HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Zingibereaceae

Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poiret
Hai lian

Scientific names Common names
Bruguiera australis A.Cunn. Pototan (Tag.)
Bruguiera eriopetala Wight & Arn. Karakandang (Antique)
Bruguiera oxyphylla Miq. Tagasa (Tag.)
Bruguiera parietosa Griff. Black mangrove (Engl.)
Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poiret Upriver orange mangrove (Engl.)
Rhizophora australis (A,Cunn. ex Arn.) Steud.  
Rhizophora eriopetala (Wight & Arn.) Steud.  
Rhizophora polandra Blanco  
Rhizophora sexangula Lour.  
Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Note: There is a confusing use and sharing of English and local names for Philippine mangrove plants.

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Plaong prasak.
CHINA: Hai lian.
INDONESIA: Bakau tampusing, Busing, Mata buaya.
MALAYALAM: Swarnakandal.
MALAYSIA: Berus putut, Mata buaya, Tumu putih.
THAILAND: Khlak, Phagka hua sum, Prasak, Prasak-nu, Prasak daeng.
VIETNAM: Vet, Vet den, Vet du.

Gen info
- Bruguiera sexangula is the only Bruguiera species which sometimes form stilt roots. (1)

Bruguiera sexangula is a tree growing up to 33 m tall; trunk diameter up to 65-80 cm; buttresses up to 1 m high, tending to develop into plank-like non-arching stilt roots; pneumatophores knee-shaped, up to 45 cm long, forming horizontal and anchor roots. Bark smooth, greyish to pale brown with a few, large, corky lenticels, especially on the buttresses. Branching mostly sympodial. Leaves decussately opposite, elliptical to elliptical-oblong, rarely oblanceolate, 8-16 cm by 3-6 cm, pale green, entire, acute at both ends; petiole 1.5-5 cm long; stipules in pairs, 3.6-4 cm long, early caducous, green or yellowish. Flowers solitary, generally nodding, at anthesis 2.7-4 cm long; pedicel 6-12 mm long, green, yellow or brownish; calyx tubular with 10-12 lobes, yellow, yellow-brown or reddish, never bright red, tube 1-1.5 cm long, 2-lobed, whitish turning yellowish-brown, densely fringed with hairs along the outer margins, lobes half the length of the petal, each with a reflexed and obtuse apex bearing 1-3 bristles, up to 1.2 mm long and a distinct bristle in the sinus between the lobes; each petal embraces a pair of stamens; stamens 7-14 mm long; style filiform, 1.5-2.2 cm long, with 3-4 short branches. Fruit a berry, more or less distinctly ribbed, enclosed in calyx, 1.5-1.8 cm long; hypocotyl cigar-shaped, rather angular, 6-8 cm by 1.5 cm, with narrow blunt end. (1)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Occupies inland parts of mangrove forests, which are not frequently submerged. May be found along river bank; occasionally on sandy shores. (1)

- Also native to Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas I., Hainan, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (2)

- Phytochemical investigation yielded tannin, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones in various plant parts. (see study below) (3)
- Phytochemical studies have yielded hydrocarbons, lipids, phenolic compounds, protein, steroids, alkaloids, tannins. (4)
- Crude alkaloid mixtures from the bark of B. sexangula and B. exaristata yielded tropine and tropine esters of acetic, propionic (a new natural ester), n-butyric (a new natural ester), isobutyric,
α-methylbutyric or isovaleric, and benzoic acids. The major component from both mixtures was the new alkaloid, brugine, (+)-tropine 1,2-dithiolan-3-carboxylate. (5)
- Study isolated a new cytotoxic lanostane-type triterpenoid, sexangulic acid (1) . (6)

- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral properties.

Parts used
Fruit, root, leaves.


- In Sulawesi, fruit is cooked, then soaked overnight before it is eaten.
- Bark provides food flavoring.
- Fruit applied to shingles.
- Roots and leaves applied to burns.
- In India, juice from fruits used for treatment of sore eyes, shingles and burns. (8)
- Wood: Use as fuelwood; charcoal. Roots made into incense wood.
- Construction: Wood is moderately durable; used for poles and house construction. Used as fishing stakes.
- Bark: Bark yields tannin, flavoring, and an adhesive.
- Betel quid: In Malaysia and Indonesia, fruit sometimes used in the betel quid.

Antioxidant / Leaves and Branches:
Phytochemical investigation of Bruguiera sexangula and Connarus semidecandrus yielded tannin, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones in various plant parts. Bruguiera sexangula leaf extracts yielded highest total phenolic content (467.7 mg GAE/g) followed by branches (443.4 mg GAE/g). Strongest free radical scavenging activity was exhibited by extracts of branches of B. sexangula with IC50 of 8.62 µg/mL (DPPH) and 167 mmol Fe2+ equivalent/gram extract of leaves by FRAP method. Results suggest methanolic extracts of B. sexangula could be a significant source of natural antioxidants. (3)
Antitumor / Bark: Bruguiera sexangular bark extracts showed activity against two tumors, Sarcoma 180 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma (Loder and Russell, 1969). (4)
Antibacterial / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of 75 plant extracts from mature leaves and bark of seven mangrove plants (Bruguiera sexangula, A. marina, A. officinalis, E. agallocha, L. racemosa, and R apiculata) against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp. Ethyl acetate extracts of mature leaf, immature leaf and bark of Bruguiera sexangula exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All extracts showed more antibacterial activity against S. aureus than Proteus sp. (7)
Mangrove Endophytes / Antiviral: Two of the anthraquinones obtained from Nigrospora sp. isolated from  Bruguiera sexangula exhibited good prophylactic effects against human rhinoviruses. (8)
Antioxidant / Flavonoid Content / Leaves: In a study of five mangrove species for antioxidant activity and flavonoid content, the methanol extract of B. sexangula showed highest yield. It yielded highest TPC (total phenolic content) with 64.28 ± 3.05 mg GAE/g) and showed excellent antioxidant contents. B. sexangula methanol and water extract showed highest TFC than other species, 37.90 ± 4.76 QE/g and 30.53 ± 0.01 mg QE/g, respectively. On DPPH assay, B. sexangula hexane extract showed 91,67% inhibition. (9)


September 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Bruguiera sexangula / Bulon Le Island, Thailand /  Psumuseum / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rhizophoraceae : Bruguiera sexangula / Twigs / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo Co  /  [ref. DOL29028] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rhizophoraceae : Bruguiera sexangula leaf / Copyright © 2012 / by by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz)  [ref. DOL48539] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poiret / PROSEA: Plant Resources of South-East Asia
Bruguiera sexangula / Plants of the World Online
Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of Bruguiera sexangula and Connarus semidecandrus extracts in Kung Krabaen Bay / Planta Medica, Nov 2015; 81(16 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1565727
A review on potential bioactive phytochemicals for novel therapeutic applications with special emphasis on mangrove species / Sayantani Mitra, Nabatina Naskar, Punarbasu Chaudhuri / Phytomedicine Plus, Nov 2021; 1(4): 100107 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phyplu.2021.100107
Tumour inhibitory plants. The alkaloids of Bruguiera sexangula and Bruguiera exaristata (Rhizophoraceae) / J W Loder, G B Russell / Australian Journal of Chemistry, 1969; 22(6): pp 1271-1275 / DOI: 10.1071/CH9691271
Sexangulic acid, a new cytotoxic triterpenoid from the Chinese mangrove Bruguiera sexangula / Liang Li, Cai-Guo Huang, Chang-Yun Wang, Yue-Wei Guo / Natural Product Research, 2010; 24(11) /
DOI: 10.1080/14786410902940982
Antibacterial actiivity of some medicinal mangroves against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria
/ P D Abeysinghe / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010; 72(2): pp 167-172 /
DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.65019
Pharmacological profile of mangrove endophytes - A review / Salini G / Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 7: pp 6-15
Antioxidative activities and flavonoids content in leaves of selected mangrove species in Setiu Wetlands extracted using different solvents / Nur Hafizah Malik, Zamzahaila Mohd Zin, Mohamad Khairi Zainol / Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, Special Issue No 3, 2017 / ISSN: 1823-8556
Handbook of Mangroves in the Philippines - Panay / J H Primavera, Resurreccion Sadaba, Ma Junemie Lebata, Jon Altamirano

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT