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Family Rutaceae
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr.

Xi ye huang pi

Scientific names Common names
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. Anis (Tag.)
Cookia anisum-olens Blanco Danglais (Bag.)
Accepted infraspecifics (3) Kandulong (Sub.)
Clausena anisum-olens subsp. anisum-olens Kayumanis (Tag.)
Clausena grandifolia Merr. Kalomata (Tag.)
Clausena laxifolia Quisumb. & Merr. Kamañgianis (Tag.)
Clausena loheri Merr. Maisipaisi (Tag.)
Clausena palawanensis Elmer  
Clausena san-ki (Perr.) Molino  
Clausena todayensis Elmer  
Clausena warburgii G.Perkins  
Illicium san-ki Perr.  
Clausena anisum-olens subsp. calciphila (B.C.Stone) Molino  
Clausena calciphila B.C.Stone  
Clausena san-ki var. calciphila (B.C.Stone)  
Clausena anisum-olens subsp. mollis (Merr.) Molino  
Clausena mollis Merr.  
Clausena san-ki var. mollis (Merr.) Molino  
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Anis is a common name shared by Clausea anisum-olen (kayumanis), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice), Foeniculum vulgare (Haras, fennel).

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Xi ye huang pi.

Gen info
- Clausena is a genus of flowering plants in the citrus family, Rutaceae. It was first identified by Dutch botanist Nicolaas Laurens Burman in 1768. (16)
- Clausena was named for Norwegian clergyman Peder Clausson Friis (1545-1614), the translator of the Icelandic historian and poet, Snorri Sturluson. (16)
- Clausena anisum-olens was studied in Indonesia around World War II under the name Clausena anisata Hook.f. The rutaceous tree whose leaves contain an essential oil of almost pure anethole is identified as a cu
ltivar of the Philippine species Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. The origin of the cv. can be traced back to 1820, when French botanist Perrottet collected it from Manila and brought them back to Paris via La Réunion. (15)

Kayumanis is a small tree up to 3 to 6 meters in height. Leaves are 20 to 30 centimeters long, with 7 to 11 leaflets which are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Panicles are 15 to 20 centimeters long, terminal, and in the upper axils. Flowers are greenish, white, fragrant, 5-parted, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is nearly spherical or ovoid, about 1 centimeter in diameter, whitish when mature.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In forests, at low and medium altitudes, in Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga, Batangas, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Masbate, Basilan and Mindanao, ascending to 1,500 meters.

- Also native to Borneo and Taiwan.
- Introduced and reportedly naturalized in China.

- Distillation of the leaves yield a colorless oil with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
- The volatile oil contains methyl clavicol.
- The chemical composition of the oil varies among individual plants, from almost pure methyl chavicol (estragol) to almost pure anethol. A minor component is anisaldelhyde.
- Analysis of aqueous extract yielded tannins and saponins.
- Study isolated a new cyclopeptide, clausenain.

- Essential oils from stems roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers yielded 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole. The main types of the compounds are aromatic hydrocarbons, alkane, olefin and fatty acids. (9)
- 100 kg. of fresh leaves yield 1.6 - 2 kg of oil. One ha estimates a possible essential oil yield of 350-750 kg per year.
- Study of fruits isolated 18 carbazole alkaloids (1-18), containing three new ones, clausenanisines A-C (1-3), and three new naturally occurring carbazome alkaloids, clausenanisines D-F (4-6), and 12 known analogues (7-18). (see study below) (18)

- Leaves when crushed are aromatic.
- Alcoholic extracts have a strong anise-like odor.
- Oil extracted from the leaves is inactive, with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
- Study suggests hepatoprotective and antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, PTPB1 and α-glucosidase inhibitory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, repellent properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves and fruits.

- Leaves used as a condiment in preparing local dishes and beverages.
- Essential oil from the leaves considered a potential substitute of anise oil for the making of "anisado," a local alcoholic beverage.
- Fruits are edible. Fresh ripe fruits are extremely popular seasonal fruits in south China.
- In the Philippines, decoction of roots and fruits used for cough with fever.
- Decoction of leaves used for nausea of pregnancy.
- Leaves are stuffed in pillows for its soporofic effect.
- Leaves used in baths for rheumatism.
- In China, the leaves and twigs are used for the treatment of dysentery and arthritis.
- Cigarette flavoring: Leaves also used to flavor cigarettes.
- Oil: Essential oil is a potential cheap source of natural anethol.

Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Antifungal:
Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins: anisucumarin A and B. The EtOH extract of Clausena anisum-olens showed antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. Anisucumarin A and B failed to show detectable antifungal activity. (1)
Octapeptide: Study isolated a new cyclic octapeptide, clausenain B, a phenylalanin-rich cyclic octapeptide. (2)
Hekumarone: Study isolated a new O-terpenoidal coumarin, hekumarone, from the leaves and twigs. Coumarins are considered characteristic and distinguishable chemical markers for the Rutaceae family. (4)
Insecticidal / Anisaldehyde: Anisaldehyde, a compound found in the essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens was tested for insecticidal activities against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus. It caused significant mortality in the two tested insects, the latter more susceptible than the former. (3)
Antimicrobial: Study extracted a volatile oil from the nutlets of Clausena anisum-olenas. The major chemical compositions were 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3- benzodioxole (47.07%), 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- benzene (8.25%), 2,6- dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-pheno (7.17%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.05%) and tricosane (4.95%). The volatile oil had strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. (8)
Choleretic / Hepatoprotective / Leaves: A previous study showed an ethanolic extract to possess a choleretic effect in mice. This study showed an ethyl acetate fraction with the highest choleretic and hepatoprotective effect in mice, inhibiting the increase of ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels. (12)
Leaf Essential Oil / Variations and Genetic Origins: In a study of 91 cultivated and wild plants, main compounds of the oil were (E)-anethole and/or methyl chavicol, with respective percentages stable through time and cultivation. Variations in oil content showed three chemovariants: pure anethole oil, pure methyl chavicol oil, and mixed oil (about 90% anethole and 10% methyl chavicol). (13)
Hypocholesterolemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract of C. anisum-olens leaves on cholesterol level of Triton-X induced female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral toxicity using OECD 425 guidelines showed the crude extract was nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg. Lipid-lowering assay showed reduction of serum cholesterol (87.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (58.09 mg/dL), and LDL (27.82 mg/dL) for the 200 mg/kw extract. Results was comparable to atorvastatin which showed serum cholesterol reduction of 80.90 mg/dL, triglycerides 55.94 mg/dL, and LDL 22.09 mg/dL. (14)
Anisucoumaramide / MAO-B Isoenzyme Inhibitory Activity: Study isolated a new coumarin, anisucoumaramide (1), and a new δ -truxinate derivative, anisumic acid (2). Compound 1 showed high selectivity for the MAO-B isoenzyme and inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range. Putative biosynthesis pathways toward 1 and 2 were proposed. (17)
Carbazole Alkaloids / Potential PTP1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Fruits: Study of fruits isolated 18 carbazole alkaloids (1-18), containing three new ones, clausenanisines A-C (1-3), and three new naturally occurring carbazome alkaloids, clausenanisines D-F (4-6), and 12 known analogues (7-18). Compounds 1-18 exhibited remarkable PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50s in range of 0.58 to 38.48 µM. Compounds 1-18 also showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50s from 3.28 to 192.23 µM. Results suggest potential for developing new PTP1B inhibitors and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (18)
Toxicity and Repellency Against Two Stored Product Insects / Essential Oil: The essential oil of C. anisum-olens showed strong contact toxicity and repellency against Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults. Hydrodistillation and GC-MS analysis revealed main components of the EO were myristicin (36.87%), terpinolene (13.26%), p-cymene-8-ol (12.38%), and 3-carene (3.88%). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 18.96 and 39.68 µg per adult) and L. bostrychohila (LD50 20.41 and 35.66 µg per adult). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong repellent toxicity to Li. bostrychophila. (19)


Updated Sepetember 2023 / March 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Rutaceae : Clausena anisum-olens / Twig / Copyright © 2017 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL119964] / Non-Commercial Use  / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Rutaceae : Clausena anisum-olens / cf. Clausena sanki fruits / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL17953] / Non-Commercial Use  / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Augustus West / Fig 71 / Clausena anisum-olens (kayumanis) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
New Monoterpenoid Coumarins from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Pin He, Jing-Hua Yang, Ying-Tong Di, Xiao-Jiang Hao / Molecules 2008, 13(4): pp 931-937 /
DOI: 10.3390/molecules13040931
Clausenain B, a phenylalanine-rich cyclic octapeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Pin He et al /
J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.20 no.3 São Paulo 2009 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532009000300011
Insecticidal effect of anisaldehyde against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus
maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
/ Ndomo A F, Tapondjou L A et al / DOI: 10.5073/jka.2010.425.316
A New O-Terpenoidal Coumarin from Clausena anisum-olens Merr. / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Yi Xu et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 771-776; doi:10.3390/molecules14020771
A New Cyclopeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Ping He, Jing-Hua Yang et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 88, Issue 8, pages 2345–2348, August 2005 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200590169
Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oil from the Nutlets of Clausena anisum-olens / SU Xiu-Fang, HUANG Li-Juan, FengPeiZhen / FOOD SCIENCE 2011, Vol. 32 Issue (3): 30-32
Clausena anisum-olens / AgroForestryTree Database / World Agroforestry Centre
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. (accepted name)
/ Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil of Different Organs from Clausena anisum-olens / SU Xiu-fang*,LIANG Zhen-yi / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, 2011-12
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Clausena anisum-olens / Useful Tropical Plants
Study on Choleretic Effect and Hepatoprotective Activity of Some Fractions from Ethanol Extract of Clausena sanki J.F. Leaves / Vienduoclieu.org
The Inheritance of Leaf Oil Composition in Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. / Jean-Francois Molino / Journ al of Essential Oil Research, 2000; 12(2): pp 135-139 / DOI: 10.1080/101412905.2000.9699480
Lipid-lowering property of Clausena anisum-olens in hypercholesterolemic rats / Anbel M Bautista, Mario A Tan, Jovencio M Apostol / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2017; 55(1): pp 833-836 /
DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2016.1260596
HISTORY AND BOTANY OF CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS (BLANCO) MERR. CV. 'CLAUSANIS' (RUTACEAE), A PROMISING ESSENTIAL OIL CROP PLANT / J F Molino / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 331: WOCMAP: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference / DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.331.25
Clausena / Wikipedia
Anisucoumaramide, a Bioactive Coumarin from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Bi-Tao Li, Shi-Xi Liu, Zheng-Qi Wen et al / J Nat Prod., 2017; 80(4): pp 798-804 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00391
Carbazole alkaloids from the fruits of Clausena anisum-olens with potential PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities / Yan-Ping Liu, Yu-Jie Li, Ying-Ying Zhao, Jia-Ming Guo, Yan-Hui Fu et al / Bioorganic Chemistry, 2021; Volume 110: 104775 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104775
Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Main Components From the Essential Oil of Clausena anisum-olens Against Two Stored Product Insects / Chun Xue You, Hai Yan Jiang, Shu Shan Du et al / J Insect Sci., 2015; 15(1) / DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev071

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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