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Family Leguminosae
Katanda
Cassia tora
SICKLEPOD
Jue ming
Scientific name  Common names
Cassia tora Linn.  Andadasi (Ilk.) 
Cassia obtusifolia Linn.  Andadasi-ñga-dadakkel (Ilk.)
Senna tora (L.) Roxb. Balatong-aso (Tag.) 
  Baho-baho (Bis.) 
  Halu-halu (Sul.) 
  Katandang-aso (Tag,) 
  Monggo-monggohan (Tag.) 
  Balatong (Tag.) 
  Foetic cassia (Engl.) 
  Coffee pod (Engl.)
  Sicklepod (Engl.)
  Sicklepod senna (Engl.)
  Stinking cassia (Engl.)
  Tora (Engl.)
  Sickle senna (Engl.)
  Wild senna (Engl.)
  Ch-ueh-ming tzu (Chin.)
Katanda is a shared common name by: (1) Katanda, Cassia tora, sicklepod (2) Akapulko, Cassia alata (3) Laguan, Euchrestia horsfieldii
Balatong-aso is shared by (1) Katanda, Cassia tora, and (2) Balatong-aso, Cassia occidentalis

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Tukhme panwar.
ASSAMESE : Bon medelua, Medeluwa.
BENGALI : Chakunda, Panevar.
BURMESE : Tan.kywè: , Tan.kywè:ka.lé:, Mo:kya.lak-hpak.
CHINESE: Jue ming, Xiao jue ming.
FRENCH : Cassier sauvage, Pois puant, Séné.
GUJARATI : Kawaria.
HINDI : Chakavat, Chakod, Chakunda, Chakvad, Chakwand, Charota, Edgaj, Prapunat, Tarkil.
KANNADA : Gandutogache, Tagache.
KOREAN: ho gyeol myeong, Gin gang nam cha.
LAOTIAN : Lap mun, Nha lap meun.
MALAYALAM : Chakramandrakam, Takara.
MARATHI: Takala, Tarva.
NEPALESE : Cakamake, Cakramandi, Carkor, Taper, Tapre.
ORIYA : Chakunda.
PERSIAN : Sangsaboyah.
POLISH : Stracze egipskie, Straczyniec.
PORTUGUESE : Fedegoso branco.
SANSKRIT : Chakramarda, Chakramardakah, Dadmari, Dadrughra, Edgajah, Padmatah, Tarkil, Taga.
SPANISH : Bicho, Brusca cimarrona, Ororuz.
TAMIL : Tagarai, Thagarai.
THAI : Chumhet thai.
URDU: Ergaj.
VIETNAMESE : Cây Muồng ngủ, Muồng lạc, Muồng ngủ, Muồng đồng tiền, Muồng hòe, Thảo quyết minh.

Botany
Katanda is a stout erect, smooth, rank-smelling, half-woody annual, 1 meter or less in height. Leaves are 8 to 12 centimeters long and pinnately compound with 6 leaflets. Leaves are furnished with glands on the main rachis between leaflets. Leaflets are oblong-ovate or obovate and 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are crowded, in pairs, in the axils of the upper leaves, and about 1.5 centimeter across. Calyx-tube is short; sepals are imbricate. Petals are 5, yellow, subequal. Stamens are 10, rarely all perfect, 3 to 5 being reduced to staminodes or sometimes absent, anthers mostly basifixed opening by terminal spores or with the slit more or less continuous downward. Ovary sessile or stalked. Fruits are slender pods, up to 15 centimeters long and 3 to 4 millimeters thick. Seeds are flattened in the same direction as the pod.

Distribution
- A very common weed throughout the Philippines, in settled areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
• Seeds yield tannins and dyes (yellow, blue and red).
• Volatile oil showed a high content of aliphatic acids (>75%) and anthraquinones.
• Seed analysis showed the following percentage composition: water, 27.2%; petroleum ether extract, 9.75%; ether extract, 0.86%; absolute alcohol extract, 1.63%, and watery extract, 20%.
• Plant yields emodin to which the medicinal properties are attributed to.
• Leaves yield a principle similar to cathartin.
• Seeds contain phytosterine and glucosenine.

• Phytochemical screening yielded glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins.

Properties
• Sweet tasting, slightly cooling.
• Diuretic, laxative, purgative.
• Mucilaginous and foetid smelling leaves are aperient, antiperiodic, antiseptic, alterative, febrifuge, anthelminthic, digestive.
• In Ayurveda, considered aperient, laxative, cardiotonic, anthelmintic, liver tonic, expectorant.


Parts utilized
· Seeds, leaves, roots.
· Collect pods from August to October when the seeds are about to ripen.
· Sun-dry, remove the pericarp before using.


Uses
Culinary
Edible wild vegetable.
• Leaves used as pot herb.
• Roasted seeds used as coffee substitute. In Mexico, used as substitute for coffee or for adulterating it.
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, the entire plant, in decoction, is used as purgative and vermifuge.
· Leaves and seeds used as a remedy for ringworm and scabies.
· Decoction of seeds used for hepatitis, edema associated with liver problems, hypertension, infantile convulsion, night blindness due to fever, habitual constipation.
· Infusion of leaves used for intestinal disorders. Decoction is mildly laxative.
· Poultice of seeds and leaves used for scabies, psoriasis, ringworm and eczema.
· Paste of the roots used for ringworm.
· Decoction of leaves used in children suffering from fever while teething.
· Leaves fried in castor oil are used as application to foul ulcers.
· In Africa and India, a traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcers. Pounded fermented leaves added to food or local gin and taken orally as purgative or anthelmintic. (17)
· leaves also used to hasten suppuration.
· Malays use decoction of leaves as a mild purgative or as a cure for coughs.
· In Ayurveda, seeds and leaves used for cough, leprosy, ringworm, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, bronchitis.
· In India, used for rheumatism and gout.
· In Indo-China, pods are used for dysentery and ophthalmia.
· Seeds, ground with sour buttermilk, used to relieve irritation of itchy eruptions.
Others
Pesticide: In organic farms in India, used as a natural pesticide.
Dye: In India, seeds also used in dyeing along with indigo.
• Used in pet food preparations.
• Gelling agent in air fresheners.

Studies
Antifungal / Chrysophanic Acid: Study of an aqueous paste of defatted seed powder isolated chrysophanic acid and other hydroxynathraquinone derivatives. The major antifungal compound, identified as chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, was active against Tricophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M gypseum, and Geotrichum candidum.
(2)
Antifungal: Study showed ethanol extract of CT to have potent antifungal activities against Microsporum canis and C albicans, suggesting a potential as a antifungal agent.
Immunomodulatory / Anthraquinones: Anthraquinones of edible wild vegetable Cassia tora stimulate proliferation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-gamma or interleukin 10. (3)
Antioxidant / Volatile Oil: The study of chemical components of the volatile oil from C. tora showed antioxidant activity of potential use for hyperlipidemia, hypertension and inflammatory disease. (4)
Lipid Effects / Fiber Supplement: Effects of Cassia tora Fiber Supplement on Serum Lipids in Korean Diabetic Patients: Cassia tora fiber supplement can help improved serum lipids in T2DM. (5)
Lipid Effects: Ethanolic extract of seeds of CT decreased total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL.
Hypotensive / Vagal Reflex: A possible reflex mechanism of hypotensive action of extract from Cassia tora seeds: Study suggests a possible vagal reflex that alters the vasomotor tone of the sympathetic NS. (6)
Anthelmintic: Study demonstrated the anthelmintic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of Cassia tora. (7)
Antimicrobial: Study on various extracts of Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Mormodica charantia showed activity against all tested bacteria, Staph aureus being more susceptible to the aqueous extracts.
(9)
Antihypertensive: Study of the methanol extracts from the raw and roasted seeds of Cassia tora exhibited significant inhibitory properties against ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme). (10)
Aldose Reductase / Diabetes: Study of seed extracts of CT isolated nine anthraquinones, with compounds 6 and 8 exhibiting inhibitory activities on protein glycation and aldose reductase. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the methanol extract of leaves of C. tora exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities against carrageenin, histamine, serotonin and dextran-induced rat hind paw edema. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study in albino rats showed the protective effects of Cassia tora against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity attributed to its effective free radical scavenging that accounts for its antioxidant property. (13)
Anti-Cancer: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential. The plant extract induced a marked concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation, reduced DNA content and apoptosis in HeLa. Results indicated that C. tora is effective against free radical mediated diseases. (14)
Anti-Diabetes: Study results indicate that constituents of C. tora seeds have a beneficial effect on postprandial blood glucose control which may be partly due to mediation by stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreas of diabetic rats. (15) suppressing EROD, NADPH CYP-450 reductase in cells and promoting GST activity. (16)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antioxidant activity using various assays. Results showed a reduction of DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The potent in vitro antioxidant activity may be attributed to phenolic content of leaves. (17)
Antioxidant Activity / Topical Cream of Leaves Extract: Study evaluated the in vivo antioxidant activity of a newly formulated O/W cream of of methanolic extract of leaves. Results showed topical O/W creams prevented oxidative stress induced in rats by exposure to UV-B light through antioxidant activity. (18)
Trypsin / Protease Inhibitory Activity: Study investigated the protease inhibitory activity of Cassia tora against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Proteases play an important role in many human, plant, and insect pathogens. Results showed crude extracts with strong antitryptic, bacterial, and fungal protease inhibitory activity. The Cassia tora inhibitor may attenuate microbial proteases and may be used a phytoprotecting agent. (19)
Novel Cancer Therapeutic / Leaves: Study of methanolic leaf extract of C. tora showed a concentration dependent lipid peroxidation inhibition. The antiproliferative activity of CTME with anticancer drug Cisplatin was studied using HeLa (human cervical cancer cells). The plant induced marked concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation, reduced DNA content and apoptosis in HeLa cells. (20)
Antiasthmatic: Study evaluated the antiasthmatic activity of C. tora leaves. A hydroalcoholic extract showed bronchodilator activity, significantly inhibiting the contractile effect of histamine in isolated goat tracheal chain. (21)
Anti-Psoriatic Activity: Study evaluated the anti-psoriatic activity of newly formulated oil in water (O/W) creams of methanol extract of leaves using Mouse tail model. O/W creams containing a methanol extract of leaves showed potent antipsoriatic activity, significantly and dose-dependently decreasing relative epidermal thickness of animal skin. (22)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves for antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract revealed anthraquinone glycosides, phenolic compounds and saponin glycosides; the aqueous extract yielded glycosides and phenolic compounds, saponins glycosides. Both extracts exhibited significant antibacterial activity. Ciprofloxacin was used as reference drug. (23)
Antimicrobial / Seeds: In vitro study evaluated extract and prepared test ointment for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial species (S. aureus and E. coli) and two fungal species (A. niger and M. gypseum). The benzene extract was most potent against Staphylococcus aureus and A. niger. Phytochemical analysis of the seeds showed it mainly contained anthraquinones. (24)
Anti-Ulcer / Antioxidant: In a study on Wistar albino rats, a seed extract showed potent anti-ulcerogenic properties probably via cytoprotective mechanism from its antioxidant properties. (25)
Neuropharmacological Effects: Study evaluated the neuropharmacological effect of leaves in mice. Ethanol and aqueous extracts showed significant activity in the behavioral model of hole board test. Chlorpromazine was the standard drug reference. (26)
Anthelmintic Activity / Stem Bark: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extracts of Cassia tora stem bark for anthelmintic potential against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Both extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Albendazole was the reference drug. (27)
Mucilage / Suspending Agent: Cassia tora mucilage exhibited the strongest suspending ability. The mucilage can be a stabilizer of choice if high viscosity is desired, and serve as a good thickening agent both in the pharmaceutical and food industries. (28)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 
In the cybermarket, available in a variety of commercial products.


Last Update July 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leguminosae - Cassia tora - Cassia filiqua quadrangulari./ From: Hortus elthamensis seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornatissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard / by Johann Jacob Dillenius. London, the author, 1732. Engraving (uncut, unpressed sheet 300 x 485 mm; impression 200 x 263 mm). / Meemelink
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Senna tora Blanco1.122-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Charota or Chakod (Cassia tora L. syn. Cassia obtusifolia L.)
(2)

Isolation of chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, the major antifungal principle of Cassia tora. / Acharya TK, Chatterjee IB. / Lloydia. 1975 May-Jun;38(3):218-20.
(3)
Anthraquinones of edible wild vegetable Cassia tora stimulate proliferation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes and secretion of interferon-gamma or interleukin 10
(4)
CHEMICAL COMPONENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE VOLATILE OIL FROM CASSIA TORA L. SEED PREPARED BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION /
YUNFENG ZHANG, DONG WEI,* SIYUAN GUO, XUEWU ZHANG, MINGFU WANG, FENG CHEN / Journal of Food Lipids
Volume 14, Issue 4, pages 411–423, December 2007 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00096.x
(5)
Effects of Cassia tora Fiber Supplement on Serum Lipids in Korean Diabetic Patients / Sung-Hee Cho, Tae-Hee Kim, Nan-Hee Lee, Ho-Sang Son, Il-Jin Cho, and Tae-Youl Ha. Journal of Medicinal Food. Fall 2005, 8(3): 311-318./ doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.311.
(6)
A possible reflex mechanism of hypotensive action of extract from Cassia tora seeds / Koo A, Chan WS, Li KM. / Am J Chin Med (Gard City N Y). 1976 Autumn;4(3):249-55.
(7)
Hypolipidemic activity of seeds of Cassia tora Linn / Umesh K. et al / . Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 249-252 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.007
(8)
In vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora / International Journal of ChemTech Research / CODEN( USA): IJCRGG ISSN : 0974-4290
Vol.1, No.2, pp 177-179, April-June 2009
(9)
Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis / Roopashree TS, Raman Dang et al / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 1(3), pp. 20-28, Sep/Oct 2008
(10)
Inhibitory activities of Cassia tora and its anthraquinone constituents on angiotensin-converting enzyme. / Hyun, Sook Kyung, Lee, Hyang et al / Phytotherapy research / 2009-Feb; vol 23 (issue 2) : pp 178-84 /
(11)
Anthraquinones from the Seeds of Cassia tora with Inhibitory Activity on Protein Glycation and Aldose Reductase / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 30 (2007) , No. 11 2207

(12)
Studies on antiinflammatory effect of Cassia tora leaf extract (fam. Leguminosae) / Tapan Kumar Maity, Subhash C Mandal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 12 Issue 3, Pages 221 - 223 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199805)12:3<221::AID-PTR221>3.0.CO;2-L
(13)
Hepatoprotective effects of Cassia tora on CCl4 induced liver damage in albino rats / A Vetrivel Rajan, N Shanmugavalli et al / Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.2 No 3 (Mar. 2009)
(14)
Leaves of Cassia tora as a novel cancer therapeutic – An in vitro study / C. S. Rejiya, T R Cibin and Annie Abrahan / Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 23, Issue 6, September 2009, Pages 1034-1038 / doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.010
(15)
Effect of butanol fraction from Cassia tora L. seeds on glycemic control and insulin secretion in diabetic rats / Jeongsu Nam and Hyunju Choi / Nutr Res Pract. 2008 Winter; 2(4): 240–246, Publ online 2008 December 31 / doi: 10.4162/nrp.2008.2.4.240.
(16)
Antioxidant Activity and Antigenotoxicity of Cassia tora
/ Gow-Chin Yen and Chi-Hao Wu /
(17)
In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Cassia tora Linn. / Sirappuselvi S. and Chitra M. / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 1(6), 57-61, October (2012)
(18)
In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Topical Cream of Cassia tora L. Leaves Extract / V. Gupta1 D. S. Rathore, Niraj P. Kansara, and A. M. Badiger / Dataset Papers in Pharmacology, Vol 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.7167/2013/243949
(19)
A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract / Vinayak R Tripathi, Shailendra Kumar, Satyendra K Garg / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, July 2011, 11:56
(20)
Leaves of Cassia tora as a novel cancer therapeutic – An in vitro study / C.S. Rejiya, T.R. Cibin, Annie Abraham / Toxicology in Vitro, Vol 23, Issue 6, Sept 2009, Pp 1034–1038 /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.010
(21)
Preclinical Evaluation and Antiasthmatic Activity of Cassia Tora Linn. Leaves / Tamhane Adesh S et al / IJRAP 3(2), Mar-Apr 2012.
(22)
Cassia tora L. Creams Inhibit Psoriasis in Mouse Tail Model / Manmohan Singhal* and Niraj Kansara / Pharmaceutical Crops, 2012, 3, 1-6
(23)
PHARMACOLOGY ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CASSIA TORA LEAVES / R.T. Chavan∗, V.L. Deshmukh and A.S. Kadam / Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(5): 12-14
(24)
Evaluating Cassia tora Linn. Seeds for their Antimicrobial Potential with Special Reference to Skin Infections / Pharmacy Infopedia
(25)
Evaluation of Cassia tora Seeds for their Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity / N.S. Gill, A. Sharma, R. Arora and Dr. M. Bali / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011, Vol 11, No 2, pp 96-101 / DOI: 10.3923/jms.2011.96.101
(26)
Study on phytochemical and neuropharmacological effects of cassia tora leaves / Mohiuddin, Mohammed / Dissertation / Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka,Bangalore
(27)
In vitro anthelmintic activities of cassia tora stem bark / Swati Pokale*, Sagar Shedage / Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2(3), 2011, 291-294
(28)
Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of Cassia tora Mucilage on Sulphadimidine Suspension / A.S. Mann*, N.K. Jain and M.D. Kharya / Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, 63-67
(29)
Sorting Senna names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.


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