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Family Gleicheniaceae
Kilob
Gleichenia linearis (Burm.) Clark
TANGLE FERN
Mang qi

Scientific names  Common names
Polypodium lineare Burm. Gapingoi (Bon.)
Gleichenia dichotoma Hook. Kilob (Tag.)
Gleichenia hermanni R. Br. Tilub (Tag.)
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underw. Tangle fern (Engl.)
Gleichenia linearis Burm. Umbrella fern (Engl.)
Tie mang qi (Chin.) Linear forked fern (Engl.)
  Old world forkedfern (Engl.)
  False staghorn (Engl.)
  Resam (Malay)
  Mang qi (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
INDIA: Raj hans
JAPANESE: Ko-shida
MALAYSIA: Resam
WEST AFRICAN: Kissi yendon, Mende koye

Botany
Kilob is a vigorously creeping ground fern with long branching stems and slender rhizomes, growing up to several meters long, with very large fronds that repeatedly forks, with budlike structures in the forks. Segments are linear or broader. Sori are few and brown on the underside, with no indusium.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines, frequently forming dense tangles in open places in mountains.
- Found throughout the tropics and in Japan and New Zealand; abundant in the Malay Peninsula.

Constituents
- Study showed the leaves to be a good source of micronutrients.

- Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids +, triterpenes +, tannins +, saponins +++, steroids +++.

Properties
Antiasthmatic, febrifuge, anthelmintic.

Parts utilized
Leaves.

Uses
Edibility
- Study showed the leaves to be a good source of micronutrients.
Folkloric
Young leaves are used as poultice, decoction or infusion for fever.
Plant used as antiasthmatic.
In Indo-China, used as antihelmintic.
Roots of pulasan (Nephelium mutabile) are boiled with G linearis and used for bathing feverish patients.
Used for bloody diarrhea.
In east New Britain, bound externally to wounds, cuts and sores.
In India, young leaves mixed with cow milk used for seven days to remove sterility in women.
In Malaysia, crushed leaves used as poultice to control fever.
In Indo-China, plants used to rid of intestinal worms.
In New Guinea, used to treat boils, ulcers and wounds.
Others
- In India, petioles and racheae used thatching huts. Also used as making writing pens.

Studies
Antioxidative / Antibacterial: In a study of leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns, G linearis showed to have antioxidative potential and antibacterial activity justifying its use in traditional medicine.

Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic: Study of the chloroform extract of Dicranopteris linearis showed it to possess antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity and justifies its traditional use by the Malays, especially for fever.
Antibacterial: Petroleum, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Dicranopteris linearis exhibited antibacterial activity, maximum with the acetone extract.
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic: Study showed leaves of D. linearis possess potential cytotoxic activity against various types of cancer cell lines depending on the types of extracts and their phenolic content.
Antioxidant: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed antioxidant property, partly through free radical scavenging activity.
Metal Sorbent for Lead Ions Removal: Lead is a heavy metal in industrial wastewater. The use of plant biomass such as fern tree Gleichenia linearis as metal sorbent offers an a potential treatment and removal alternative. Study showed high lead ion removal at 5 mg/L concentration, pH 5 and with smaller sorbent size, <500 um.

Availability
Wildcrafted.

Last Update May 2011

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underwood / Leaf close up / © Forest & Kim Starr / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on image to go to source page / EOL Encyclopedia of Life

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidative, Tyrosinase Inhibiting and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extracts from Medicinal Ferns / How Yee Lai et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry Vol. 73 (2009) , No. 6 pp.1362-1366
(2)
Nutritional composition of uncommon foods and their role in meeting micronutrient needs / Rita S Raghuvanshi et al / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Volume 52, Issue 4 July 2001 , pages 331 - 335
(3)
Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Dicranopteris linearis Leaves Chloroform Extract in Experimental Animals / Zainul amiruddin Zakaria et al / YAKUGAKU ZASSHI Vol. 126 (2006) , No. 11 1197-1203
(4)
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animal models / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria et al / Journal of Natural Medicines • Volume 62, Number 2 / April, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-007-0224-x

(5)
Antibacterial activity of Dicranopteris linearis under in vitro conditions / T Thomas et al / STARS: Int. Journal (Sciences) 2007 • Vol.1, No.2, pp.191-195
(6)
Importance of Ferns in Human Medicine / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 231-234. 2007.

(7)
Pulasan / Nephelium mutabile Blume / Morton, J. 1987. Pulasan. p. 265–266. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
(8)
Ethnobotanical Studies of Some Important Ferns / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 164-172. 2007.
(9)
In vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous, chloroform and methanol extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaves / Z A Zakaria, A M Mohamed, N S Mohd et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (2), pp. 273-282, 10 December, 2011
(10)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Plants Available in Malaysia / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria / Iranian Journ of Pharma & Thera / Jan 2007 / Vol 6, No 1, 87-91
(11)
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(12)
Fern Tree (Gleichenia Linearis) As Metal Sorbent For Lead Ions Removal
/ Fairus Muhamad Darus, and Faeiza Buyong, and Suzana Abdullah, (2004) / Analysis Chemistry Malaysia Symposium, 24 – 26 August 2004


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