity comparable to the reference drug piperazine citrate. (
Adulticidal / Aedes aegypti: Study evaluated the toxicity and mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Among tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed maximum efficacy. (27)
Antiulcer / Fruits: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Pithecellobium dulce on a cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in male albino Wistar rats. Rats preadministered with HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score compatible to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. Results showed antioxidant and cytoprotective antiulcer activity. (29)

Titanium Nanoparticles / Fruits:
Study reported on the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Pithecellobium dulce and Lagenaria siceraria aqueous leaf extract. The nanoparticles synthesized by biological method showed a higher antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity than chemically synthesized. (30)
• Polysaccharides / Antioxidant / Seeds:
Study secluded water soluble PDP polysaccharides from P. dulce seeds. Fractions were tested for in vitro antioxidant capacities by DPPH, h2O2 and reducing power assay. Results showed activity in a dose dependent manner comparable to standard ascorbic acid. (32)
• Antibacterial / Leaves:
The leaf extract of P. dulce showed good inhibition against gram positive organisms. The highest inhibition was noted S. epidermidis (24mm), P. acne (14mm), and S. aureus (11mm). (see study above) (33)
• Antidiarrheal:
Study evaluated the antidiarrheal effect of an ethanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce using castor oil induced diarrhea in rats. Results showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect (p<0.01) more effective than Loperamide, the standard antidiarrheal drug.
• Inhibitory Effect on Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic α-Amylase / Seeds:
Study of a methanolic extract of seeds showed inhibitory action on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Activity may be attributed to their phenolic and triterpene constituent such as oleanolic acid. Results suggest a potential for a function food that can modulate key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes to be of use in the management of diabetes, especially in the control of postprandial hyperglycemia.   (35)
• Inhibiting Effect on Corrosion of Mild Steel / Seeds:
Study evaluated the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by extract of P. dulce seeds. Results showed PDS extract could serve as an efficient corrosion inhibitor in the acidic solution. Impedance study confirmed the formation of an adsorbed film on the mild steel. (36)
Renoprotection Against CCl4 Induced Oxidative Impairments and Necrotic Cell Death / Fruits: Study investigated the role of aqueous extract of fruits of P. dulce against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced renal oxidative injury in mice. Treatment prior and post toxin exposure protected the organ from CCl4 induced oxidative insult. The protective role is probably due to the antioxidative properties present in the active constituents. (37)
Polysaccharide as Pharmaceutical Adjuvant / Fruits: Study extracted polysaccharides from dried fruiting bodies with 20% ethanol. The extraction yielded three water-soluble polysaccharides PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3. Studies confirmed good flow property and compressibility of the polysaccharides. In-vitro drug release study suggested potential application as pharmaceutical adjuvant. Subjected to radical scavenging study using DPPH, phosphomolybdenum assay and reducing power assay, the polysaccharides has potential as novel natural antioxidants and can be recommended as a functional food. (38)
• Gastroprotective /
Antiulcerogenic / Fruit: Study evaluated the gastroprotective activity and mechanism of action of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce in rats using chemical and stress induced ulcer models. Results showed significantly reduced ulcer index in treated animals along with significantly minimized pH and gastric fluid activity. Pretreated animals showed decreased H+K+ATPase and enhanced cell proliferation. Results were comparable with that of standard drug omeprazole. (39)
Antifungal / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of leaf extract of Pithecellobium dulce showed effectiveness against Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger and showed antioxidant activity Methanol and water extracts yielded significant amounts of alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids. Further fractionation of methanol extract showed MICs of 0.62 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml for A. fumigatus and A. niger, respectively. Results were comparable to Amphotericin B. (40)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of P. dulce for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Both extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The aqueous extract showed more activity and was comparable to standard diclofenac. (41)
Antihyperglycemic Potential / Saponin / Seeds: Study evaluated a saponin-rich extract of seeds for anti-hyperglycemic potential in vivo and in vitro. Defatted seeds extracted with methanol afforded a saponin-enriched fraction. Results showed superior inhibition of enzymes i.e. α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC50s of 5.12 and 17,28 µg/ml, respectively. It was found safe in mice up to 2000 mg/kg and significantly prevented blood glucose level rise in sucrose tolerance test by inhibition of enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of sucrose. (42)
Anticancer / Fruit Peel: Preliminary phytochemical screening of EtOH extract of P. dulce fruit peel yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, saponin, and polyphenols. The fruit peel extract showed potential to prevent ROS damage and oxidative stress. The crude extract exhibited higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The three lead compounds i.e. pinnitol, L-rhamnose and 1,5-anhydro-6-deoxyhexo-2,3-diulose may act as noble inhibitors for GRP-78 target protein for breast cancer and the compounds can be re-designed and synthesized for potential anticancer activity. (see constituents above) (43)
N-Malonyl-(+)-Tryptophan / Anti-Hymenolepis nana / Fruit: Study of bioguided fractionation of methanol extract of P. dulce fruit showed in vitro activity against Hymenolepis nana. The ME and its fractions were more active than praziquantel (PZQ), The purified compound was characterized as N-malonyl-(+)-tryptophan (NMT). Parasites treated with NMT showed shorter paralysis and death. Results showed antiparasitary activity of both ME and NMT, with potential to treat human H. nana. (44)
Anthocyanin / Antioxidant / Fruit Pericarp: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracted from P. dulce fruit pericarp. The fruit pericarp can be a major source of anthocyanin, flavonoids and polyphenol antioxidants. Anthocyanin extracted by using acidified methanol showed better results when compared with methanol. (45)
• Review /
Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Capacity: Review reports on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of aril, seed, leaf and root of P dulce. Results differed considerably in variables such as environment factors, type of drying, temperature, storage, and use of extraction solvents. (46)
Mitigation of Cyclophosphamide Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the protective effect of P. dulce fruit in mitigating the harmful effects of chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (CTX). P. dulce extract treatment could significantly (p<0.01) overcome CTX induced immunosuppression accompanied with urotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in experimental animal models. Histopathological toxic effects in the urinary bladder walls, liver, and kidney were markedly inhibited with extract treatment. There was also significantly alterations in in-situ formation or release of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) and interferon gamma. (47)
Gum Exudate Encapsulation of Rosemary Oil: Pithecellobium dulce is a major gun yielding species in the Indian continent. The gum exhibits excellent physiological and functional properties, with excellent rheological flow behavior. Study shows P dulce may be an alternative to commercial gum for the encapsulation of rosemary oil. (48)
Antioxidant / Lipid Lowering / Peel: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic efficacy and antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts of P. dulce peel in high fat diet induced obese rats. Results showed potent lipid lowering effect and improvement in antioxidant status. (49)
ZnO Nanoparticles / Antifungal / Photocatalytic / Peel: Study reports on a one-step eco-friendly photosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using P. dulce peel extract. The antifungal activity of the ZnO NPs showed 37.18% and 63.57% inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus flavus and 40.21% and 43.04% growth inhibition of Aspergillus niger at 500 and 1000 ppm of ZnO NPs, respectively. (50)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Lipophilic Fractions of Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated the biologic activities and chemical profiles of lipophilic fractions of P. dulce bark and leaves. GC-MS analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and unsaponifiable matter (USM) identified 40 compounds in the bark unsaponifiable fraction and 9 compounds from the leaves. Palmitic acid methyl ester was the major compound (41.48%) in the bark and 19.03% of the leaves. The bark USM yielded 63 compounds and 4 compounds in the leaves. Phytol was the major component in the leaves (52.57%) followed by lupeol (20.68%) and lupenone (8.60%). Leaves and bark lipophilic fractions revealed moderate antioxidant and antibacterial activities. P. dulce is a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. (52)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Seeds: Study evaluated the attenuating effects of a methanolic extract of P. dulce seeds on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and hyperlipidemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral adminstration of the extract for 21 days caused a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and significant increase in body weight, serum insulin, total protein and liver glycogen levels. It also effectively normalized dyslipidemia associated with STZ-induced diabetes. In the liver, kidney, and pancreas, there was enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced content of reduced glutathione, while levels of lipid peroxides were suppressed. (53)

Wild crafted. 

Updated May 2021 / June 2017 / November 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. - monkeypod / Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmocological Studies of the Flowers of Pithecellobium dulce / P G R Chandran and S Balaji / Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2008; 12: pp 245-253
Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Folklore: Pithecellobium dulce Benth. Leaves / M Sugumara et al / Ethnobotanical Leaflet, 2008; 12: pp 446-451
Anti-inflammatory triterpene saponins of Pithecellobium dulce: characterization of an echinocystic acid bisdesmoside / N P Sahu, S B Mahato / Phytochemistry. 1994 Nov; 37(5): pp 1425-1427
Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities in Philippine Medicinal and Food Plants
/ Clara Y Lim-Sylianco and W Thomas Shier / Toxin Reviews, 1985; Volume 4, Issue 1: pp 71-105 / DOI: 10.3109/15569548509014414
Pithecellobium Dulce Benth - A Review / M Sugumaran
Manila Tamarind could help treat tuberculosis / S D Shanmugakumar / Natural News Today

Antidiabetic potential of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of Pithecellobium dulce / M Sugumaran et al / Asian J. Research Chem. Jan-Mar 2009; 2(1)
Free radical-scavenging and H+, K+-ATPase inhibition activities of Pithecellobium dulce / J Megala and A Geetha / Food Chemistry, Vol 121, Issue 4, 15 August 2010, Pages 1120-1128 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.059
Phytomedicinal Role of Pithecellobium dulce against CCl4-mediated Hepatic Oxidative Impairments and Necrotic Cell Death / Prasenjit Manna, Sudip Bahttacharyya, Joydeep Das et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011) / doi:10.1093/ecam/neq065
Locomotor Activity of Leaf extracts of Pithecellobium dulce Benth. / M. Sugumaran, T.Vetrichelvan, S. Darline Quine / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 490-493. 2008.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Pithecellobium dulce Benth.
/ S.Arul Selvan, P.Muthukumaran / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp 337-341, Jan-Mar 2011
Sorting Pithecellobium names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Pithecellobium dulce Benth Fruit Peel / Sukantha T A, Shubashini K Sripathi, Ravindran N T and Balashanmugam P / Internation Journal of Current Research, Vol 3, No 11, pp 378-382, October 2011
Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Hydroalcoholic Fruit Extract of Pithecellobium dulce
/ Jayaraman Megala and Arumugan Geetha / Natural Product Research, June 2012; Vol 26, No 12: pp 1167-1171 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.562206
Antioxidant activity free radical-scavenging potential of Pithecellobium dulce Benth seed extracts / Dnyaneshwar M. Nagmoti, Dharmendra K. Khatri, Parikshit R. Juvekar, Archana R. Juvekar / Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 2, Issue 2 , Pages 37-43, April 2012
Hypolipidemic activity of Pithecellobium Dulce Bench. in Triton Wr-1339 Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats / Sundarrajan T *, Raj kumar T, Udhayakumar E and Arunachalam G. / International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010, Dec., Vol.1 (2)
Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. against Culex / Govindarajan M*, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Yogalakshmi K / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)124-128
E / MUKESH KUMAR, KIRAN NEHRA* and J.S. DUHAN / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Issue 1, 2013
α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Pithecellobium dulce bark and leaves / Shankar D. Katekhaye*, Dnyaneshwar M. Nagmoti / Phytopharmacology 2013, 4(1): pp 123-130
Neuropharmacological Profile of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Pithecellobium dulce Benth Leaves in Mice / Mule V.S., Potdar V.H., Jadhav S.D., Disouza J. I. / Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1: pp 27-30 / pISSN: 0975-4407
Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) / M. Govindarajan, M. Rajeswary & R. Sivakumar / Indian J Med Res 138, July 2013, pp 129-134
Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetic properties of Pithecellobium dulce fruits studied in streptozotocin induced experimental diabetic rats / S. Pradeepa, S. Subramanian, V. Kaviyarasan / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2013; 1 (4): pp 21-28
Cardioprotective Activity of Pithecellobium Dulce Fruit Peel on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats / PakutharivuThangarajan*, Anitha Anumanthan, Usha Venkatachalam, Sharmila Sivakumar, Chitra Somaskandan / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 30(1), January – February 2015; Pages: 133-136
GC-MS Analysis of Microwave Assisted Ethanolic Extract of Pithecellobium dulce /Preethi S, Mary Saral A* /Malaya Journal of Biosciences 2014, 1(4):242-247
INVITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE BENTH / M. SUGUMARAN , T. VETRICHELVAN AND S. DARLIN QUINE / Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper, Vol.12, Issue 2, 2010; Pp 313-314.
Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) / Mohan Rajeswary, Marimuthu Govindarajan* / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014; 4(Suppl 1): pp S449-S452
In vitro anti-diabetic activity of compounds from pithecellobium dulce fruit peel / Praylin Singh, Prasanna Kumar Sugirtha / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol 5 , No 4; 2015 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7439/ijpc.v5i4.1873
Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats / Jayaraman Megala & Arumugam Geetha* / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 53, October 2015, pp. 657-664
Biosynthesis and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Pithecellobium Dulce and Lagenaria Siceraria Aqueous Leaf Extract and Screening their Free Radical Scavenging and Antibacterial Properties / S. Kalyanasundaram, M. J. Prakash / International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Volume 50, pp 80-95 / DOI: 10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.50.80
Physico-Chemical, Mineral, Amino Acid Composition, in Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Sorption Isotherm of Pithecellobium dulce L. Seed Protein Flour / Galla Narsing Rao / J.Food Pharm.Sci. 1 (2013) 74-80
Studies of water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds / S. Bagchi, K. Jayaram Kumar / Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol 138, 15 Mar 2016, pp 215-221 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.11.018
GC-MS Study and Pharmacognostic Study of Pithecellobium Dulce Leaves / Anil F.Bobade* / AJPTR: American Journal of PharmaTech Research, Jun 2017
Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extracts of Pithecellobium dulce on castor oil-induced Diarrhoea in albino Wistar rats / Choday Venu҉, Ramanjaneyulu K, Satish Reddy N, Vijaya laxmi B, Bhavana alla / Discovery, Vol. 52, No. 246, June 1, 2016
In vitro inhibitory effects of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase / Dnyaneshwar Madhukar Nagmoti, Archana Ramesh Juvekar* / J Biochem Tech (2013) 4(3): pp 616-621
Inhibiting Effect of Seeds Extract of Pithecellobium Dulce on Corrosion of Mild Steel in 1N HCL Medium / P. R. Sivakumar, A. P. Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, August 2016
Traditional extract of Pithecellobium dulce fruits protects mice against CCl4 induced renal oxidative impairments and necrotic cell death / Pabitra Bikash Pal, Sankhadeep Pal, Prasenjit Manna, Parames C. Sil / Pathophysiology, 2012; 19: pp 101–114 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys,2012.02.001
Screening of natural polysaccharides extracted from the fruits of Pithecellobium dulce as a pharmaceutical adjuvant / Preethi S, Mary Saral A / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Nov 2016; Vol 92: pp 347-356 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.036
Antiulcerogenic activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Pithecellobium dulce in different experimental models in rats / Jayaraman Megala, Arumugam Geetha / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jully 2012; 142(2): pp pp 415-421 / DOI: https://doi.org/j.jep.2012.05.011
Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antioxidant and antifungal activity of Pithecellobium dulce leaves extract / Suman Kumari / Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2017; 10(1): pp 370-375 / eISSN: 2455-3891 pISSN: 0974-2441
Anti-Inflammatory ativity of FolkloreL Pithecellobium dulce Benth / Sugumaran M, Vetrichelvan T, Quine S Darlin / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2009; 2(4): pp 868-869 / pISSN: 0974-3618 eISSN: 0974-360x.
Antihyperglycemic Potential of Saponin-enriched Fraction from Pithecellobium dulce Benth, Seed Extract / Mahesh Kumar, Jeyabalan Govindrajan, Narendra Kumar Nyola / Pharmacognosy Research, Dec 2017; 9(Supp;1) / PMID: 29333038
In silico potential of nutraceutical plant of Pithecellobium dulce against GRP78 target protein for breast cancer / Murugesan Selvakumar, Palanikumar Palanichamy, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi / Applied Nanoscience, 2021 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-021-01840-5
Bioguided isolation of N-malonyl-(+)-tryptophan from the fruit of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. that showed high activity against Hymenolepis nana / Gabriela Lopez-Angulo, Sara Elizabeth Verdugo-Gaxiola, Nancy Yareli Salazar-Salas et al / Natural Product Research, 2021; 35(4) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1590709
Extraction of anthocyanin and analysing its antioxidant properties from Pithecellobium dulce fruit pericarp / P Ponmozhi, M Geetha, Dr M Saravana Kumar, P Suganya Devi / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2011 4(Suppl1) / ISSN: 0974-2441
Phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth: A Review / Angel Felix Vargas-Madriz, Aaro Kuri-Garcia, Salvador Horacio Guzman Maldonado et al / Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2020; 57: pp 4316-4336 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04453-y
Pithecellobium dulce fruit extract mitigates cyclophosphamide-mediated toxicty by regulating proinflammatory cytokines / Suresh Sulekha Dhanisha, Sudarsanan Drishya, Chandrasekharan Guruvayoorappan et al / Journal of Food Biochemistry / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13083
Physiochemical and rheological characterization of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth gum exudate as a potential wall material for the encapsulation of rosemary oil / Bhushan B Chaudhari, Uday S annapure et al / Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications, Dec 2020; Vol 1: 10000S /
DOE: https://doi.org/j.carpta.2020.10000S
Evaluation of Lipid Lowering Activity and Anti-Obesity Status of Pithecellobium dulce in Obesity Induced Rats / Jagadeeshwar K, Umasankar Kulandaivelu, Gsn Koteswara Rao, Rajasekhar Red Alavala and Siva Prasad Panda / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020; 82(6): pp 1067-1071
Green synthesis, characterization and antifungal and photocatalytic activity of Pithecellobium dulce peel=mediates ZnO nanoparticles / G Madhumitha, J Fowsiya, Neelesh Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar, Mehakmeet Sing / Journal of Physics and Chemistry Solids, April 2019; Vol 127: pp 43-51 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2018.12.005
Pithedulosides A-G, oleanane glycosides from Pithecellobium dulce / S K Nigram, Misra Gopal Rais Uddin, Kazuko Yoshikawa, Miwako Kawamoto, Shigenobu Arihar / Phytochemistry, April 1997; 44(7): pp 1329-1334 / DOI: https"//doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00725-X
Profiling the Lipophilic Fractions of Pithecellobium dulce Bark and Leaves using GC-MS and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities / Sara Saeed Kotb et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000048
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth seed extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Dnyaneshwar Madhukar Nagmoti, Pankaj Sudhakar Kothavade, Vipin Dipak Bulani, Bhanudas Gawali, Archana Ramesh Juvekar / European Journal of Integrative Medicine, May 2015; 7(3): pp 263-273 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2015.01.001

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