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Family Gramineae
Bambusa vulgaris

Da fo du zhu

Scientific names   Common names 
Arundarbor blancoi (Steud.) Kuntze   Bolinau (P. Bis.) 
Arundarbor fera (Ojen) Kuntze   Burirau (P. Bis.)
Arundarbor monogyna (Blanco) Kuntze   Butong (Bik.)
Arundarbor striata (Lindl.) Kuntze   Kabaloan (Bik.)
Arundo fera Oken   Kauayan (Ibn.)
Bambusa auriculata Kurz  Kauayan-china (Tag.)
Bambusa blancoi Steud.  Kauayan-kiling (Ilk., Tag.)
Bambusa fera (Oken) Miq.  Kauayan-kiting (Sbl.)
Bambusa monogyna Blanco  Kiling (Ilk., Tag.)
Bambusa nguyenii Ohrnb.  Lunas (P. Bis.)
Bambusa sieberi Briseb.  Marobal (Bik.)
Bambusa striata Lodd. ex Lindl.  Patong ( Tagb.)
Bambusa surinamensis Rupr.  Patung (Sul.)
Bambusa thouarsii Kunth  Sinambang (C. Bis.)
Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Taui-anak (Tag.)
Gigantochloa auriculata (Kurz) Kurz Taring (Tagb.)
Leleba vulgaris (Schrad. ex J.C.Wendl.) Nakai Teuanak (Tag.)
Nastus thouarsii (Kunth) Raspail Tiling (P. Bis.)
Nastus viviparus Raspail Bamboo (Engl.)
Oxytenanthera auriculata (Kurz) Prain Buddha's common bamboo (Engl.)
Phyllostachys strata (Lodd. ex Lindl) Nakai Giant buddha's belly bamboo (Engl.)
Kauayan is a shared name for two species of bamboo under genus Bambusa: Bambusa spinosa and Bambusa vulgaris.
Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Da fo du zhu, Huand jin jian bi zhu.
MALAY: Bambu blenduk.

Kauayan-kiling is an erect, loosely tufted plant. Stems are yellowish or yellowish-green, up to 17 meters high, 15 centimeters in diameter, naked at the base, without spiny branches. Leaves are lanceolate, up to 35 centimeters long, 4 centimeters wide, often smaller. Spikelets are oblong, clustered along the branches of the inflorescence, about 1.5 centimeters long. This species is smaller than Bambusa spinosa and the culms have thinner walls.

- At low and medium altitudes in settled areas of most islands and provinces, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Probably introduced.
- Now pantropic in cultivation.

- Rich source of natural silica.

- Bamboo shoots are rich in potassium, high in phenolic acids.
- Yields flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins and alkaloids.
- Petroleum ether extract of leaves yielded phytosterols and tannins. (15)
- Leaf extract yielded carbohydrate, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterols and triterpenoids
- Methanol extract yielded carbohydrates, tannins, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, volatile oils, steroids, and proteins. (see study below) (16)
- Nutrient analysis
of aqueous extract of leaves yielded 10.75% moisture, 10.34% ash, 8.45% crude protein, 13.13% crude fat, 37.60% crude fiber and 19.73% carbohydrate content. Mineral analysis revealed generally high levels of Mg, Na, K, and Ca. (see study below) (18)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded saponins, general glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, and coumarins. (24)

- Abortifacient, antidiarrheal.
- Considered astringent, emmenagogue, vulnerary, febrifuge, antidiarrheal.
- Extracts yield antioxidant and vitamins.
- A rich source of flavone, phenolic acid, lactone and polyose.

- Studies have shown antibacterial, abortifacient, hypotensive, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antifertility properties.

Parts utilized
Stems, roots, leaves.

Edibility / Nutrition
- The young shoots (labong) are also edible as vegetables, but inferior to B. spinosa.
- In the Philippines, used for making achara.
- Decoction or infusion of roots used for kidney problems.
- The aqueous sap of the plant used for phthisis.
- In Nigeria, reported use as abortifacient.
- In Indian folk medicine, used in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.
- In India, leaves use for anti-fertility effects, extract taken orally to reduce sperm count. (21)
- Construction / Paper: A variability study on strength and fiber properties of B. vulgaris showed a potential for using bamboo for the production of paper and as building and structural material. (19) Stems are used for building houses, furniture and bridges, but inferior to B. spinosa.
- Cosmetics: Used as ingredient in skin care products. Also, as tooth polisher.

- Veterinary: In Trinidad and Tobago, dog owners use the leaves to treat diarrhea and control ectoparasites such as ticks and fleas.

Abortifacient / Leaves: Study of aqueous extract of B. vulgaris leaves on pregnant Dutch rabbits substantiates abortifacient potential probably through changes in the implantation site, altered hormone levels and partly, estrogenicity. (1)
Toxicological Studies: No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any of the animals during the study. The absence of overt toxicity such as increase in maternal deaths and clinical signs suggest the extract was not toxic when administered repeatedly to pregnant rabbits in the first 9 days of pregnancy. (2 )
Hypotensive Effect: Study in rabbits of macerated aqueous extract from sheets of B. vulgaris showed a hypotensive effect that was gradual, reversible and dose-dependent.
Antibacterial: Methanolic extracts from air-dried plant material showed strong antimicrobial activity against S. epidermis and S. aureus. Among gram negative bacteria, maximum activity was observed on E. coli. • Study showed B. vulgaris had antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A methanolic extract inhibited the growth of multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus. (27)
Antimalarial: In a study of 30 species of plants belonging to 28 genera in 20 families, five, including Bambusa vulgaris, were documented for the first time for their use in the treatment of malaria. Study results provide basis for further pharmacologic studies. (11) In-vitro study of 14 plant species used in Cuba showed two extracts, B. vulgaris and Punica granatum as active against P. falcifarum. (11)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of methanolic extract of B. vulgaris on rats and mice showed dose-dependent and significant inhibition of inflammation in all the experimental models. Phytochemical screening revealed flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins and alkaloids. There was no mortality in doses up to 2000 mg/kg p.o. Phytochemical characterization of B vulgaris yielded triterpenoids, polar compounds with phenol free groups and fluorescent metabolites as major phytocompounds. (10)
Pulp and Paper-making: Study results showed that Bambusa vulgaris from Ghana with fiber length of 2.65mm and Runkel Ratio of 1.03 is suitable for papermaking. (13)
Phytochemicals / Acute Toxicity Study: Phytochemical screening of a leaf extract of B. vulgaris yielded carbohydrate, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterols and triterpenoids. Acute toxicity study on Swiss albino mice showed the extract to be safe till 2000 mg/kg oral dose, with no lethality of adverse toxic signs during the 14 days observation period. (14)
Anti-Diabetic / Leaves / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of petroleum ether extract of Bambusa vulgaris in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract was non-toxic up to 2000 mg/kbw dose. Results showed significant dose dependent lowering of fasting blood sugar comparable to standard drug Glibenclamide. (15)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves of B. vulgaris for antimicrobial activity . Maximum activity was found on B. subtilis among Gram-positive bacteria, and E. coli among Gram-negative bacteria. (see constituents above) (16)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B. vulgaris leaf for anthelmintic activity in rabbits. The ethanolic extract appeared to be more potent in expelling ova of Ascaris worm. (17)
Antimicrobial / Fortification: Antimicrobial screening of bamboo leaf extract was active against Lactobacillus spp. Fortification with orange and pineapple juice enhanced the inhibitory effect against E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. (18)
Potential Hepatotoxic / Leaves: Study showed hepatotoxic concerns for the indiscriminate use of aqueous crude extract of B. vulgaris because of some toxic constituents that may cause overload of the endogenous biotransformation capacity of hepatic cells. (20)
• Antifertility / Effect on Sperm Count / Leaves: Study evaluated the sperm reducing potential of V. vulgaris leaf extract in male Wistar rats. Results showed 42% and 31% reduction in sperm count at 14 and 28 days, respectively, at 250 mg/kg dose, and 60% reduction at 500 mg/kg dose, with almost complete reversal of activity 12 days after cessation of treatment. (21)
• Wound Healing / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing (incision and excision wound models) and anti-inflammatory carrageenan induced paw edema) potential of ethanol extract of B. vulgaris leaves in rats. Ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions in 5% w/w ointment formulation showed wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by inhibition of paw edema and acceleration of cutaneous wound healing. Antioxidant property was also seen as evidenced by increase in antioxidant levels. (22)
• Fodder: Study suggests the phytochemicals in bamboo leaves are not significantly (≥0.05) affected by air-drying and may be fed to livestock either in fresh state or in dry state as hay. The taxiphyllin isolated from bamboo shoots is likely the cyanogenic glycoside present in leaves but the deleterious effects on herbivores is not established. (see toxicity concerns below) (25)
• Bamboo as Eco-Friendly Roofing Material: Bamboo is a giant grass that can absorb more carbon dioxide in comparison to same-sized trees. Study of bamboo species in Ghana showed that B. vulgaris has the best properties for construction at four years of age and treatment will extend to last two years longer. Study suggests building with four year old bamboos and to use bamboo instead of wood or traditional bamboo roofs as alternatives to corrugated bamboo roofing sheets. (26)
• Larvicidal / Aedes aegypti / Leaves: Study evaluated the larvicidal effect of bamboo leaf extracts on Aedes aegypti. Statistically, (p≤1.000) there is no difference in efficacy among 50%, 75%, and 100% bamboo leaf extracts, while in control, all larvae developed into adult mosquitoes. (28)

Toxicity concerns
Veterinary Toxicity: Toxicity was reported on horses feeding on bamboo leaves during times of pasture scarcity. Neurological illness was associated with ingestion of large amounts of leaves of B. vulgaris f. vulgaris. In the study, the disease showed no relationship to poisoning by hydrocyanic acid.   (6)
• Taxiphyllin: Occurrence of taxiphyllin is a cyanogenic glycoside present in raw shoots and its harmful effect on human health calls for innovative processing to eliminate the toxic compound without alteration of its nutrient reserve. (23)
• Cyanogenic Glycosides: Cyanogenic glycosides are stored in inactive forms in plant vacuoles, becoming toxic when eaten by herbivores, with breakdown of cell membranes allowing the glycosides to come in contact with enzymes in the cytoplasm, releasing hydrogen cyanide which may block cellular respiration and lead to tissue damage. There are about 25 known cyanogenic glycosides from 2650 plant species, including amydalin (almonds), dhurrin (sorghum), linamarin (cassava, lima beans), prunasin (stone fruit) and taxiphyllin (bamboo shoots). Taxiphyllin isolated from bamboo shots is likely the cynogenic gycoside present in leaves. (24)

Cultivated or wildcrafted.
Extracts, oils and supplements in the cybermarket.

Updated January 2018 / May 2015
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Abortifacient potentials of the aqueous extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in pregnant Dutch rabbits / Musa T Yakubu, Bimbo Bukoye / Contraception 80 (2009) 308–313
Toxicological implications of aqueous extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in pregnant Dutch rabbits
/ Yakubu MT et al / Human and Experimental Toxicology 28(9) 591–598, 2009 / DOI: 10.1177/0960327109106975
Bambusa Vulgaris bamboo plant health benefit / alphalipoic-acid.org
Bambusa vulgaris L. 'Vittata' (Poaceae) / National Tropical Botanical Garden
Hypotensive Effect of Aqueous Extract of Bambusa Vulgaris Sheets on the Arterial Pressure of Rabbits / N'guessan Koffi, Zirihi Guede Noel et al / American Journal of Scientific Research, No 2 (2009), pp.60-72
Poisoning of Horses by Bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris / José Diomedes Barbosa, Carlos Magno C. de Oliveira et al / Veterinary Review /
Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts Of Bamboo Shoots (Bambusa vulgaris) / Article Base
Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. / Asase A, Akwetey GA, Achel DG / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jun 16;129(3):367-76. Epub 2010 Apr 9
/ Fabgohun Emmanuel, David Oluwole et al / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Page 192Volume 5, Issue 3, November – December 2010; Article-035
Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves / William Carey, Jeevan Mani Babu Dasi et al / Int J Green Pharm, 2009;3:234-8.
In vitro ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF SOME SELECTED CUBAN MEDICINAL PLANTS / Aymé Fernández-Calienes VALDÉS, Judith Mendiola MARTÍNEZ et al / Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 52(4):197-201, July-August, 2010 / doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652010000400006
Sorting Bambusa names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Phytochemical investigation and acute toxicity study of Methanol extract of bambusa vulgaris leaves / Malligeswari Krishnamurthi Senthil kumar* and Suseela / Journal of Pharmacy Research ( New Journal BioMedRx), Vol 4, No 2 (2011)
Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats /
/ Senthilkumar M. K*, Sivakumar P, Faisal Changanakkattil, Rajesh V, Perumal P. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2011; 3(3): 208-210
Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Activity of Bambusa Vulgaris Leaves / Sravanprasad macherla*, Manoranjan sabat, Sharadanalla, Venkateshwarlu.G , E.Rajeshwari / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHYTOTHEARPY RESEARCH, Volume 2 Issue 2 2012
Comparative Studies of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Bambusa Vulgaris for Anthelmintic Activities in Infected Rabbits / Barnabas, B. B.; Olutimayin A. T; Danazumi, N. Jiya, A. G. and Adebayo, O. J. /
IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. III (Nov -Dec. 2014), PP 40-43
Proximate analysis and antimicrobial activities of Bambusa vulgaris L. leaves' beverage / OWOKOTOMO, I. A.* and OWOEYE, G. / African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(21), pp. 5030-5032, 5 October, 2011 / DOI: 10.5897/AJAR10.1106
VARIABILITY STUDIES ON STRENGTH AND FIBRE PROPERTIES OF Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. FOR PANEL PRODUCTS / Kehinde Sesan AINA, Sylvester Ehiagwinah AREGHAN, Ifedayo Micheal ADENIYI, Oluwaseyi John ALAO, Edward Olusola OSUNTUYI /
Pro Ligno, Vol 8; Issue 1, 2012
Effect of administration of aqueous extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves on some biochemical variables of rat liver and serum / R. O. Arise*, A. Igunnu and S. O. Malomo / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(9), pp. 1622-1626, 4 May, 2011
Anti-fertility activity of Bambusa vulgaris aqueous leaf extract in male Wistar rats / Gideon O Alade, Tolulope O Alade and Olanrewaju R Omobuwajo / Natural Products Chemistry and Research / 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products, October 26-28, 2015 Hyderabad, India / DOI: 10.4172/2329-6836.C1.007
Preliminary investigation for wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in rats / Santram Lodhi, Alok P Jain, Gopal Rai, Awesh K Yadav / Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Vol 7, Issue 1, March 2016: pp 14-22

Multipurpose Uses of Bamboo Plants: A Review / Hossain M.F.*, Islam M.A. and Numan S.M. / International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 4(12), 57-60, December (2015)
Phytochemical constituents of the leaves of three bamboo (Poaceae) species in Ghana. / G. Y. Coffie, C. Antwi-Boasiako, N. A. Darkwa / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 2 (6): 34-38
Phytochemical constituents of the leaves of three bamboo (Poaceae) species in Ghana. / G. Y. Coffie, C. Antwi-Boasiako, N. A. Darkwa / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 2 (6): 34-38
Bambusa vulgaris as a roof material: A field study about bamboo age, treatment and the possibility to build with bamboo in Ghana / Holmström, Emelie / Thesis / Umea Universitet
Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts Of Bamboo Shoots (Bambusa vulgaris)
LARVICIDAL EFFECT OF Bambusa vulgaris (BAMBOO) LEAF EXTRACTS ON Aedes aegypti (Yellow Fever Mosquito) / Raffy A Aranjuez and Edzel Jeri C De Los Reyes / Thesis, Ocr 2015 / De La Salle University, Bach of Science in Human Biology
Bambusa vulgaris / Synonyms / The Plant Lisy

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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