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Family Convulvulaceae
Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.

Hong jing weng cai

Scientific names  Common names  
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.  Balañgog (Ilk.)
Ipomoea natans Roth  Galatgat (Ilk.)
Ipomoea reptans Poir.  Kangkong (Bik., Tag., Pamp.)
Ipomoea sagittifolia Hochr.  Kangkung (Sul.)
Ipomoea subdentata Miq. Tangkong (Ilk., Kuy., Bis.)
  Tangkung (Sul.)
  Potato vine (Engl.)
  Swamp cabbage (Engl.)
  Swamp morning glory (Engl.)
  Water spinach (Engl.)
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Kalami, Kalmi shaak, Nalike.
BURMESE: Kan-swun.
CHINESE: Weng cai, Kong xin cai, Tong cai, Teng cai, Teng teng cai, Ong choi, Ong choy, Cao coi.
CZECH: Čínský vodní špenát .
DANISH: Vandspinat.
DUTCH: Waterspinazie.
FIJIAN: Ndrinikava.
FRENCH: Liseron d'eau, Patate aquatique.
GERMAN: Wasserspinat, Sumpf-trichterwinde.
GUJARATI: Nali ni bhaji.
HINDI: Kalmua, Kalmi, Kalmisaag, Patuasag.
INDIA: Karmatta.
ITALIAN: Vilucchio d'acqua, Convolvolo d'acqua, Patate acquatica.
JAPANESE: Asagaona, En-sai, Kankon, Ku-shin-sai, Tsuu sai, You sai.
KANNADA: Niru hambu.
KHMER: Trâkuön.
KOREAN: Kong sim chae, Da yeon chae, Mo ning geul lo ri.
LAOTIAN: Bôngz, Pak bong, Phak bong.
MALAY: Kankung, Kangkong, Kangkung, Kankong.
MARATHI: Naadi shaak, Nali chi bhaj.
NEPALESE: Kalaamii saag.
ORIYA: Kalama saga.
PORTUGUESE: Cancon, Batata aquática
PUNJABI: Nali bel.
RUSSIAN: Ipomeia vodianaia.
SANSKRIT: Kalamba, Kalambi, Kalambika, Naalikah..
SPANISH: Espinaca acuática, Batata acuática, Espinaca de agua.
SWEDISH: Vattenspenat.
THAI: Bai phai, Pak boong chin, Phak bung.
TURKISH: Su ıspanağını.
VIETNAMESE: Giau muong, Rau muong.

Kangkong is a smooth, widely spreading vine, with the stems trailing on mud or floating on water. Leaves are oblong-ovate, 7 to 14 centimeters long, with a pointed tip and heart-shaped or arrow-shaped base, long petioled, the margins entire or angular, and sublobed. Peduncles are erect, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, with 1 or 2 flowers, borne in the axils of the leaves. Sepals are green, oblong, about 8 millimeters long. Corolla is narrowly bell-shaped, about 5 centimeters long, and purplish; limb nearly white or pale pink purple, about 5 centimeters in diameter, the tube deeper purple inside. Capsules are smooth and ovoid, about 1 centimeter long.

- Throughout the Philippines in stagnant streams, fresh-water swamps, and pools.
- Probably introduced.
- Found throughout the tropics of the Old World.
- Extensively cultivated in southern China.
- An invasive species in many parts of the world and designated as a noxious weed, forming ragged mats that choke and stagnate in streams and swamps.

- Plant contains protein 1.6 %, fat 0.2%, and vitamins C3 and B2.
- Some major compounds from the plants are:
nortropane alkaloids, calystegines B1; phenolic compounds N‐cis-Feruloyltyramine, N‐trans-feruloyltyramine, 3α,7β-O-D-di glycopyranosyl-dihydroquercetin and Isochlorogenic acid a, b and c. (see study below) (19)
- Compositional analysis of leaves yielded moisture 90%, protein 3%, fiber 0.9%, fat 0.4%, carbohydrate 4.3%, mineral matter 2%, nicotinic acid 0.6 mg/100g, riboflavin 120 mg/100g, vitamin C 137 mg/100g, vitamin E 11 mg/100g, and ash 1.4%. (20)
- Nutrient analysis of leaves (based on % dry weight) showed the leaves contained 3% protein, 4.5% total carbohydrate, 0.3% lipids, 78% moisture, 1.6% ash, 1.4% fiber and gross energy value of 141.4 Kj/g. Leaves yielded high amounts of essential amino acids (per 100g) 4765 mg: leucine 1365 mg/100g, tyrosine+phenylalanine 1124 mg/100g, lysine 682 mg, and threonine 606 mg. Minerals (per 100 g) were potassium 444 mg, calcium 163, sodium 159.8 mg, phosphorus 86, magnesium 52 mg, copper 5.3 mg, zinc 4.1 mg, iron 3.2 mg, and manganese 2.3 mg. (see study below) (23)

- Considered purgative, diuretic, antiepileptic, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antidiabetic.

Parts used
Young leaves and stems

Edibility / Nutritional
- Young leaves and shoots eaten raw in salads, or steam and boiled like spinach.
- Young stems popular as achara (native pickles) ingredient.
- Good sources of iron, calcium, vitamins B and C and amino acids.
- Caution: Studies caution on fecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach from urban wastewater. (see study below) (26) (27)
- Tops are mildly laxative.
-The purplish variety used for diabetes because of assumed insulin-like principle it contains.
- Juice used as emetic.
- Dried latex is purgative.
- Poultice of buds used for ringworm.
- Used as laxative and sedative; used for piles, nervous conditions, headache, insomnia.
- In Burma, the juice is employed as an emetic in cases of arsenical or opium poisoning.
- In Cambodia, used as poultice for fever with delirium; buds applied to ringworm.
- In Ayurveda, extracts of leaves are used for jaundice and nervous debility.
- Juice used as emetic in opium and arsenic poisoning.
- In Sri Lanka, used for liver disease, eye problems, constipation.
- Fodder: Leaves used as food for gurami fish and pigs. Use in animals limited by laxative effect.

Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetic: Study evaluated the oral hypoglycemic activity of single and multiple doses of Ipomoea aquatica in healthy male Wistar rats after a glucose challenge. Results showed significant reduction in glucose concentrations in both single (33%, p<0027) and multiple (25%, p<00.02) doses.
Hypoglycemic / Comparable to Tolbutamide: An aqueous extract of the green leafy vegetable Ipomoea aquatica is as effective as the oral hypoglycaemic drug tolbutamide in reducing the blood sugar levels of Wistar rats. (3)
Hypoglycemic / Glucose Absorption Inhibitory Effect: Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation: Study showed a significant inhibitory effect on glucose absorption. Furthermore, results suggest the inhibition of glucose absorption is not due to the acceleration of intestinal transit. (4)
Hypoglycemic / Oral Consumption Study showed the consumption of shredded, fresh, edible portion of IA for one week, effectively reduced the fasting blood sugar of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (5)
Antioxidant / Antiproliferative: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) constituents: Study showed the water extract of stems had the highest antiproliferative activity. The ethanol extract of the stems had the highest total phenolic compounds. The ethanol extract of leaves had the highest amount of flavonoids. (2)
Diuretic: Study on the diuretic activity of the methanol extract of Ipomoea aquatica in Swiss albino mice showed good diuretic activity. In all cases, the excretion of electrolytes and urine volume increase was higher than the standard diuretic, furosemide. (7)
Antioxidant: Study of a methanol extract yielded a compound ( 7-O-B-D-glucopyronosyl-dihydromquercetin-3-O-a-D-glucopyranoside) that exhibited antioxidant activity with an EC50 value of 83 and showed very strong lipid peroxidation-inhibitory activity in a liposome model system. (8)
Antimicrobial: Study investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf extract of three herbs – A longifolia, I aquatica and E fluctuans – on four pathogenic bacterial strains (E coli, P aeruginosa, S aureus and M luteus). Ipomoea aquatica exerted the higher amount of antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains, better than the two other herb extracts. (9)
Antiulcerogenic: Study in an aspirin-induced ulcer model in rats found Ipomoea aquatica to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic and ulcer-healing properties and can act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. (10)
Cytotoxicity: Study isolated a purified bioactive compound from the leaf of Ipomoea aquatica – 7-O-B-D-glucopyranosyl-dihydroquercetin-3-O-a-D-glucopyranoside (DHQG). Results showed DHQG showed cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines tested.
Nootropic / Memory Enhancing Potential: Study suggests that MEIA markedly improves brain Ach level. MEIA treatment may be of value in reinforcing depressed cholinergic transmission in certain age related memory disorders and to improve memory and learning in normal individuals. (11)
Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of Ipomoea aquatica leaves. A methanol-ethanol extract significantly potentiated ketamine-induced sleep by reduction in latency to sleep and increased duration of sleep, suggesting the interaction of I. aquatica with CNS depressants. (12)
Hypoglycemic/ Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of leaves in Swiss albino mice. Results showed potent hypoglycemic activity compared with control. Extract also showed potent free radical scavenging activity with vitamin C as standard. (14)
CNS Depressant / Antiepileptic: Study on various animal models evaluated the CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of a methanol extract of leaves of Ipomoea aquatica. Results showed dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions or complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin. There was also dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. (
Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage induced by thioacetamine in rats. Results showed a protective effect in TAA-induced liver damage probably by contributing to its modulation on detoxification enzymes, antioxidant, and free radical scavenger effects. (
Lead and Cadmium Content: Study was conducted to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the top, middle, and bottom of edible portions of I. aquatica. Pb concentration showed a decreasing trend from the roots to the leaves, and from bottom to top section to shoot apex. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in the edible portions were far below the maximum tolerable daily intake for man set by the WHO. The bottom of the edible portion of the plant should be removed to minimize Pb intake. (
Constituents and Pharmacological Potentiality: Some major plant compounds are: (1) Calystegines B1, a nortropane alkaloid, with potent inhibitory activity against rat lysosomal ß-glucosidase, (2)
N‐cis-feruloyltyramine and N‐trans-feruloyltyramine, phenolic compounds isolated from the roots, considered potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, (3) 3α,7β-O-D-di glycopyranosyl-dihydroquercetin, a compound that has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines viz. Hep-2 and A-549, and (4) Isochlorogenic acid a, b and c, phenolic compounds with collagenase inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, anti-HIV activity. (19)
Protective Against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated two aquatic vegetables, aqueous extracts of Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans, traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in traditional medicine in India, for protective role against Cd-intoxication. Results suggest both extracts offered protection against Cd-induced toxicity by counteracting oxidative stress and ROS mediated apoptosis and/or promoting the elimination of Cd by chelating. (21)
Toxicity Studies / Safety Profile / Leaves: Study evaluated the safety of an hydroalcoholic extract of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. leaves in acute and sub-acute administration in a rodent model. Results showed no sign of toxicity during the study period—no change in general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. No significant changes were observed in organ weights and histopathological exam showed not morphological alterations. Results suggest a wide margin of safety for therapeutic use of the plant.     (22)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Ethanolic extract of leaves exhibited good antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.387 and 0.394 mg/mL against DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. Vitamin C content was 50 mg/100g and total phenolic content was 561 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g, both of which could be main contributors to the antioxidant capacity of the leaves. (see constituents above) (23)
Nephroprotective / Gentamicin-Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of water spinach ethanol extract of leaves on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Results showed significant decrease (p<0.01) in the elevated serum creatinine and urea levels compared to gentamicin treated group. (24)
• Amelioration of Lead Toxicity: Study evaluated the protective role of edible aqueous extract of I. aquatica against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with IC50 of 6.8 µM. There was significantly enhanced levels (p<0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, along with depletion (p<0.001) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. The protective effect may be through counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting elimination of Pb by chelation. Flavonoids, phenolics, and saponins may be responsible for the overall protective effect. (25)
• Fecal and Protozoan Contamination / Wastewater Cultivation: Study sought to identify the level of contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan parasites in water spinach (I. aquatica) cultivated in wastewater-fed lake in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Water spinach cultivated in the lake was highly contaminated with feces as evidenced by high ThC concentration and presence of protozoan parasites. A reduction of ThC to WHO guidelines for irrigation water occurred through natural biological and physical processes in the lake. (26)
• Effect of Drying Treatments and Solvents / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the effect of various ethanol solvent rations and drying methods on phytochemical constituents. The highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was seen with absolute ethanol extract from oven drying method with IC50 of 204.0 ± 59.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content of 22.0 ± 0.7 µg GAE/mg extract. Metabolites responsible for the activity were quercetin derivatives, chlorogenic acid derivatives, sucrose, and fructose. Study highlights I. aquatica as food source with potential for nutraceutical enhancement and as ingredient in medicinal preparation (28)
• Ameliorative in Induced Arsenic Toxicity: Ipomoea aquatica is traditionally used against As poisoning in India folk medicine. Study evaluated the therapeutic role of aqueous extract of IA against As-intoxication. Results showed aqueous extracts of edible aerial parts of I. aquatica could attenuate toxic manifestation caused by NaAsO2. Data suggested that As-mediated generation of ROS principally contributed in the toxicosis of As. The extract protected against NaAsO2-induced toxicity by counteracting oxidative stress and associated toxic manifestations and promoting As clearance from tissues via metal chelating. The presence of antioxidants viz., flavonoids, phenolics, and ascorbic acids may contribute in overall protection against arsenicosis. (29)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the oral hypoglycemic activity of various fractions of I. aquatica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Results showed significant reduction of fasting blood glucose (p<0.05). Histologically, islets area and normal cell population were preserved in treated animals. Most biochemical parameters returned to nearly normal levels. DCM:EtOAc (75:25 v/v) showed more potent activity than other fraction EtOAc:MeOH. (30)

In the news
Fasciolopsis buski: StarOnLine reports
on the health benefits of a noxious weed. The weed may be contaminated with Fasciolopsis buski, a large intestinal parasite that is laid on water spinach as larval cysts. In humans and pigs, the cysts release the fluke that anchors to the intestinal wall and cause indigestion, allergic reactions, and abdominal pain. Untreated cases may be fatal. Infection is prevented by proper preparation, frying or boiling. (27)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated August 2018 / August 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ipomoea aquatica / File:Ipomoea aquaticaRHU1.JPG / Meneerke Bloem / 16 November 2009 / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica / T. Sugandhika Malalavidhan et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / Volume 72, Issues 1-2, 1 September 2000, Pages 293-298 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00217-8
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) constituents / Dong-Jiann HUANG et al / Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (2005) 46: 99-106
An aqueous extract of the green leafy vegetable Ipomoea aquatica is as effective as the oral hypoglycaemic drug tolbutamide in reducing the blood sugar levels of Wistar rats / S. Malalavidhane et al / Phytotherapy Research Volume 15 Issue 7, Pages 635 - 637 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.851
Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation / S.D. Sokeng, B. Rokeya et al / Fitoterapia Volume 78, Issues 7-8, December 2007, Pages 526-529 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.06.011
Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica in streptozotocin-induced, diabetic Wistar rats and Type II diabetics / MALALAVIDHANE T. S. et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 2003, vol. 17, no9, pp. 1098-1100
In vitro cytotoxic properties of Ipomoea aquatica leaf / Prasad, K et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology / Research Letter / Indian J of Pharma, Dec 2005, Vol 37, Issue 6, 397-398
Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Ipomoea aquatica (Kalmisak) in Mice Model Study / M.M. Mamun, M.M. Billah et al / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2003 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 5 | Page No.: 395-400 / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2003.395.400
Isolation of a free radical-scavenging antioxidant from water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) / K Nagendra Prasad et al / Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Volume 85 Issue 9, Pages 1461 - 1468 / DOI 10.1002/jsfa.2125
Antimicrobial efficacies of methanol extract of Asteracantha longifolia, Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus / J N Bhakta M et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine™ ISSN: 1540-2584
Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the ethanolic extract of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) in aspirin ulcerated rats / Dhanasekaran Sivaraman and Palayan Myralidaran / Journal of Pharmacy Research
Vol.1.Issue 2.Oct-December 2008
NOOTROPIC EFFECT OF IPOMOEA AQUATICA FORSK IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS / Dhanasekaran Sivaraman and Palayan Muralidaran / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp 475-479, Jan-Mar 2010
Anxiolytic activity of Ipomoea aquatica leaves
/ Mohd. Jishan Khan, Vipin Saini, Varun S. Bhati, Manvendra S. Karchuli, Sanjay B. Kasture / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1 (1):63-70
Lead and Cadmium Contents in Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Grown in Laguna de Bay
/ Marieta C. Baysa, Rachelle Rose S. Anuncio et al / Philippine Journal of Science, 135 (2): 139-143, December 2006
Evaluation of the Leaves of Ipomoea aquatica for its Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity
/ Kaiser Hamid* ,Mohammad Obayed Ullah, Shapna Sultana, Md. Amran Howlader, Debasish Basak, Fatema Nasrin, Muhammad Mukhlesur Rahman / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.3(7), 2011,1330-1333
CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk / Dhanasekaran Sivaraman and Palayan Muralidaran / E-Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 7(4), 1555-1561
Sorting Ipomoea names
/ Copyright © 1995 - 2004, The University of Melbourne. / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher
Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity / Salim Said Alkiyumi, Mahmood Ameen Abdullah,* Ahmed Salim Alrashdi, Suzy Munir Salama, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab and A. Hamid A. Hadi / Molecules 2012, 17, 6146-6155; doi:10.3390/molecules17056146
Ipomoea aquatica / Synonyms / The Plant List
Ipomoea aquatica, An Underutilized Green Leafy Vegetable: A Review
/ K. Nagendra Prasad, G.R. Shivamurthy, and S.M. Aradhya / Internation Journal of Botany 4(1): 123-129, 2008
The effects of two common edible herbs, Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans, on cadmium-induced pathophysiology: a focus on oxidative defence and anti-apoptotic mechanism / Tarun K Dua, Saikat Dewanjee, Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharya, Bhuvan Bhaskar, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq and Vincenzo De Feo / Journal of Translational Medicine201513:245 / DOI: 10.1186/s12967-015-0598-6
Preclinical Toxicological Profile of Hydroalcholic Leaf Extract of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk an Indian Medicinal Plant / D. Sivaraman, P. Panneerselvam, P. Muralidharan and T. Purushoth Prabhu / Pharmacologia, Volume 4 Issue 2, 2013
Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Ipomoea Aquatica (Forsek) Leaves / Ibtisam G. Doka, Sayadat El Tigani, Sakina Yagi* / JOURNAL OF FOREST PRODUCTS & INDUSTRIES, 2014, 3(4), 204-210
Study on the Effect of Ethanol Extract of Ipomoea Aquatica (Kalmi Shak) Leaves on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxic Rats / Dr. Rayhana Sharmin, Dr. A.B.M.Iftekhar Hossain, Dr. Sharmin Rahman, Dr. Khaleda Sharmin, Dr. Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek / ARC Journal of Dental Science, Vol 1, Issue 3, pp 9-14 (2016) / http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2456-0030.0103003
Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatica(Convolvulaceae), Ameliorates Lead Toxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis / Saikat Dewanjee, Tarun K Dua, Ritu Khanra, Shilpa Das et al / PLoS One. 2015; 10(10): e0139831. / doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0139831 / PMID: 26473485
Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. / Vuong TA, Nguyen TT, Klank LT, Phung DC, Daisgaard A / Trop Med Int Health, Dec 2007; 12(Suppl2): pp 73-81
Kangkung can kill you: Hazards (and health benefits) of a noxious weed / StarOnLine: 15 Jan 2014
Effect of Different Drying Treatments and Solvent Ratios on Phytochemical Constituents of Ipomoea aquatica and Correlation with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Faridah Abas, Amin Ismail & Alfi Khatib / International Journal of Food Properties, 2016; Vol 19, Issue 12
Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity / ,  and Journal of Translational Medicine, 2015; 13:81 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-015-0430-3
Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ipomoea Aquatica Fractions in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic in Male Rat Model / Nagwa El-Sawi, Mahmoud Hefny Gad, Madeha Nooh Al-Seeni, Sabry Younes, El-Mewafy El-Ghadba and Soad Shaker Ali / Sohag J. Sci. 2017; 2(1): pp 9-17 / http://dx.doi.org/10.18576/sjs/020102

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