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Family Rutaceae
Kayumanis
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr.

Xi ye huang pi

Scientific names Common names
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. Danglais (Bag.)
Clausena excavata F.-Vill. Kandulong (Sub.)
Clausena indica Vidal Kayumanis (Tag.)
Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino Kalomata (Tag.)
Clausena todayensis Elm. Kamañgianis (Tag.)
Clausena warburgii Perk. Maisipaisi (Tag.)
Cookia anisum-olens Blanco Xi ye huang pi (Chin.)
Cookia anisodora Blanco  

Botany
Kayumanis is a small tree up to 3 to 6 meters in height. Leaves are 20 to 30 centimeters long, with 7 to 11 leaflets which are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Panicles are 15 to 20 centimeters long, terminal, and in the upper axils. Flowers are greenish, white, fragrant, 5-parted, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is nearly spherical or ovoid, about 1 centimeter in diameter, whitish when mature.

Distribution
- In forests, at low and medium altitudes, in Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga, Batangas, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Masbate, Basilan and Mindanao, ascending to 1,500 meters.
- Cultivated in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Taiwan.
- Reported naturalized in China.

Constituents
- Distillation of the leaves yield a colorless oil with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
- The volatile oil contains methyl clavicol.
- The chemical composition of the oil varies among individual plants, from almost pure methyl chavicol (estragol) to almost pure anethol. A minor component is anisaldelhyde.
- Analysis of aqueous extract yielded tannins and saponins.
- Study isolated a new cyclopeptide, clausenain.

- Essential oils from stems roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers yielded 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole. The main types of the compounds are aromatic hydrocarbons,alkane,olefin and fatty acids. (9)

Properties
- Leaves when crushed are aromatic.
- Alcoholic extracts have a strong anise-like odor.
- Oil extracted from the leaves is inactive, with a faint odor of anise or anethol.


Parts used
Roots, leaves and fruits.

Uses
Culinary and nutrition
- Leaves used in preparing local dishes and beverages.
- Essential oil from the leaves considered a potential substitute of anise oil for the making of "anisado," a local alcoholic beverage.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction of roots and fruits used for cough with fever.
- Decoction of leaves used for nausea of pregnancy.
- Leaves are stuffed in pillows for its soporofic effect.
- Leaves used for rheumatic baths.
- In China, the leaves and twigs are used for the treatment of dysentery and arthritis.
Others
Leaves also used to flavor cigarettes.


Studies
Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Antifungal:
Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins: anisucumarin A and B. The EtOH extract of Clausena anisum-olens showed antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. Anisucumarin A and B failed to show detectable antifungal activity. (1)
Octapeptide: Study isolated a new cyclic octapeptide, clausenain B, a phenylalanin-rich cyclic octapeptide. (2)
Hekumarone: Study isolated a new O-terpenoidal coumarin, hekumarone, from the leaves and twigs. Coumarins are considered characteristic and distinguishable chemical markers for the Rutaceae family. (4)
Insecticidal / Anisaldehyde: Anisaldehyde, a compound found in the essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens was tested for insecticidal activities against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus. It caused significant mortality in the two tested insects, the latter more susceptible than the former. (3)
Antimicrobial: Study extracted a volatile oil from the nutlets of Clausena anisum-olenas. The major chemical compositions were 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3- benzodioxole (47.07%), 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- benzene (8.25%), 2,6- dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-pheno (7.17%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.05%) and tricosane (4.95%). The volatile oil had strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Updated August 2013

IMAGE: Modified / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Augustus West / Fig 71 / Clausena anisum-olens (kayumanis) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
New Monoterpenoid Coumarins from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang et al / Molecules 2008, 13, 931-937April 2008
(2)
Clausenain B, a phenylalanine-rich cyclic octapeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Pin He et al /
J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.20 no.3 São Paulo 2009 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532009000300011
(3)
Insecticidal effect of anisaldehyde against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus
maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
/ Ndomo A F, Tapondjou L A et al / DOI: 10.5073/jka.2010.425.316
(4)
A New O-Terpenoidal Coumarin from Clausena anisum-olens Merr. / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Yi Xu et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 771-776; doi:10.3390/molecules14020771
(5)
A New Cyclopeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Ping He, Jing-Hua Yang et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 88, Issue 8, pages 2345–2348, August 2005 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200590169
(6)
Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oil from the Nutlets of Clausena anisum-olens / SU Xiu-Fang, HUANG Li-Juan, FengPeiZhen / FOOD SCIENCE 2011, Vol. 32 Issue (3): 30-32
(7)
Clausena anisum-olens / AgroForestryTree Database / World Agroforestry Centre
(8)
Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. (accepted name)
/ Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
(9)
Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil of Different Organs from Clausena anisum-olens / SU Xiu-fang*,LIANG Zhen-yi / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, 2011-12


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