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Family Dilleniaceae

Katmon
Dillenia indica Blanco
PHILIPPINE CATMON

Scientific names Common names
Dillenia catmon Elmer Balale (Ibn.)
Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe Bihis (Ig.)
Dillenia philippinensis var. pubifolia Merr. Biskan (Ig.)
  Bolobayauak (P. Bis.)
  Dingin (Sbl.)
  Kalambugui (Lan.)
  Kambug (Sul.)
  Katmon (Tag., Bis., Pamp., Bik.)
  Kalambok (Bag.)
  Kalambug (Bag.)
  Palali (Ilk., Ibn., Sub., Pang.)
  Palale (Ibn.)
  Pamamalien (Pang.)
  Philippine catmon (Engl.)
  Philippine dillenia (Engl.)
 
Catmon (Katmon) has two entries in Quisumbing's compilation. Indian catmon (Dillenia indica Linn.) and Katmon (Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe, Dillenia indica Blanco, and Dillenia speciosa Blanco). The same compilation lists the latter as indigenous to the Philippines.
Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe is an accepted name The Plant List
Some compilations lists Dillenia indica (Indian catmon) and Dillenia speciosa (Philippine catmon) as synonyms.
See: Indian Catmon


Botany
Katmon is a tree reaching a height of 6 to 15 meters, smooth or nearly so. Leaves are leathery, shining, ovate, elliptic or oblong-ovate, 12 to 25 centimeters long, and coarsely toothed at the margins. Flowers are white, large, soft, fleshy, and green, 6 to 8 centimeters in diameter, with large fleshy sepals tightly enclosing the true fruit.

Distribution
- According to Quisumbing's compilation, found only in the Philippines, in forests, at low and medium altitudes.

Constituents
- Study of air-dried leaves of Dillenia philippinensis yielded betulnic acid and 3-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. (See study below) (1)
- Study of leaves yielded 11 compounds including one new sulfated glucoside and a new seco-A-ring oleanane-type triterpenoid. (See study below) (2)
- Air-dried leaves yielded betulinic acid.

Properties
- Leaves and bark are laxative and astringent.
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic properties.

Parts utilized
- Fruit, leaves, bark.

Uses
Edibility
• Fruit contains a soft, fleshy, green and edible pulp, with the flavor of a green, sour apple.
• Used for making sauces and jams; also used for flavoring fish.
• Fruit when cooked, used as vegetable.
Folkloric
• The acid juice of the fruit, mixed with sugar, is used for coughs.
• Fruit decoction used for cough.
• Also employed for cleansing the hair.

• In Sabah, young leaves or stem bark pounded and applied as paste on swellings and wounds.
• Elsewhere, sugared fruit juice used as cooling beverage for fevers; also, as cardiotonic.
• Leaves and bark used as laxative and astringent.

Others
Red dye: A red dye is obtained from the tree bark.

Studies
Antimicrobial Triterpenes / Leaves:
Study of air-dried leaves of Dillenia philippinensis yielded betulnic acid and 3-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. The two compounds exhibited moderate activity against fungus Candida albicans and slight antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. Compound 2 showed slight activity against T. mentagrophytes. (1)
Glucoside / Triterpenoid: Study of leaves yielded 11 compounds including one new sulfated glucoside and a new seco-A-ring oleanane-type triterpenoid. Anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activity were examined. (2)
Betulinic Acid / Hypoglycemic / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Antibacterial: Air-dried leaves yielded betulinic acid. Preliminary study in mice showed a hypoglycemic effect, an anti-inflammatory effect evidenced by inhibition of carrageenan-induced pleurisy, analgesic activity with antagonism of tail-flick and acetic-acid induced writhing responses, and dose-depended inhibition in abdominal constriction response. Betulinic acid also showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis and antifungal activity against C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Updated September 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antimicrobial triterpenes from Dillenia philippinensis / Consolacion Y. Ragasa, Agnes Alimboyoguen, Chien-Chang Shen / The Philippine Scientist 01/2009; 46(1):78-87. / DOI:10.3860/psci.v46i0.1454
(2)
Chemical studies on an endemic Philippine plant: sulfated glucoside and seco-A-ring triterpenoids from Dillenia philippinensis. / Macahig RA, Matsunami K, Otsuka H. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2011;59(3):397-401.
(3) Dillenia philippinensis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(4)
Katmon's phytochemical constituents and biological activities studied / Agnes B. Alimboyoguen, Sally A. Roguel and Jenny Q. Mojica / PCAARRD

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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